The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo by Gorski J Christopher, Huang Shiew-Mei, Pinto Amar, Hamman Mitchell A, Hilligoss Janna K, Zaheer Narjis A, Desai Mehul, Miller Margaret, Hall Stephen D in Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (2004).

[PMID: 14749695] PubMed


Echinacea is a widely available over-the-counter herbal remedy. Tinctures of echinacea have been shown to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) in vitro. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on CYP activity in vivo was assessed by use of the CYP probe drugs caffeine (CYP1A2), tolbutamide (CYP2C9), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), and midazolam (hepatic and intestinal CYP3A).

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