Well-characterized genes that affect warfarin metabolism (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9) and sensitivity (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1)) explain one-third of the variability in therapeutic dose before the international normalized ratio (INR) is measured. To determine genotypic relevance after INR becomes available, we derived clinical and pharmacogenetic refinement algorithms on the basis of INR values (on day 4 or 5 of therapy), clinical factors, and genotype. After adjusting for INR, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes remained significant predictors (P < 0.001) of warfarin dose. The clinical algorithm had an R(2) of 48% (median absolute error (MAE): 7.0 mg/week) and the pharmacogenetic algorithm had an R(2) of 63% (MAE: 5.5 mg/week) in the derivation set (N = 969). In independent validation sets, the R(2) was 26-43% with the clinical algorithm and 42-58% when genotype was added (P = 0.002). After several days of therapy, a pharmacogenetic algorithm estimates the therapeutic warfarin dose more accurately than one using clinical factors and INR response alone.
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Pharmacogenetic refinement algorithm: maintenance dose (mg/week) = EXP (3.10894 - 0.00767 × age - 0.51611 × ln(INR) - 0.23032 × VKORC1-1639 G>A - 0.14745 × CYP2C9*2 - 0.3077 × CYP2C9*3 + 0.24597 × BSA + 0.26729 × Target INR -0.09644 × African origin - 0.2059 ×stroke - 0.11216 × diabetes - 0.1035 × amiodarone use - 0.19275 × fluvastatin use + 0.0169 × dose_2 + 0.02018 × dose_3 + 0.01065 × dose_4) where VKORC1 -1639 G>A is entered as 0 for G/G, 1 for A/G and 2 for A/A, CYP2C9 SNPs SNPs are coded 0 if absent, 1 if heterozygous, and 2 if homozygous, and race is coded as 1 if African origin and 0 otherwise.
The authors found that a pharmacogenetic algorithm estimates the therapeutic warfarin dose more accurately than one using clinical factors and INR response alone.