Recent studies have shown increased levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a variety of human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but so far it is unknown whether COX-2 contributes to the malignant growth and whether inhibition of COX-2 function modifies the malignant potential of liver tumors. COX-1 and COX-2 expression was determined in 4 liver tumor cell lines (Hep 3B, HuH-7, Hep G2, Sk-hep1) by Northern hybridization and Western immunoblot. The functional effects of the nonselective inhibitor sulindac sulfide and the COX-2 selective inhibitors SC-58635 and meloxicam were examined by 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT)-assays and BrdU uptake, morphology, and TUNEL analysis of apoptosis. Apoptosis regulating proteins were analyzed by Western immunoblot. COX-1 and COX-2 expression was demonstrable in all tested liver tumor cell lines. Sulindac sulfide (50 to 400 micromol/L), SC-58635 (6,25 to 400 micromol/L), and meloxicam (6.25 to 400 micromol/L) led to a significant time- and dose-dependent reduction of cell numbers of up to 80% (P <.05). At equimolar concentrations the effect was more pronounced when COX-2 was selectively blocked. COX-2 inhibition induced apoptosis and reduced tumor cell proliferation. Apoptosis after COX-2 inhibition with SC-58635 (50 micromol/L) was independent of BCL-2, BAX, and the phosphorylation status of AKT/PKB and BAD, but correlated with activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and caspase-6. In conclusion, selective inhibition of COX-2 leads to a marked growth inhibition of human liver tumor cells, based on the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation and, thus, may offer therapeutic and preventive potential in human hepatocarcinogenesis.
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