The thiopurine drugs are purine antimetabolites widely used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, autoimmune disorders (e.g., Crohn's disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis) and of organ transplant recipients. As inactive prodrugs, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and azathioprine (AZA) require intracellular activation, catalyzed by multiple enzymes, to exert cytotoxicity. The first step in AZA activation is the release of 6-MP , which involves glutathione transferases and non-enzymatic conversion. Transport of 6-MP into the cell involves SLC28A2, SLC28A3, SLC29A1 and SLC29A2. After uptake, 6-MP is converted into thioinosine monophosphate (TIMP) by hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT1), with 5-phospho-D-ribose-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) as the phosphoribosyl donor. In a similar way, 6-TG can be converted into thioguanosine monophosphate (TGMP). TIMP can be converted into TGMP in two steps: first, thioxanthosine monophosphate (TXMP) is formed by inositol monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH); second, TGMP is formed by guanosine monophosphate synthetase (GMPS). Subsequently, TGMP can be converted into thioguanine nucleotide diphosphates (TGDP) and triphosphates (TGTP). Cytotoxic effects of thiopurine drugs are achieved through incorporation of thio-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (TdGTP) into DNA and of thioguanosine triphosphate (TGTP) into RNA, by inhibition of de novo purine synthesis by methylmercaptopurine nucleotides (MeMPR) and by inhibition of Rac1 (this inhibition induces apoptosis in activated T cells). The TdGTP incorporation inhibits the function of several enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair, and induces DNA damage such as single strand-breaks, DNA-protein cross-links and chromatid exchanges. The pathway that leads to synthesis of active metabolites is in competition with inactivation pathways catalyzed by xanthine oxidase (XDH) or the polymorphic thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT).
6-meMPR: 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside , 8-OHTG: 8-hydroxythioguanine , ABCC4: Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 , ABCC5: Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5 , ADA: Adenosine deaminase , ADK: Adenosine kinase , AdoHcy: S-adenosylhomocysteine , AdoMet: S-adenosyl-methionine , AHCY: S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase , AOX1: Aldehyde oxidase 1 , GAR: Glycinamide ribotide , GART: Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase , GMPS: Guanosine monophosphate synthetase , GSTA1: glutathione-S-transferase A1 , GSTA2: glutathione-S-transferase A2 , GSTM1: glutathione-S-transferase M1 , HPRT1: Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 , IMPDH1: Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type 1 , ITPA: inosine triphosphatase pyrophosphatase , meMP: methylmercaptopurine , meTGMP: Methyl-thioguanosine monophosphate , meTIMP: Methyl-thioinosine monophosphate , MPR: 6-mercaptopurine riboside , NT5E: Nucleotidase , ecto-5-prime , PPAT: Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase , PRA: 5-phosphoribosylamine , PRPP: 5-phospho-D-ribose- 1-pyrophosphate , PRPS1: Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 , RAC1: ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 , SLC28A2: solute carrier family 28 , member 2 , SLC28A3: solute carrier family 28 , member 3 , SLC29A1: solute carrier family 29 , member 1 , SLC29A2: solute carrier family 29 , member 2 , TdGDP: 6-thio-deoxy-guanosine diphosphate , TdGTP: 6-thio-deoxy-guanosine triphosphate , TGDP: 6-thio-guanosine diphosphate , TGMP: Thioguanosine monophosphate , TGTP: 6-thio-guanosine triphosphate , TIMP: Thioinosine monophosphate , TITP: thioinosine triphosphate , TPMT: Thiopurine S-methyltransferase , TXMP: Thioxanthosine monophosphate , XDH: Xanthine dehydrogenase
Zaza Gianluigi, Cheok Meyling, Krynetskaia Natalia, Thorn Caroline, Stocco Gabriele, Hebert Joan M, McLeod Howard, Weinshilboum Richard M, Relling Mary V, Evans William E, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B . "Thiopurine pathway" Pharmacogenetics and genomics (2010).
Entities in the Pathway
Drugs/Drug Classes (5)
|Crystal structure, biochemical and cellular activities demonstrate separate functions of MTH1 and MTH2. Nature communications. 2015. Carter Megan, Jemth Ann-Sofie, Hagenkort Anna, Page Brent D G, Gustafsson Robert, Griese Julia J, Gad Helge, Valerie Nicholas C K, Desroses Matthieu, Boström Johan, Warpman Berglund Ulrika, Helleday Thomas, Stenmark Pål.|
|Thiopurine pharmacogenomics: association of SNPs with clinical response and functional validation of candidate genes. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Matimba Alice, Li Fang, Livshits Alina, Cartwright Cher S, Scully Stephen, Fridley Brooke L, Jenkins Gregory, Batzler Anthony, Wang Liewei, Weinshilboum Richard, Lennard Lynne.|
|The pattern of gene expression and gene dose profiles of 6-Mercaptopurine- and 6-Thioguanine-resistant human leukemia cells. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2011. Karim Hazhar, Hashemi Jamileh, Larsson Catharina, Moshfegh Ali, Fotoohi Alan K, Albertioni Freidoun.|
|Pharmacogenomic studies of the anticancer and immunosuppressive thiopurines mercaptopurine and azathioprine. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Hawwa Ahmed F, Millership Jeff S, Collier Paul S, Vandenbroeck Koen, McCarthy Anthony, Dempsey Sid, Cairns Carole, Collins John, Rodgers Colin, McElnay James C.|