Thirty-eight human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected pregnant women were administered tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF; 300 mg)-emtricitabine (FTC; 200 mg) tablets: two at labor initiation and one daily for 7 days postpartum. Maternal, umbilical, and neonatal plasma tenofovir concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed using a population approach. Data were described using a two-compartment model for the mother, an effect compartment linked to maternal circulation for cord, and a neonatal compartment disconnected after delivery. Absorption was greater for women delivering by caesarian section than for those delivering vaginally. The maternal 600 mg TDF administration before delivery produces the same concentrations as 300 mg administration in other adults. If the time elapsed between maternal administration and delivery is >or=12 h, two tablets of TDF-FTC should be readministered. Tenofovir showed good placental transfer (60%). Administering 13 mg/kg of TDF as soon as possible after birth should produce neonatal concentrations comparable with those observed in adults.
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