Exposure to nicotine and carcinogens among Southwestern Alaskan Native cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users by Benowitz Neal L, Renner Caroline C, Lanier Anne P, Tyndale Rachel F, Hatsukami Dorothy K, Lindgren Bruce, Stepanov Irina, Watson Clifford H, Sosnoff Connie S, Jacob Peyton in Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology (2012).

[PMID: 22490317] PubMed


The prevalence of tobacco use, both cigarette smoking and smokeless, including iqmik (homemade smokeless tobacco prepared with dried tobacco leaves mixed with alkaline ash), and of tobacco-related cancer is high in Alaskan Native people (AN). To investigate possible mechanisms of increased cancer risk we studied levels of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in tobacco products and biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure in Southwestern AN people.

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