Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Genotypes and Warfarin Dosing by Johnson J A, Gong L, Whirl-Carrillo M, Gage B F, Scott S A, Stein C M, Anderson J L, Kimmel S E, Lee M T M, Pirmohamed M, Wadelius M, Klein T E, Altman R B in Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (2011). PubMed


Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index and large interpatient variability in the dose required to achieve target anticoagulation. Common genetic variants in the cytochrome P450-2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K-epoxide reductase complex (VKORC1) enzymes, in addition to known nongenetic factors, account for ~50% of warfarin dose variability. The purpose of this article is to assist in the interpretation and use of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype data for estimating therapeutic warfarin dose to achieve an INR of 2-3, should genotype results be available to the clinician. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) of the National Institutes of Health Pharmacogenomics Research Network develops peer-reviewed gene-drug guidelines that are published and updated periodically on based on new developments in the field.(1).

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CPIC Guideline for warfarin and CYP2C9,VKORC1