Drug hypersensitivity reactions are an important cause of morbidity in HIV-infected patients who take complex medication regimens. Correct diagnosis and management of these reactions are essential in the clinical care of HIV disease. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, abacavir, nevirapine, atazanavir, and enfuvirtide can all cause hypersensitivity rashes. In this review, we discuss the evidence for immunologic mechanisms of hypersensitivity reactions to HIV medications, the clinical characteristics of these reactions, and guidelines that currently exist for their identification and management.
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