The role of carrier-mediated transport in determining the pharmacokinetics of drugs has become increasingly evident with the discovery of genetic variants that affect expression and/or function of a given drug transporter. Drug transporters are expressed at numerous epithelial barriers, such as intestinal epithelial cells, hepatocytes, renal tubular cells and at the blood-brain barrier. Several recent studies have associated alterations in substrate uptake with the presence of SNPs. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the functional and phenotypic consequences of genetic variation in intestinally, hepatically and renally expressed members of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide family (OATPs; SLC21/SLCO family), the organic anion and organic cation transporters (OATs/OCTs; SLC22 family) and the peptide transporter-1 (PEPT1; SLC15 family).
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