The present study was performed to compare the influence of cytochrome P459 2C19 (CYP2C19) *2 and *17 genetic variants on the platelet response to clopidogrel and prasugrel maintenance therapy and to assess the relation between platelet reactivity and bleeding complications. A total of 730 patients were included (517 patients treated with clopidogrel 150 mg/day and 213 discharged with prasugrel 10 mg). Platelet reactivity was assessed at 1 month with the platelet reactivity index vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (PRI VASP). High on-treatment platelet reactivity was defined as PRI VASP >50% and low on-treatment platelet reactivity (LTPR) as PRI VASP <20%. The patients were classified according to their genotypes as poor metabolizers (*2/non *17), intermediate metabolizers (*2/*17 or non *2/non *17) and ultrametabolizers (non *2/*17). At 1 month, the prasugrel response was significantly better than the clopidogrel response in all groups of patients, with a lower incidence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity but a greater incidence of LTPR, regardless of the genetic variants. The genetic distribution had a significant effect on the mean PRI VASP values, the incidence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity, and LTPR with both clopidogrel and prasugrel (p <0.05 for all). LTPR identified a group of patients at a greater risk of bleeding (odds ratio 4.8, 95% confidence interval 2.7 to 8.3; p <0.0001). In conclusion, the present study showed that both clopidogrel and prasugrel have genetic modulation by CYP2C19 *2 and *17 alleles and that prasugrel provides greater platelet inhibition, regardless of the genotypes. In addition, LTPR was associated with a greater risk of bleeding.
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