BACKGROUND: Thienopyridines are metabolized to active metabolites that irreversibly inhibit the platelet P2Y(12) adenosine diphosphate receptor. The pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel is more variable than the response to prasugrel, but the reasons for variation in response to clopidogrel are not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between genetic variation in cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic response to prasugrel and clopidogrel. METHODS: Genotyping was performed for CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 on samples from healthy subjects participating in studies evaluating pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to prasugrel (60 mg, n = 71) or clopidogrel (300 mg, n = 74). RESULTS: In subjects receiving clopidogrel, the presence of the CYP2C19*2 loss of function variant was significantly associated with lower exposure to clopidogrel active metabolite, as measured by the area under the concentration curve (AUC(0-24); P = 0.004) and maximal plasma concentration (C(max); P = 0.020), lower inhibition of platelet aggregation at 4 h (P = 0.003) and poor-responder status (P = 0.030). Similarly, CYP2C9 loss of function variants were significantly associated with lower AUC(0-24) (P = 0.043), lower C(max) (P = 0.006), lower IPA (P = 0.046) and poor-responder status (P = 0.024). For prasugrel, there was no relationship observed between CYP2C19 or CYP2C9 loss of function genotypes and exposure to the active metabolite of prasugrel or pharmacodynamic response. CONCLUSIONS: The common loss of function polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 are associated with decreased exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel but not prasugrel. Decreased exposure to its active metabolite is associated with a diminished pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel.
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