OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms affecting the clopidogrel metabolism (CYP3A4 IVS10+12G/A and CYP2C19*2) and the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12 T744C) on modulating platelet function in acute coronary syndrome patients on dual antiplatelet treatment. BACKGROUND: Residual platelet reactivity (RPR) phenomenon on antiplatelet therapy requires clarification. P2Y12 T744C, CYP3A4 IVS10+12G/A and, in healthy individuals only, CYP2C19*2 polymorphisms have been investigated; however, the influence on platelet reactivity in a large population of high-risk vascular patients on dual antiplatelet treatment has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: A total of 1419 acute coronary syndrome patients on dual antiplatelet treatment were studied. Platelet function was evaluated by platelet-rich plasma aggregation. Electronic nanochips and restriction-fragment length polymorphism were used for analysis of polymorphisms. RESULTS: Only CYP2C19*2, out of the three investigated polymorphisms, is associated with higher platelet reactivity. Carriers of the *2 allele had significantly higher platelet aggregation values after arachidonic acid (AA; P=0.043), 2 micromol/l adenosine 5' diphosphate (ADP; P<0.0001) and 10 micromol/l ADP (P=0.001) stimuli. The genotype distribution of CYP2C19*2 polymorphism significantly differed between patients with and without RPR, as evaluated by 10-micromol/l ADP-induced platelet aggregation (P=0.002) and by AA-induced platelet aggregation (P=0.045). At the multivariate linear regression analysis, the CYP2C19*2 polymorphism remained a significant and independent risk factor for dual antiplatelet treatment variability. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the *2 CYP2C19 allele is associated with higher platelet aggregability and RPR in high-risk vascular patients on dual antiplatelet treatment. These findings can have a significant impact on the future design of pharmacogenetic antiaggregant strategies for high-risk vascular patients on dual antiplatelet treatment.
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