Gene:
ADRB2
adrenoceptor beta 2, surface

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB gathers information regarding PGx on FDA drug labels from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels", and from FDA-approved FDA and EMA-approved (European Medicines Agency) EMA labels brought to our attention. Excerpts from the label and downloadable highlighted label PDFs are manually curated by PharmGKB.

Please note that some drugs may have been removed from or added to the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" without our knowledge. We periodically check the table for additions to this table and update PharmGKB accordingly.

There is currently no such list for European drug labels - we are working with the EMA to establish a list of European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR)s that contain PGx information. We are constructing this list by initially searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels - of these 44 EMA EPARs were identified and are being curated for pgx information.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for indacaterol and ADRB2

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for indacaterol (Hirobriz Breezhaler) does not contain pharmacogenetic information, but does contain information regarding the pharmacodynamics of the drug as a beta2-adrenoceptor (ADRB2) agonist and also contains information regarding the pharmackinetics of indacaterol involving UGT1A1, CYP3A4 and ABCB1.

Annotation

Excerpts from the indacaterol EPAR:

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist.


In vitro investigatins indicated that UGT1A1 is the only UGT isoform that metabolized indacaterol in the phenolic O-glucuronide. The oxidative metabolites were found in incubations with recombinant CYP1A1, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. CYP3A4 is concluded to be the predominant isoenzyme responsible for hydroxylation of indacaterol. In vitro investigations further indicated that indacaterol is a low affinity substrate for the efflux pump P-gp.

This information is highlighted in the following sections:
Special warnings and precautions for use, pharmacological properties, pharmacokinetic properties.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the indacaterol EMA drug label.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the EMA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.


PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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This is a non-comprehensive list of genetic tests with pharmacogenetics relevance, typically submitted by the manufacturer and manually curated by PharmGKB. The information listed is provided for educational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement of any listed test or manufacturer.

A more complete listing of genetic tests is found at the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).

PGx Test Variants Assayed Related Drugs?

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

Variant?
(138)
Alternate Names / Tag SNPs ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1042711 -47C>T, 148206348C>T, 5193C>T, 9369275C>T, ADRB2: Arg-19Cys, T-47C
C > T
5' UTR
rs1042713 148206440G>A, 148206440G>G, 46A>A, 46A>G, 46G>A, 5285A>A, 5285A>G, 9369367G>A, 9369367G>G, ADRB2:16Arg>Gly, ADRB2:Arg16Gly, ADRB2:Gly16Arg, Arg16, Arg16=
G > A
Missense
Arg16Gly
rs1042714 148206473G>C, 148206473G>G, 318C>G, 5318C>G, 79C>G, 9369400G>C, 9369400G>G, ADRB2:27Glu>Gln, ADRB2:79C>G, ADRB2:Gln27Glu, Gln27
G > C
Missense
Gln27Glu
rs1800888 148206885C>T, 491C>T, 491T>C, 5730C>T, 9369812C>T, ADRB2: 164Thr>Ile, Ile164, Thr164Ile
C > T
Missense
Thr164Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2400707 -1343A>G, 148205052A>G, 3897A>G, 9367979A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 138

Overview

Alternate Names:  None
Alternate Symbols:  ADRBR; B2AR; BAR
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA39

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr5 : q32 - q32
GP mRNA Boundary: chr5 : 148206156 - 148208197
GP Gene Boundary: chr5 : 148196156 - 148211197
Strand: plus
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

The beta-2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) is a member of the G-protein-coupled adrenergic receptor family with seven transmembrane segments. Similar to other members of this receptor family, beta2-AR specifically binds and is activated by the endogenous class of ligands known as catecholamines, and epinephrine in particular. The gene encoding this receptor, ADRB2, was cloned by Kobilka et al in 1987 and is localized to chromosome 5q31-q32, a region that has been linked with asthma and asthma related phenotypes [Articles:3025863, 7666875]. ADRB2 consists of a single exon of 2015 nucleotides which encodes a 413 amino acid protein. This review highlights the genetic polymorphisms in ADRB2 and the pivotal role of beta2-AR in the regulation of the cardiac, pulmonary, vascular, endocrine and central nervous systems.

ADRB2 is abundantly expressed in bronchial smooth muscle cells and activation of the resulting receptor leads to bronchodilation. In addition, this gene is expressed in cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Activation of beta2-AR in these cells causes an increase in the rate and force of heart contractions. Intracellular signaling upon beta2-AR activation is largely affected through a trimer of G proteins coupled to adenylate cyclase, to produce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). This, in turn, activates protein kinase A, leading to the phosphorylation and downregulation of proteins including beta2-AR itself (please refer to PharmGKB Beta-agonist and Beta-blocker Pathway for further details.

Beta2-AR is the target of clinically important drugs for asthma and cardiovascular conditions including hypertension and congestive heart failure (CHF). Beta-receptor agonists (e.g. albuterol, salmeterol) and antagonists (e.g. such as carvedilol and propranolol) are among the mostly commonly prescribed medications in the treatment of asthma and cardiovascular disease, respectively. While some beta-blockers are "selective" for the beta1-AR (e.g. metoprolol and atenolol), these also antagonize the beta2-AR at higher concentrations. A number of genetic polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene have been described that affect gene expression, the function of the resulting receptor, and response to beta2-agonists.

ADRB2 variants:
The ADRB2 gene has been resequenced in multiple populations and more than 80 polymorphisms has been identified, of which 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2 insertion/deletion polymorphisms have been validated in more than one study [Article:16931635]. Two of these non-synonomous SNPs code for amino acid changes at positions 16 (arginine to glycine (Arg16Gly); rs1042713) and 27 (glutamic acid to glutamine (Glu27Gln); rs1042714), are common with minor allele frequencies (MAF) between 40-50% and have been well characterized in asthma pharmacogenetics [Article:8383511]. In vitro studies demonstrated that the Gly16 isoform enhanced the agonist-stimulated downregulation of beta2-AR, while the Glu27 variant did not regulate the expression of this receptor [Articles:7915137, 7598936]. In addition to these common polymorphisms, other less common, non-synonymous coding variants have also been reported in the ADRB2 gene. For example, the SNP rs1800888 encodes a Threonine to Isoleucine substitution at amino acid position 164 (Thr164Ile) and occurs with a MAF of 1-3%. The Ile164 isoform is three-to-four times less responsive to agonist induced stimulation than carriers of the wildtype Thr164 [Articles:7901205, 19422376]. Another rare, nonsynonymous variant resulting in a Valine to Methionine change at amino acid position 34 (Val34Met) in beta2-AR has a MAF <1% [Article:16142389].

In vivo studies of the genetic variants in ADRB2 suggest that these are not likely to be disease causing variants but possibly serve as predictive markers for responsiveness to both agonists and antagonists. Moreover, three meta-analyses of the two common non-synonymous SNPs in ADRB2 have concluded that these polymorphisms are not associated with the diagnosis of asthma [Articles:15153795, 15867853, 15987731]. However, homozygotes of Arg16 treated with regular short acting beta-agonist (SABA) therapy tend to experience more adverse effects [Article:18303970]. Furthermore, among the patients prescribed beta-blocker therapy after an acute coronary syndrome, those homozygous for both Arg16 and Gln27 were at higher risk for death in 3 years (3-year mortality rate of 20%) compared to the other diplotypes (3-year mortality rate of 6-11%) [Article:16189366]. Congestive heart failure patients with the Ile164 variant were at higher risk for death or heart transplantation in 1 year (event rate 76%) compared to those homozygous for Thr164 while others did not observe this finding [Articles:9788966, 18068431].

Common ADRB2 haplotypes were not associated with adverse clinical outcome (all cause mortality, non-fatal MI and non-fatal stroke) in patients with coronary artery diseases who were treated with either beta-blocker-based or calcium channel blocker-based strategy [Article:18615004].None of the major ADRB2 genotypes or haplotypes was associated with the increased risk of MI or ischemic stroke in patients with pharmacologically treated hypertension. In addition, none of the genetic variants interacted with beta blocker use [Article:18219297]. None of the major ADRB2 genotypes (Arg16Gly and Glu27Gln) or haplotypes (Gly16Glu27, Arg16Gln27 and Gly16Gln27) was associated with the increased risk of sudden cardiac death and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with coronary artery disease [Article:18534365]. After receiving percutaneous coronary intervention, patients carrying Ile164 variant were 3.7 times more like to have cardiac death and 4.1 times more likely to have a major cardiac adverse event (cardiac death, acute MI, new PCI, CABG, and CHF) than those homozygous for Thr164 [Article:18940527].

Studies have produced conflicting results as to the association of the Arg16Gln27 haplotype with the risk of death or cardiac transplantation in heart failure patients. While one study reported patients carrying two copies of the haplotype had a 91% increased risk of the adverse outcomes compared with those who did not carry the haplotype, others did not observe the association [Articles:17223428, 18702968]. The differences may be explained in part by the percent of patients treated with beta-blockers.

Conclusion:
Variants in the ADRB2 gene encoding beta2-AR have been correlated with variable response to drugs for asthma and cardiovascular medications as well as disease risks such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and hypertension. However, the directions of these correlations differ across studies and remain to be replicated in larger studies. A meta-analysis by Contopoulos-Ioannidis et al. reported that most associations between the two common polymorphisms in ADRB2 and asthma drug response and other asthma related phenotypes are statistically insignificant due to small sample sizes and less than 2% of the associations were replicated by two or more groups [Article:17001289]. In addition, correlations between these variants and beta2-agonists may be specific to short-acting beta2-agonists, and not affect response to long-acting drugs. Pharmacogenetic correlations may also be affected by the interval of drug treatment (regular use or use as needed) and interactions with other medications. Furthermore, these associations may also be specific to certain ethnicities and subject to gender effects. Cagliani et al described ethnicity-specific and sex-based haplotype distributions of the ADRB2 variants [Article:19576569]. Similar finding were reported in a meta-analysis by Jalba et al, which resulted in differences in association across populations [Article:19186333]. Moreover, the relative fitness associated with these haplotypes varies under the influence of epistasis and imprinting. Experiment techniques that can directly access the functional importance of beta-adrenoceptor polymorphisms on ligand-induced conformation changes (eg. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)) will also help clarify the discrepancies with respect to the role of these polymorphisms in disease susceptibilities and therapeutic responses [Article:19272658].

Citation Very important pharmacogene summary ADRB2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Litonjua Augusto A, Gong Li, Duan Qing Ling, Shin Jaekyu, Moore Mariellen J, Weiss Scott T, Johnson Julie A, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Gus Litonjua, Li Gong, Qing Ling Duan, Jaekyu Shin, Mariellen J. Moore, Scott T. Weiss, Julie A. Johnson

Updated by Gus Litonjua, Li Gong, Qing Ling Duan, Jaekyu Shin, Mariellen J. Moore, Scott T. Weiss, Julie A. Johnson

Variant Summaries rs1042713, rs1042714, rs1800888
Drugs
Diseases
Phenotypes Bronchodilator Response Agonist-mediated Vascular Response

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Antiarrhythmic Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Pharmacodynamic pathway of antiarrhythmic drugs in a stylized cardiac myocyte.
  1. Beta-agonist/Beta-blocker Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Simplified pharmacodynamic pathway of drug action on beta 2 adrenergic receptor in a stylized airway cell.
  1. Sympathetic Nerve Pathway (Neuroeffector Junction)
    Simplified diagram of a sympathetic neuroeffector junction displaying genes which may be involved.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. Arf6 signaling events - (Pathway Interaction Database NCI-Nature Curated)
  2. Arf6 trafficking events - (Pathway Interaction Database NCI-Nature Curated)
  3. corticosteroids and cardioprotection - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)
  4. cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) and beta 2 adrenergic receptor (b2ar) pathway - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)
  5. phospholipase c-epsilon pathway - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Publications related to ADRB2: 126

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Arg16 ADRB2 genotype increases the risk of asthma exacerbation in children with a reported use of long-acting beta2-agonists: results of the pacman cohort. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Zuurhout Miranda Jl, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A genome-wide association study of bronchodilator response in Latinos implicates rare variants. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2013. Drake Katherine A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Hizawa Nobuyuki. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Methacholine PC20 in African Americans and whites with asthma with homozygous genotypes at ADRB2 codon 16. Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2013. Blake Kathryn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Tailored second line therapy in asthmatic children with the arginine-16 genotype. Clinical science (London, England : 1979). 2012. Lipworth Brian J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics and healthcare outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Kim Kye-Min, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Integrative systems biology approaches in asthma pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Dahlin Amber, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
beta2-adrenergic receptor haplotype may be associated with susceptibility to desensitization to long-acting beta2-agonists in COPD patients. Lung. 2012. Mochizuki Hideaki, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of the heptahelical receptor regulators G-protein-coupled receptor kinases and arrestins: the known and the unknown. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Lymperopoulos Anastasios, et al. PubMed
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Association of common genetic variants with risperidone adverse events in a Spanish schizophrenic population. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Almoguera B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A pharmacogenetic study of ADRB2 polymorphisms and indacaterol response in COPD patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Yelensky R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms, hypertension and thiazide diuretics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Citterio Lorena, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics of asthma therapy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Tse S M, et al. PubMed
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Carvedilol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in relation to CYP2D6 and ADRB pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Sehrt Daniel, et al. PubMed
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Pediatric pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies: the current state and future perspectives. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Russo Roberta, et al. PubMed
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Association of Hypertension Drug Target Genes With Blood Pressure and Hypertension in 86 588 Individuals. Hypertension. 2011. Johnson Andrew D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics of Adrenergic Receptor Signaling: Clinical Implications and Future Directions. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of gene-gene interactions on response to albuterol therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Moore Paul E. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Promoter Polymorphisms in the beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Are Associated With Drug-Induced Gene Expression Changes and Response in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Pottier N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSNO reductase and beta2-adrenergic receptor gene-gene interaction: bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Choudhry Shweta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Beta2-receptor polymorphisms in patients receiving salmeterol with or without fluticasone propionate. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2010. Bleecker Eugene R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Haplotypes of the adrenergic system predict the blood pressure response to beta-blockers in women with essential hypertension. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Filigheddu Fabiana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Role of beta-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms in the long-term effects of beta-blockade with carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure. Cardiovascular drugs and therapy / sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. 2010. Metra Marco, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: challenges and opportunities. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Hersh Craig P. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary ADRB2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Litonjua Augusto A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics in reproductive and perinatal medicine. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Alfirevic Ana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Common ADRB2 haplotypes derived from 26 polymorphic sites direct beta2-adrenergic receptor expression and regulation phenotypes. PloS one. 2010. Panebra Alfredo, et al. PubMed
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Adrenergic beta(2)-receptor genotype predisposes to exacerbations in steroid-treated asthmatic patients taking frequent albuterol or salmeterol. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2009. Basu Kaninika, et al. PubMed
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Effect of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism on response to longacting beta2 agonist in asthma (LARGE trial): a genotype-stratified, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Lancet. 2009. Wechsler Michael E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Predicting response to short-acting bronchodilator medication using Bayesian networks. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Himes Blanca E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Arg347Cys polymorphism of alpha1A-adrenoceptor gene is associated with blood pressure response to nifedipine GITS in Chinese hypertensive patients. Journal of human genetics. 2009. Zhang Yan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Beta2-adrenoceptors are essential for desipramine, venlafaxine or reboxetine action in neuropathic pain. Neurobiology of disease. 2009. Yalcin Ipek, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Acute and chronic lung function responses to salmeterol and salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate in relation to Arg16Gly beta(2)-adrenergic polymorphisms. Current medical research and opinion. 2009. Yancey Steven W, et al. PubMed
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beta(2)-adrenoceptors are critical for antidepressant treatment of neuropathic pain. Annals of neurology. 2009. Yalcin Ipek, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
beta-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and beta-blocker treatment outcomes in hypertension. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Pacanowski M A, et al. PubMed
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Arrhythmia pharmacogenomics: methodological considerations. Current pharmaceutical design. 2009. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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The beta2 adrenergic receptor Gln27Glu polymorphism affects insulin resistance in patients with heart failure: possible modulation by choice of beta blocker. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2008. Vardeny Orly, et al. PubMed
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Beta-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and hemodynamic response to dobutamine during dobutamine stress echocardiography. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2008. Aquilante C L, et al. PubMed
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Effects of Ile164 polymorphism of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene on coronary artery disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Piscione Federico, et al. PubMed
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Lack of association between adrenergic receptor genotypes and survival in heart failure patients treated with carvedilol or metoprolol. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008. Sehnert Amy J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Estimating coverage and power for genetic association studies using near-complete variation data. Nature genetics. 2008. Bhangale Tushar R, et al. PubMed
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Common beta-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms are not associated with risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease. Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society. 2008. Tseng Zian H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms on the response to chronic use of albuterol in asthmatic children. Pediatric pulmonology. 2008. Giubergia Verónica, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic response to albuterol among asthmatics. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Corvol Harriet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The Arg16Gly variant of the beta2-adrenergic receptor predisposes to hypoglycemia unawareness in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Schouwenberg Bas J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptor gene variation, beta-blocker use and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. American journal of hypertension. 2008. Lemaitre Rozenn N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical consequences of ADRbeta2 polymorphisms. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Hawkins Gregory A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Ile164 variant of beta2-adrenoceptor does not influence outcome in heart failure but may interact with beta blocker treatment. European journal of heart failure. 2008. Littlejohn Mathew D, et al. PubMed
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Effect of ADRB2 polymorphisms on response to longacting beta2-agonist therapy: a pharmacogenetic analysis of two randomised studies. Lancet. 2007. Bleecker Eugene R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arg389Gly-beta1-adrenergic receptors determine improvement in left ventricular systolic function in nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients with heart failure after chronic treatment with carvedilol. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Chen Lu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
High-resolution crystal structure of an engineered human beta2-adrenergic G protein-coupled receptor. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2007. Cherezov Vadim, et al. PubMed
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Interaction between beta2 adrenergic receptor polymorphisms determines the extent of isoproterenol-induced vasodilatation ex vivo. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Khalaila Jawad M, et al. PubMed
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Impact of beta2-adrenoreceptor gene variants on cardiac cavity size and systolic function in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Badenhorst D, et al. PubMed
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Association analyses of adrenergic receptor polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic alterations. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2007. Lima John J, et al. PubMed
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Evidence for coexistence of three beta-adrenoceptor subtypes in human peripheral lymphocytes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Yu Xi-Yong, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of the human beta-adrenergic receptors. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Taylor M R G. PubMed
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Relation of beta(2)-adrenoceptor haplotype to risk of death and heart transplantation in patients with heart failure. The American journal of cardiology. 2007. Shin Jaekyu, et al. PubMed
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Beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and treatment-induced regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Iaccarino Guido, et al. PubMed
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Beta-2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and changes in lipids induced by metoprolol. Pharmacology. 2007. Isaza Carlos A, et al. PubMed
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Arginine-16 beta2 adrenoceptor genotype predisposes to exacerbations in young asthmatics taking regular salmeterol. Thorax. 2006. Palmer C N A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) polymorphism and risk for lung adenocarcinoma: a case-control study in a Chinese population. Cancer letters. 2006. Wang Haijian, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A genetic analysis of opioid-induced hyperalgesia in mice. Anesthesiology. 2006. Liang De-Yong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Salmeterol response is not affected by beta2-adrenergic receptor genotype in subjects with persistent asthma. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2006. Bleecker Eugene R, et al. PubMed
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Beta2-adrenergic receptor genetic variants and risk of sudden cardiac death. Circulation. 2006. Sotoodehnia Nona, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
beta-Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and response to salmeterol. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2006. Wechsler Michael E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Molecular mechanisms of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor function, response, and regulation. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2006. Johnson Malcolm. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arg16 homozygosity of the beta2-adrenergic receptor improves the outcome after beta2-agonist tocolysis for preterm labor. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Landau Ruth, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Overview of the pharmacogenetics of asthma treatment. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Weiss S T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
WNK1 kinase polymorphism and blood pressure response to a thiazide diuretic. Hypertension. 2005. Turner Stephen T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Beta2-adrenergic receptor genotype and survival among patients receiving beta-blocker therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2005. Lanfear David E, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between {beta}2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms and asthma: a HuGE review. American journal of epidemiology. 2005. Thakkinstian Ammarin, et al. PubMed
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Meta-analysis of the association of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms with asthma phenotypes. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2005. Contopoulos-Ioannidis Despina G, et al. PubMed
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Association between beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and the response to beta-blockade in patients with stable congestive heart failure. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. de Groote Pascal, et al. PubMed
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beta-Blockade and increased dyslipidemia in patients bearing Glu27 variant of beta2 adrenergic receptor gene. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Iaccarino G, et al. PubMed
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The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter gene, C1784T, and adrenergic receptor-beta3 gene, T727C, may be gene polymorphisms susceptible to the antihypertensive effect of thiazide diuretics. Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension. 2004. Matayoshi Tetsutaro, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Beta2 adrenergic receptor gene Arg16Gly polymorphism is associated with therapeutic efficacy of benazepril on essential hypertension in Chinese. Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993). 2004. Huang Guo, et al. PubMed
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Beta2-adrenoceptor Thr164Ile polymorphism is associated with markedly decreased vasodilator and increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity in vivo. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Dishy Victor, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
ADRB2 polymorphisms and asthma susceptibility: transmission disequilibrium test and meta-analysis. International archives of allergy and immunology. 2004. Migita Ohsuke, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Distinct roles for Src tyrosine kinase in beta2-adrenergic receptor signaling to MAPK and in receptor internalization. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2004. Huang Jianyun, et al. PubMed
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Use of regularly scheduled albuterol treatment in asthma: genotype-stratified, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Lancet. 2004. Israel Elliot, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mechanisms of regulation of the expression and function of G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Cellular signalling. 2003. Penela Petronila, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Family-based association analysis of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms in the childhood asthma management program. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2003. Silverman Edwin K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, alpha-adducin, and other candidate gene polymorphisms on blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide. American journal of hypertension. 2003. Turner Stephen T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Antithetic regulation by beta-adrenergic receptors of Gq receptor signaling via phospholipase C underlies the airway beta-agonist paradox. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2003. McGraw Dennis W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Obesity risk is associated with carbohydrate intake in women carrying the Gln27Glu beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism. The Journal of nutrition. 2003. Martínez J Alfredo, et al. PubMed
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Beta-adrenoceptor genotype influences the response to carvedilol in patients with congestive heart failure. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. Kaye David M, et al. PubMed
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Trafficking patterns of beta-arrestin and G protein-coupled receptors determined by the kinetics of beta-arrestin deubiquitination. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2003. Shenoy Sudha K, et al. PubMed
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Salmeterol (Serevent) asthma trial halted early. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. 2003. Wooltorton Eric. PubMed
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The Gln27Glu beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism slows the onset of desensitization of cardiac functional responses in vivo. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. Bruck Heike, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Beta(2)-adrenergic receptor polymorphism and nitric oxide-dependent forearm blood flow responses to isoproterenol in humans. The Journal of physiology. 2003. Garovic Vesna D, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacology and physiology of human adrenergic receptor polymorphisms. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Small Kersten M, et al. PubMed
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Beta-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms: cardiovascular disease associations and pharmacogenetics. Pharmaceutical research. 2002. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
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Update on current concepts of the molecular basis of beta2-adrenergic receptor signaling. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2002. Liggett Stephen B. PubMed
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Targeting of cyclic AMP degradation to beta 2-adrenergic receptors by beta-arrestins. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2002. Perry Stephen J, et al. PubMed
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beta2 adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis lung disease. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Büscher Rainer, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2002. Palmer Lyle J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms in beta-adrenergic receptor genes in the acquired long QT syndrome. Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology. 2002. Kanki Hideaki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors: roles of G protein-coupled receptor kinases and beta-arrestin proteins. Progress in neurobiology. 2002. Claing Audrey, et al. PubMed
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Dimerization: an emerging concept for G protein-coupled receptor ontogeny and function. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2002. Angers Stephane, et al. PubMed
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The effect of common polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenergic receptor on agonist-mediated vascular desensitization. The New England journal of medicine. 2001. Dishy V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The Ile164 beta(2)-adrenoceptor polymorphism alters salmeterol exosite binding and conventional agonist coupling to G(s). European journal of pharmacology. 2001. Green S A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of asthma with beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism and cigarette smoking. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2001. Wang Z, et al. PubMed
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Blunted cardiac responses to receptor activation in subjects with Thr164Ile beta(2)-adrenoceptors. Circulation. 2001. Brodde O E, et al. PubMed
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Beta-blockade in heart failure: selective versus nonselective agents. American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions. 2001. Metra M, et al. PubMed
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Effect of polymorphism of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor on response to regular use of albuterol in asthma. International archives of allergy and immunology. 2001. Israel E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Beta(2)-adrenoceptor polymorphism determines vascular reactivity in humans. Hypertension. 2000. Cockcroft J R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Complex promoter and coding region beta 2-adrenergic receptor haplotypes alter receptor expression and predict in vivo responsiveness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2000. Drysdale C M, et al. PubMed
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Asthma exacerbations during long term beta agonist use: influence of beta(2) adrenoceptor polymorphism. Thorax. 2000. Taylor D R, et al. PubMed
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The effect of polymorphisms of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor on the response to regular use of albuterol in asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2000. Israel E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms at amino acid 16 differentially influence agonist-stimulated blood pressure and peripheral blood flow in normal individuals. American heart journal. 2000. Hoit B D, et al. PubMed
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Functional receptor coupling to Gi is a mechanism of agonist-promoted desensitization of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. Journal of receptor and signal transduction research. 2000. Tepe N M, et al. PubMed
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Tolerance to beta-agonists during acute bronchoconstriction. The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology. 1999. Hancox R J, et al. PubMed
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beta-2 Adrenergic receptor variants affect resting blood pressure and agonist-induced vasodilation in young adult Caucasians. Hypertension. 1999. Gratze G, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenergic receptor on albuterol bronchodilator pharmacodynamics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1999. Lima J J, et al. PubMed
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The Ile164 beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism adversely affects the outcome of congestive heart failure. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1998. Liggett S B, et al. PubMed
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beta2-Adrenergic receptor haplotypes in mild, moderate and fatal/near fatal asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1998. Weir T D, et al. PubMed
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The beta2-adrenergic receptor interacts with the Na+/H+-exchanger regulatory factor to control Na+/H+ exchange. Nature. 1998. Hall R A, et al. PubMed
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Association between genetic polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenoceptor and response to albuterol in children with and without a history of wheezing. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1997. Martinez F D, et al. PubMed
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Switching of the coupling of the beta2-adrenergic receptor to different G proteins by protein kinase A. Nature. 1997. Daaka Y, et al. PubMed
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Alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor stimulated calcium release is transduced by Gi-associated G(beta gamma)-mediated activation of phospholipase C. Biochemistry. 1997. Dorn G W, et al. PubMed
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Amino-terminal polymorphisms of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor impart distinct agonist-promoted regulatory properties. Biochemistry. 1994. Green S A, et al. PubMed
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A polymorphism of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor within the fourth transmembrane domain alters ligand binding and functional properties of the receptor. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1993. Green S A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacology and molecular biology of adrenergic receptors. Baillière's clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 1993. Liggett S B, et al. PubMed
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Phosphorylation sites on two domains of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor are involved in distinct pathways of receptor desensitization. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1989. Hausdorff W P, et al. PubMed
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cDNA for the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor: a protein with multiple membrane-spanning domains and encoded by a gene whose chromosomal location is shared with that of the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1987. Kobilka B K, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Entrez Gene:
154
OMIM:
109690
600807
601665
UCSC Genome Browser:
NM_000024
RefSeq RNA:
NM_000024
RefSeq Protein:
NP_000015
RefSeq DNA:
AC_000048
AC_000137
NC_000005
NG_016421
NT_029289
NW_001838953
NW_922784
UniProtKB:
ADRB2_HUMAN (P07550)
Ensembl:
ENSG00000169252
GenAtlas:
ADRB2
GeneCard:
ADRB2
MutDB:
ADRB2
ALFRED:
LO000206I
HuGE:
ADRB2
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
154
ModBase:
Q8NEQ9
HumanCyc Gene:
HS09917
IUPHAR Receptor:
β2-adrenoceptor (29)
HGNC:
286

Common Searches