Gene:
HLA-B
major histocompatibility complex, class I, B

Available Guidelines

  1. CPIC Guideline for abacavir and HLA-B
  2. CPIC Guideline for allopurinol and HLA-B
  3. CPIC Guideline for carbamazepine and HLA-B
  4. CPIC Guideline for phenytoin and CYP2C9,HLA-B
  5. PRO Guideline for allopurinol and HLA-B
  6. PRO Guideline for carbamazepine and HLA-B
  7. DPWG Guideline for abacavir and HLA-B
  8. DPWG Guideline for ribavirin and HLA-B

last updated 09/30/2014

1. CPIC Guideline for abacavir and HLA-B

Summary

In individuals with the HLA-B*57:01 variant allele ("HLA-B*57:01-positive"), abacavir is not recommended and should be considered only under exceptional circumstances. See full guideline for disclaimers, further details and supporting evidence.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 06/12/2015

2. CPIC Guideline for allopurinol and HLA-B

Summary

Allopurinol is contraindicated in individuals with the HLA-B*58:01 variant allele ("HLA-B*58:01-positive") due to significantly increased risk of allopurinol-induced SCAR.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.



last updated 02/03/2015

4. CPIC Guideline for phenytoin and CYP2C9,HLA-B

Summary

Phenytoin is contraindicated in individuals with the HLA-B*15:02 variant allele ("HLA-B*15:02-positive") due to significantly increased risk of phenytoin-induced cutaneous adverse reactions of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Additionally, patients with the CYP2C9 poor metabolizer phenotype may require reduced doses of phenytoin.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 10/01/2012

5. PRO Guideline for allopurinol and HLA-B

Summary

HLA-B*58:01-positive individuals (those with the HLA-B*58:01 variant allele) should be prescribed an alternative drug to allopurinol.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/14/2014

6. PRO Guideline for carbamazepine and HLA-B

Summary

The Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety (CPNDS) clinical recommendation group has published guidelines for the use of HLA-B*15:02 genotype when prescribing carbamazepine (CBZ). They recommend that carbamazepine not be prescribed for CBZ-naive patients who carry at least one HLA-B*15:02 allele.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 02/07/2014

7. DPWG Guideline for abacavir and HLA-B

Summary

An alternate to abacavir should be selected for patients who have the HLA-B*57:01 allele (patients who are "HLA-B*57:01-positive").

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 02/07/2014

8. DPWG Guideline for ribavirin and HLA-B

Summary

Although there is some evidence for lower treatment response in HLA-B*44 negative patients, there are no dosing recommendations for ribavirin at this time.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


PharmGKB annotates drug labels containing pharmacogenetic information approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan (PMDA), and Health Canada (Santé Canada) (HCSC). PharmGKB annotations provide a brief summary of the PGx in the label, an excerpt from the label and a downloadable highlighted label PDF file. A list of genes and phenotypes found within the label is mapped to label section headers and listed at the end of each annotation. PharmGKB also attempts to interpret the level of action implied in each label with the "PGx Level" tag.

See the legend for more information about drug label sources and PGx Levels.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA, PMDA, HCSC or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for abacavir and HLA-B
  2. FDA Label for carbamazepine and HLA-B
  3. FDA Label for oxcarbazepine and HLA-B
  4. FDA Label for phenytoin and HLA-B
  5. EMA Label for abacavir and HLA-B
  6. PMDA Label for abacavir and HLA-B
  7. PMDA Label for carbamazepine and HLA-B
  8. HCSC Label for abacavir and HLA-B
  9. HCSC Label for carbamazepine and HLA-A,HLA-B
  10. HCSC Label for phenytoin and HLA-B

last updated 10/25/2013

1. FDA Label for abacavir and HLA-B

Genetic testing required

Summary

The FDA-approved label for abacavir states that genetic testing for the HLA-B*5701 allele is required prior to initiating or reinitiating treatment with abacavir in patients of unknown HLA-B*5701 status. Abacavir is contraindicated in patients with the HLA-B*5701 allele due to risk for abacavir hypersensitivity reactions.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 03/21/2016

2. FDA Label for carbamazepine and HLA-B

Genetic testing required

Summary

The FDA-approved label for carbamazepine (Tegretol) states screening of patients with ancestry in genetically at-risk populations (patients of Asian descent) for the presence of the HLA-B*1502 allele should be carried out prior to treatment due to a high risk of serious and something fatal dermatologic reactions. It also notes that a moderate association has been found between HLA-A*3101 and the risk of developing hypersensitivity reactions to carbamazepine, though it does not mention testing for this allele.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 03/08/2016

3. FDA Label for oxcarbazepine and HLA-B

Genetic testing recommended

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for oxcarbazepine states that testing for the presence of the HLA-B*1502 allele should be considered in patients with ancestry in genetically at-risk populations prior to initiating treatment with the drug, due to the risk for Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

4. FDA Label for phenytoin and HLA-B

Actionable PGx

Summary

A strong association between the risk of developing SJS/TEN and the presence of HLA-B*1502, an inherited allelic variant of the HLA B gene, in patients using carbamazepine. Limited evidence suggests that HLAB*1502 may be a risk factor for the development of SJS/TEN in patients of Asian ancestry taking other antiepileptic drugs associated with SJS/TEN, including phenytoin. Consideration should be given to avoiding phenytoin as an alternative for carbamazepine in patients positive for HLA-B*1502.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 08/06/2014

5. EMA Label for abacavir and HLA-B

Genetic testing required

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) states screening for the HLA-B*5701 allele should be carried out prior to initiating abacavir treatment and recommends screening in patients of unknown HLA-B*5701 allele status who are reinitiating treatment with abacavir. Due to a high risk of hypersensitivity reaction abacavir is not recommended in individuals carrying this allele.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 01/26/2015

6. PMDA Label for abacavir and HLA-B

Informative PGx

Summary

The HLA-B*57:01 allele is associated with a high risk of experiencing a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir in multiple populations, including Caucasians and African-Americans. However, the PMDA package insert for abacavir notes that the association between HLA-B*57:01 and risk of an abacavir hypersensitivity reaction is unknown in Japanese patients, and that the *57:01 allele has a reported prevalence of only 0.1% in the Japanese population.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 01/26/2015

7. PMDA Label for carbamazepine and HLA-B

Informative PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for carbamazepine notes that the HLA-B*15:02 allele is strongly linked with the development of carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) in patients of Han Chinese descent. However, there is not a clear link between the allele and SJS/TEN in patients of Japanese descent, possibly due to the low prevalence of *15:02 in the population.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 06/08/2015

8. HCSC Label for abacavir and HLA-B

Genetic testing required

Summary

The product monograph for abacavir (ZIAGEN) states that all patients should be screened for the HLA-B*5701 allele prior to initiating or re-initiating treatment with abacavir, due to the high risk of experiencing a hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) for patients carrying this allele.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 06/08/2015

9. HCSC Label for carbamazepine and HLA-A,HLA-B

Genetic testing recommended

Summary

The product monograph for carbamazepine states that the individuals with the HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02 alleles are at risk of developing serious cutaneous adverse drug reactions when receiving the drug, and that carbamazepine should be avoided in patients who test positive for these alleles.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 06/08/2015

10. HCSC Label for phenytoin and HLA-B

Genetic testing recommended

Summary

The product monograph for phenytoin (DILANTIN) notes that individuals with the HLA-B*1502 allele have an increased risk of developing Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) when receiving the drug. It further notes that this allele is common in individuals of Asian ancestry, and HLA-B genotyping should be considered as a screening tool in these patients.

There's more of this label. Read more.


Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below. Please follow the link in the "Position" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Position" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

List of all variant annotations for HLA-B

Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA *07:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *08:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *13:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *13:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *14:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *15:01:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *15:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *15:05:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *15:19 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *15:10:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *15:11:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *15:13:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *15:18:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *15:27:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *18:02 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *18:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *27:09 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *27:05:02 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *35:01:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *35:05:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *37:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *38:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *38:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *39:01:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *40:03 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *40:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *40:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *40:06:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *41:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *44:02:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *44:03:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *46:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *48:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *48:04 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *48:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *51:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *51:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *52:01:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *54:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *55:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *56:02 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *56:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *57:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *58:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *58:02 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *59:01:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *67:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Alternate Names:  AS
Alternate Symbols:  None
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA35056

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr6 : p21.33 - p21.33
GP mRNA Boundary: chr6 : 31321649 - 31324989
GP Gene Boundary: chr6 : 31318649 - 31334989
Strand: minus

Visualization

UCSC has a Genome Browser that you can use to view PharmGKB annotations for this gene in context with many other sources of information.

View on UCSC Browser
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Introduction

The human leukocyte antigen B (HLA-B) gene is a member of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a region of the human genome located on chromosome 6. The MHC (also known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex) includes three subregions, designated as class I, class II and class III. Each of these subregions contains a variety of genes that mainly code for proteins involved in the immune system. HLA-B is part of the class I group, along with HLA-A and HLA-C, all three of which code for their eponymous proteins [Article:15573121]. Class II genes include HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ [Article:22076556], and class III genes include complement components and cytokines such as complement factor B (CFB) and members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family [Articles:15573121, 14656967]. The MHC is a large region of the genome, and contains many other genes besides the ones listed above (please see Horton et al. for more details). The HLA genes are important within the field of pharmacogenetics: variations within these genes have been associated with severe drug reactions, as well as changes in how well a patient responds to a drug.

The HLA-B protein and the other class I group members are cell-surface molecules responsible for the presentation of endogenous peptides to CD8+ T-cells, and exist on almost all nucleated cells. This is in contrast to class II molecules, which display exogenous peptides to CD4+ T-cells, and are present only on antigen presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages or dendritic cells [Articles:22076556, 18641646]. This presentation of peptides to T-cells assists in the recognition of pathogens [Article:22076556]. As a class I molecule, most of the peptides that HLA-B presents come from the normal breakdown of host cellular proteins, and are recognized by the immune system as such (i.e. "self" peptides). However, when a cell becomes infected by a pathogen, the proteins presented will be from the pathogen and recognized as foreign or "non-self". T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) on CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are responsible for this recognition, and will stimulate an immune reaction that destroys the cell [Janeway, Immunobiology, 5th edition].

Class I molecules are expressed in a codominant fashion, and humans inherit a set of HLA-A, B and C genes from each parent. Therefore, given allelic variations within these genes, up to six different class I molecules can be expressed on a cell surface. HLA-A, B and C are heterodimers consisting of an α chain, encoded by their respective genes, and a protein known as β2-microglobulin, which is encoded on chromosome 15. The α chain of HLA-B has four domains: one cytoplasmic, one transmembrane, one which binds to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, and one which makes up a peptide-binding groove, where the presented peptide is nestled [Janeway, Immunobiology, 5th edition]. This peptide-binding region of the gene is highly polymorphic, and allelic differences between class I genes are often due to variations within this region [Article:22076556][Janeway, Immunobiology, 5th edition]. Indeed, allelic variants of class I genes can differ from one another by up to 20 amino acids. Peptides bind to the groove through interaction with specific amino acid residues, so any amino acid changes due to allelic variation may affect the peptide-binding specificity of a class I molecule [Janeway, Immunobiology, 5th edition] (class II molecules have more flexibility in peptide-binding; see Janeway). The type of extensive polymorphism seen in HLA genes allows a wide variety of peptides to be presented, and likely evolved in order to effectively combat pathogens [Janeway, Immunobiology, 5th edition]. In addition to affecting the peptides capable of being presented, allelic variants in the HLA-B gene have also been associated with susceptibility and resistance to numerous diseases, as well as adverse reactions to a wide range of pharmaceuticals. This makes HLA-B highly relevant to pharmacogenetic research.

HLA-B allele frequencies and nomenclature

Due to the highly polymorphic nature of class I genes, a large number of HLA-B alleles have been identified. Information on the frequencies of over 2800 HLA-B alleles in populations worldwide can be found at The Allele Frequency Net Database; allele frequencies for specific polymorphisms will be discussed within the individual HLA-B allele summaries. Systematic nomenclature for these alleles is invaluable given their quantity. The HLA nomenclature committee has provided a detailed nomenclature to this end, and comprehensive information on the allele naming process can be found at their website at http://hla.alleles.org. Briefly, all HLA alleles receive at least a four-digit name consisting of two sets of two digits separated by a colon, such as HLA-B*57:01. The first set of digits before the colon describes the type, typically the antigen designation used to describe the HLA alleles prior to genetic sequencing. The second set of digits indicates the specific allele, numerically ordered based on when the DNA sequence was discovered; this set of digits describes nonsynonymous substitutions only [Articles:21071412, 22378157]. This paper will only refer to the first one or two sets of digits. However, longer names, up to four sets of digits separated by colons and possibly a letter suffix, can be assigned if more detail is necessary, such as type or location of nucleotide substitution (e.g. synonymous or intronic) or resultant protein expression (e.g. null protein or cytoplasmic protein); for more information on this process, please refer to the HLA nomenclature website.

HLA-B and disease associations

A number of HLA-B alleles or allele groups have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to particular diseases. These include HLA-B*53 and resistance to malaria [Articles:1280333, 1865923], HLA-B*51 and susceptibility to the inflammatory condition Beçhet's disease [Articles:20622878, 11053265], and HLA-B*46 and increased risk of Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder [Article:23329888]. Two particularly strong disease associations are HLA-B*57 and HIV long-term non-progression, and HLA-B*27 and ankylosing spondylitis.

HLA-B*57 and HIV long-term non-progression

Without treatment, almost all people infected with HIV will ultimately progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a small percentage of patients do not advance, even long after the median progression time. These patients are referred to as long-term non-progressors or "elite controllers", and HLA-B*57 alleles, particularly *57:01 and *57:03, are highly enriched in this group of individuals [Articles:20445539, 14685052, 10694578, 21106806, 22718199, 22090105, 20205591, 23365442]. Though this association is well known, the mechanism by which it occurs remains unclear. Kosmrlj et al. used computer algorithms to predict that less than half the number of unique peptides (derived from the human proteome) bound to the HLA-B*57:01 protein as compared to HLA-B*07:01 (a non-HIV-protective form of the molecule). The authors suggested that this affected repertoire development, leading to T-cells that had been exposed to fewer self-peptides. This in turn may lead to a higher frequency of T-cells that recognize viral peptides, such as those from HIV, as well as T-cells that are more cross-reactive toward mutant epitopes. These qualities would enable the T-cells to better control the HIV infection, keeping the viral load in check and thereby making the development of AIDS unlikely [Article:20445539].

HLA-B*27 and ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease, affecting mainly the axial skeleton and sacroiliac joints. It leads to inflammatory back pain, as well as other clinical features including enthesitis and anterior uveitis [Article:17448825]. Presence of HLA-B*27 leads to the greatest risk for AS, and this form of HLA-B is found in over 90% of AS patients with European ancestry. However, only 1-5% of HLA-B*27 individuals will go on to develop AS, and not all alleles of HLA-B*27 are associated with its development. While HLA-B*27:05, *27:02, *27:04 and *27:07 do confer risk, other types such as *27:06 and *27:09 do not appear to be associated with the disease [Article:16777585]. As with HIV and HLA-B*57:01, the mechanism behind this association is unknown, though several theories have attempted to explain the relationship. Several of these theories are summarized in a review by McHugh and Bowness [Article:22513152], including the arthritogenic peptide hypothesis, which suggests that HLA-B*27 binds particular peptides that give rise to a cytotoxic T-cell response, the misfolding and unfolded protein response (UPR) hypothesis, which suggests that the accumulation of abnormally folded HLA-B*27 molecules leads to an inflammatory response, and the free heavy chain and homodimer hypothesis, where AS results from the immune recognition of monomeric or dimeric ß2-microglobulin-free and peptide-free HLA-B*27 molecules [Article:22513152]. Recent GWAS analyses have identified a number of non-MHC genes associated with AS susceptibility; these genes may help explain the mechanism of AS pathogenesis. For example, multiple genes within the interleukin-23 (IL-23) proinflammatory cytokine pathway were associated with AS, indicating that this may be a core immunological pathway underlying disease development. Additionally, multiple aminopeptidase genes, such as ERAP1 and ERAP2, have been associated with AS. The protein products of these genes are involved in peptide trimming prior to HLA class I binding and presentation, suggesting that HLA-B*27 may be involved in disease development through the aberrant trimming or presentation of peptides [Articles:24504800, 23749187, 21743469, 24504793].

HLA-B pharmacogenetics

HLA-B alleles have been associated with reactions to a large number of different drugs. Some of these associations have been well studied, such as HLA-B*57:01 and abacavir hypersensitivity, HLA-B*58:01 and allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), and HLA-B*15:02 and carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Other associations that are not as widely studied, but still show significant results include HLA-B*57:01 and flucloxacillin-induced liver injury, and HLA-B*15:02 and phenytoin-induced SJS and TEN (SJS/TEN). A list of these HLA-B alleles and their pharmacogenetic associations (along with their positive and negative predictive values, if available) can be seen in Table 1 below. For the alleles presented in this paper, there is no difference in phenotype depending on whether one or two HLA-B alleles are present, and therefore the pharmacogenetic studies discussed only consider whether an individual has the allele or not.

Table 1: List of HLA-B alleles and their associated drug phenotypes. The phenotypes listed for each drug are more likely to occur in patients who are carriers for the associated allele. For example, carriers of *57:01 who are given abacavir have an increased chance of a hypersensitivity reaction as compared to non-carriers. When available, positive and negative predictive values are also shown. Click on the risk allele links to read more information about the pharmacogenetics of that particular allele.
HLA-B risk allele Drug Associated Phenotype References PPV NPV Reference
*57:01 Abacavir Hypersensitivity reaction Refer to table on the allele page 55% 100% [Articles:18256392, 23592889]
*57:01 Flucloxacillin Drug-induced liver injury [Article:19483685]
*58:01 Allopurinol SCARs, MPE Refer to table on the allele page 1.5% 100% [Article:19696695]
*15:02 Carbamazepine SJS/TEN Refer to table 1 on the allele page 1.8% 100% [Article:23132554]
*15:02 Phenytoin SJS/TEN Refer to table 2 on the allele page 33% 100% [Article:18637831]

PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value; SCARs, severe cutaneous adverse reactions; MPE, maculopapular eruption; SJS/TEN, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis

Many other HLA-B alleles besides the ones mentioned above have shown associations with various drug phenotypes. A table of all the HLA-B allele and drug phenotype associations currently annotated by PharmGKB can be found under the PGx Research tab on this page. Additionally, a list of all HLA-B clinical annotations can be found under the Clinical PGx tab.

HLA-B Testing

Several options exist for determining whether a patient carries a particular HLA-B allele. The first is by direct sequencing of the gene, and assignment of a star allele after checking the sequence against known HLA-B alleles. Though this method provides high-resolution genotyping and is the most accurate, it is both time-consuming and expensive and is not widely used [Article:22378157]. An alternative and commonly used approach is genotyping, where the sequence variants known to define a particular HLA-B allele are detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for each variant [Article:22378157]. Quality assurance studies done on the accuracy of HLA-B*57:01 testing using sequence-specific primer PCR (SSP-PCR) across multiple laboratories have shown very high sensitivity and specificity, indicating that laboratories using this method appear to be offering effective screening for the allele [Article:18018760]. Another method that offers cost-effective, rapid and sensitive screening for HLA-B*57:01 or HLA-B*58:01 is flow cytometry. HLA-B*57:01 and HLA-B*58:01 belong to a serological group known as HLA-B17. B17 monoclonal antibodies can be used to identify individuals who carry the HLA-B17 serotype, and these individuals can then undergo further DNA typing to determine whether they carry the *57:01 or *58:01 risk alleles. Since B17 is normally present in less than 10% of the population, assaying for presence of B17 first allows greater than 90% of a patient population to be eliminated from unnecessary HLA testing [Articles:23280011, 21501118, 16609367].

It is also possible to test for the presence of an HLA-B allele by genotyping for one more more single nucleotide polymorphirms (SNPs) nearby and in linkage disequilibrium with that allele. However, linkage disequilibrium can vary across populations, and this method may have lower accuracy [Articles:22378157, 23695185]. The HCP5 SNP rs2395029 has been suggested as a potential marker for abacavir-induced hypersensitivity, since the variant allele has shown strong linkage disequilibrium with *57:01 [Articles:18684101, 20534626, 21510768, 16998491]. However, it is not in complete concordance with *57:01 [Articles:22304574, 22913531], and individuals with the *57:01 allele but not the rs2395029 variant allele [Articles:22304574, 22913531, 20602616] as well as individuals with the rs2395029 variant allele but not the *57:01 allele [Articles:18684101, 20534626, 22304574, 22913531] have been noted. This type of incomplete concordance could result in the denial of abacavir to individuals who are not at risk for a hypersensitivity reaction, or administration of abacavir to individuals who are at risk for a hypersensitivity reaction [Articles:22378157, 20602616]. Additionally, the studies showing strong linkage between *57:01 and rs2395029 have been conducted in populations of mainly Caucasian or Hispanic descent; the strength of the linkage between the alleles has not been confirmed in large African or Asian populations [Article:22378157]. Several studies have noted that caution should be used when using rs2395029 as a surrogate marker for HLA-B*57:01 [Articles:22378157, 23592889]. However, due to the inexpensive and straightforward nature of this screening method, some laboratories do choose to perform SNP testing over allele-specific PCR [Article:22378157].

It is important to note that currently, the high level of polymorphism within the HLA genes makes HLA genotyping at a high resolution challenging [Articles:22651253, 23302098, 23714642]. Present sequencing methods can result in ambiguous typing results with an inability to resolve phase [Articles:22651253, 23302098]. Additionally, different alleles may share similar sequences within the sequenced region [Article:23714642], and defining polymorphisms may lie outside the amplified region [Articles:22651253, 23302098]. These issues may be resolved through next-generation sequencing (NGS), which allows for clonal amplification and massively parallel sequencing. These two properties provide phase information and the ability to sequence more and larger regions of genes, including intronic regions [Articles:22651253, 23302098].

A list of commercially available genetic tests for various HLA-B alleles can be found on PharmGKB; a more comprehensive list can be found at the Genetic Testing Registry. Since HLA-B expression is co-dominant, HLA-B genotyping results are either "positive", with *57:01 being present in one or both copies of the gene, or "negative", where no copies of the allele are present; there is no intermediate phenotype [Article:22378157].

Citation PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for human leukocyte antigen B. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Barbarino Julia M, Kroetz Deanna L, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Julia Barbarino

Haplotype Summaries HLA-B*15:02:01, HLA-B*57:01:01, HLA-B*58:01
Drugs
Diseases
Pathways

Haplotype Overview

Source of these HLA allele names: http://hla.alleles.org/ (HLA Informatics Group 1995-2012)

References:

  • [Article:21071412] Robinson J, Mistry K, McWilliam H, Lopez R, Parham P, Marsh SGE: The IMGT/HLA database. Nucleic Acids Research. 2011 39 Suppl 1:D1171-6.
  • [Article:10777106] Robinson J, Malik A, Parham P, Bodmer JG, Marsh SGE: IMGT/HLA - a sequence database for the human major histocompatibility complex. Tissue Antigens. 2000 55:280-7.
  • [Article:20356336] SGE Marsh, ED Albert, WF Bodmer, RE Bontrop, B Dupont, HA Erlich, M Fernández-Vina, DE Geraghty, R Holdsworth, CK Hurley, M Lau, KW Lee, B Mach, WR Mayr, M Maiers, CR Müller, P Parham, EW Petersdorf, T Sasazuki, JL Strominger, A Svejgaard, PI Terasaki, JM Tiercy, J Trowsdale: Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2010. Tissue Antigens 2010 75:291-455.

Source: PharmGKB

Haplotypes for HLA-B

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

PharmGKB contains no curated pathways for this gene. If you would like to volunteer to work on a pathway, please let us know.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
No related genes are available

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug
abacavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
acamprosate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
acenocoumarol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
acetaminophen
acetazolamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
alemtuzumab
allopurinol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
amitriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
amoxicillin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
aripiprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
arsenic trioxide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
aspirin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
atazanavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
atomoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
atorvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
azathioprine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
benzbromarone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
buprenorphine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
bupropion
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
busulfan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
capecitabine
carbamazepine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
carbimazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
carvedilol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
celecoxib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cetuximab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cevimeline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
chloroquine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
citalopram
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
clavulanate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clomipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clopidogrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
clozapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
codeine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
dapsone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dasatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
daunorubicin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
diazepam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
diclofenac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
diltiazem
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
disulfiram
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
doxepin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
efavirenz
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
emtricitabine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
erlotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
eslicarbazepine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
esomeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ethanol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
febuxostat
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
flecainide
flucloxacillin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fluorouracil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fluoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fosphenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
gefitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
gemcitabine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
gemtuzumab ozogamicin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
haloperidol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
hydralazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
hydroxychloroquine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
imatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
imipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
indinavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
indomethacin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
interferon alfa-2a, recombinant
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
irinotecan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
isoniazid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
itraconazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ivacaftor
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
lamivudine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
lamotrigine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lansoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lapatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lenalidomide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
leucovorin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
levamisole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lopinavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
losartan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lovastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lumiracoxib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
maraviroc
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
mercaptopurine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
metformin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
methadone
methazolamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
methimazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
methotrexate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
metoprolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nabumetone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
naltrexone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nelfinavir
nevirapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nicotine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nilotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nortriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
olanzapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
omeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
oxaliplatin
oxcarbazepine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
oxycodone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
panitumumab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pantoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
paroxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
peginterferon alfa-2a
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
peginterferon alfa-2b
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pegloticase
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
penicillamine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
phenobarbital
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
phenprocoumon
phenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pitavastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
prasugrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pravastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
primaquine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
probenecid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
procainamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
propafenone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
propranolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
propylthiouracil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
protriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rabeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
raltegravir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ramipril
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rasburicase
ribavirin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rifampin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
risperidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ritonavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rosuvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
salicyclic acid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
saquinavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sertraline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
simvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sorafenib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
stavudine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sulfamethoxazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
sulfasalazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sulfinpyrazone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sunitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tacrine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tacrolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tegafur
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
temsirolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tenofovir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
terbinafine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tetrabenazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
thioguanine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
thioridazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ticlopidine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
timolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tiotropium
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tolterodine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tramadol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tranilast
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
trastuzumab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tretinoin
trichloroethylene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
trimethoprim
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
troglitazone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
valproic acid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
varenicline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
venlafaxine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
vitamin c
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
voriconazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
warfarin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ximelagatran
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
zidovudine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
zonisamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
zuclopenthixol

Curated Information ?

Evidence Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Agranulocytosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Alcoholism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Gouty
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Atrial Fibrillation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Bipolar Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Brain Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Breast Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Colitis, Ulcerative
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Colonic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Colorectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Crohn Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Death
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Depression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dermatitis, Exfoliative
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Drug Hypersensitivity
drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity
drug-induced liver injury
Epidermal Necrolysis, Toxic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy
erythema exudativum multiforme
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Esophagitis
Exanthema
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Glaucoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gout
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Graft vs Host Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Graves Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Failure
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Hematologic Neoplasms
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Hemorrhage
Hepatitis C
HIV
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HIV Infections
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Hyperbilirubinemia
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Hypercholesterolemia
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Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
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Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
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Hypersensitivity
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Hypertension
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Hyperuricemia
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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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Kidney Failure
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Kidney Failure, Chronic
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Leprosy
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Leukemia
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Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell
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Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
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Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
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Leukemia, Nonlymphocytic, Acute
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Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
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Lipodystrophy
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Liver Diseases
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Long QT Syndrome
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Lung Neoplasms
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Macular Degeneration
Maculopapular Exanthema
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria
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Muscular Diseases
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Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne
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Mycoses
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Myelodysplastic Syndromes
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Myocardial Infarction
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Neoplasm Metastasis
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nephrotoxicity
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neuropathic pain
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Ocular Hypertension
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Opioid-Related Disorders
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Pain
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Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
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Psoriasis
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Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
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Pulmonary Fibrosis
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Retinal Diseases
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schizencephaly
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schizoaffective disorder
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Schizophrenia
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Seizures
severe cutaneous adverse reactions
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Sjogren's Syndrome
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Spondylarthropathies
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Spondylitis, Ankylosing
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
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Stroke
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Substance-Related Disorders
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Thromboembolism
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Tobacco Use Disorder
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Toxic liver disease
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Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
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Tumor Lysis Syndrome
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Urinary Incontinence
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Uveitis
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Vasculitis

Publications related to HLA-B: 224

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The HLA-B*15:02 allele in a Spanish Romani patient with carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Bellón Teresa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B*5801: a genetic susceptibility to allopurinol-induced DRESS. The Medical journal of Australia. 2016. Mugwagwa Augustine N, et al. PubMed
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Association of HLA-B*15:13 and HLA-B*15:02 with phenytoin-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions in a Malay population. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2016. Chang C-C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic Study of Clozapine-Induced Agranulocytosis/Granulocytopenia in a Japanese Population. Biological psychiatry. 2016. Saito Takeo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Analysis of Ocular Manifestation and Genetic Association of Allopurinol-Induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in South Korea. Cornea. 2016. Lee Hyo Seok, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Associations between HLA class I and cytochrome P450 2C9 genetic polymorphisms and phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions in a Thai population. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2016. Tassaneeyakul Wichittra, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA Allele Frequencies in 5802 Koreans: Varied Allele Types Associated with SJS/TEN According to Culprit Drugs. Yonsei medical journal. 2016. Park Hye Jung, et al. PubMed
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Coupling Genotyping and Computational Modeling in Prediction of Anti-epileptic Drugs that cause Stevens Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis for Carrier of HLA-B*15:02. Journal of pharmacy & pharmaceutical sciences : a publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Societe canadienne des sciences pharmaceutiques. 2016. Teh Lay Kek, et al. PubMed
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HLA-B*38:02:01 Predicts Carbimazole/Methimazole-Induced Agranulocytosis. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2015. Cheung Ching-Lung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cost-effectiveness analysis of genotyping for HLA-B*5801 and an enhanced safety program in gout patients starting allopurinol in Singapore. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Dong Di, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics in the clinic. Nature. 2015. Relling Mary V, et al. PubMed
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Genetic screening for human leukocyte antigen alleles prior to carbamazepine treatment. Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. 2015. Tan Jeremy C K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
New approaches for predicting T cell-mediated drug reactions: A role for inducible and potentially preventable autoimmunity. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2015. Michels Aaron W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics as a tool to tailor antiretroviral therapy: A review. World journal of virology. 2015. Aceti Antonio, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Construction of a population-specific HLA imputation reference panel and its application to Graves' disease risk in Japanese. Nature genetics. 2015. Okada Yukinori, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Accuracy of SNPs to predict risk of HLA alleles associated with drug-induced hypersensitivity events across racial groups. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. He Yijing, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparative analysis between saliva and buccal swabs as source of DNA: lesson from HLA-B*57:01 testing. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Cascella Raffaella, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for human leukocyte antigen B (HLA-B) genotype and allopurinol dosing: 2015 update. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2015. Saito Y, et al. PubMed
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Candidate HLA genes for prediction of co-trimoxazole-induced severe cutaneous reactions. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Kongpan Thachanan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
How close are we to a pharmacogenomic test for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis?. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Verbelen Moira, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by methazolamide in a Chinese-Korean man carrying HLA-B*59:01. International journal of dermatology. 2015. Shu Chang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic markers associated with cutaneous adverse drug reactions to allopurinol: a systematic review. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Jarjour Samantha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B*1502 and carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions in Vietnamese. Asia Pacific allergy. 2015. Nguyen Dinh Van, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of abacavir hypersensitivity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association with HLA-B*57:01. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2015. Sousa-Pinto Bernardo, et al. PubMed
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HLA-B*59:01: a marker for Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by methazolamide in Han Chinese. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. Yang F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of dermatology in pharmacogenomics: drug-induced skin injury. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Borroni Riccardo G. PubMed
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HLA-B*58:01 is strongly associated with allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions in Han Chinese patients: a multicentre retrospective case-control clinical study. The British journal of dermatology. 2015. Cheng L, et al. PubMed
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HLA-allelotype associations with nevirapine-induced hypersensitivity reactions and hepatotoxicity: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Cornejo Castro Elena M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for human leukocyte antigen B. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Barbarino Julia M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Perspectives on pharmacogenomics of antiretroviral medications and HIV-associated comorbidities. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS. 2015. Haas David W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Use of HLA-B*58:01 genotyping to prevent allopurinol induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions in Taiwan: national prospective cohort study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2015. Ko Tai-Ming, et al. PubMed
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Association between HLA-B*15:02 allele and antiepileptic drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions in Hong Kong Chinese: a population-based study. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine. 2014. Kwan P K L, et al. PubMed
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Drug eruptions induced by allopurinol associated with HLA-B*5801. Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology. 2015. Zeng Meihua, et al. PubMed
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A call for accurate pharmacogenetic labeling: telling it like it is. JAMA internal medicine. 2014. Burke Wylie, et al. PubMed
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Association of HLA-B*5701 Genotypes and Abacavir-Induced Hypersensitivity Reaction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of pharmacy & pharmaceutical sciences : a publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Société canadienne des sciences pharmaceutiques. 2015. Tangamornsuksan Wimonchat, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic determinants of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis by human leukocyte antigen genotyping and genome-wide association study. Nature communications. 2015. Chen Pei-Lung, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic considerations in the treatment of gout. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Roberts Rebecca L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Abacavir-reactive memory T cells are present in drug naïve individuals. PloS one. 2015. Lucas Andrew, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison of methods for in-house screening of HLA-B*57:01 to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity in HIV-1 care. PloS one. 2015. De Spiegelaere Ward, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A Prospective Screening of HLA-B*57.01 Allelic Variant for Preventing the Hypersensivity Reaction to Abacavir: Experience from the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the Infectious Diseases Division at the University Hospital of Salerno. Translational medicine @ UniSa. 2015. Senatore C, et al. PubMed
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Association of HLA-B*1502 allele with lamotrigine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in Han Chinese subjects: a meta-analysis. International journal of dermatology. 2014. Zeng Tao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Reducing hypersensitivity reactions with HLA-B*5701 genotyping before abacavir prescription: clinically useful but is it cost-effective in Singapore?. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Kapoor Ritika, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of antimicrobial agents. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Aung Ar Kar, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Immunologic basis for allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions: HLA-B*58:01-restricted activation of drug-specific T cells and molecular interaction. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2014. Lin Chia-Hsien, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
T Cell-Mediated Hypersensitivity Reactions to Drugs. Annual review of medicine. 2014. Pavlos Rebecca, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Incidence and predictors of regimen-modification from first-line antiretroviral therapy in Thailand: a cohort study. BMC infectious diseases. 2014. Tsuchiya Naho, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical features of and genetic predisposition to drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in a single Korean tertiary institution patients-investigating the relation between the HLA -B*4403 allele and lamotrigine. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Park Hye Jung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B∗1502 is associated with carbamazepine induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in North Indian population. Human immunology. 2014. Aggarwal Ritu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of a HLA-B*15:02 screening policy on antiepileptic drug use and severe skin reactions. Neurology. 2014. Chen Zhibin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Application of Pharmacogenomics: The Example of HLA-Based Drug-Induced Toxicity. Public health genomics. 2014. Lee Ming Ta Michael, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Detection of HLA-B*58:01 with TaqMan assay and its association with allopurinol-induced sCADR. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC. 2014. Zhang Xinju, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B*15:02 association with carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in an Indian population: a pooled-data analysis and meta-analysis. Epilepsia. 2014. Khor Amy Hui-Ping, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Direct PCR: a new pharmacogenetic approach for the inexpensive testing of HLA-B*57:01. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Cascella R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Insights into the poor prognosis of allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions: the impact of renal insufficiency, high plasma levels of oxypurinol and granulysin. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2014. Chung Wen-Hung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP2C9 and HLA-B Genotype and Phenytoin Dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Caudle Kelly E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variants associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2014. Chung Wen-Hung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes. PLoS genetics. 2014. Ng Maggie C Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B*13:01 is associated with salazosulfapyridine-induced drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in Chinese Han population. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Yang Fanping, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA-B5801 genotyping in the treatment of gout patients with chronic renal insufficiency in Korea. Arthritis care & research. 2014. Park Dong-Jin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA Class I restricted CD8+ and Class II restricted CD4+ T cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of nevirapine hypersensitivity. AIDS (London, England). 2014. Keane Niamh M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: uric acid-lowering drugs pathway, pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. McDonagh Ellen M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Diagnostic accuracy of HLA-B*57:01 screening for the prediction of abacavir hypersensitivity and clinical utility of the test: a meta-analytic review. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Cargnin Sarah, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Oxypurinol directly and immediately activates the drug-specific T cells via the preferential use of HLA-B*58:01. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2014. Yun James, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of antiepileptic drug-induced hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Bloch Katarzyna M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Fine Mapping Seronegative and Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis to Shared and Distinct HLA Alleles by Adjusting for the Effects of Heterogeneity. American journal of human genetics. 2014. Han Buhm, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for HLA-B Genotype and Abacavir Dosing: 2014 update. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Martin Michael A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of HLA-B*1502 and *1511 allele with antiepileptic drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in central China. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban. 2014. Sun Dan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genotype-phenotype association between HLA and carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions: strength and clinical correlations. Journal of dermatological science. 2014. Hsiao Yi-Hsin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Incorporation of Pharmacogenomics into Routine Clinical Practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline Development Process. Current drug metabolism. 2014. Caudle Kelly E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Building pharmacogenetics into a pharmacovigilance program in Singapore: using serious skin rash as a pilot study. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Toh D S L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B allele and haplotype diversity among Thai patients identified by PCR-SSOP: evidence for high risk of drug-induced hypersensitivity. Frontiers in genetics. 2014. Puangpetch Apichaya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA alleles and hypersensitivity to carbamazepine: an updated systematic review with meta-analysis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-A*02:01:01/-B*35:01:01/-C*04:01:01 haplotype associated with lamotrigine-induced maculopapular exanthema in Mexican Mestizo patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Fricke-Galindo Ingrid, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA-B*5801 testing in preventing allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN in Thai population. PloS one. 2014. Saokaew Surasak, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic diversity of the KIR/HLA system and outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with chemotherapy. PloS one. 2014. De Re Valli, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Real-world efficiency of pharmacogenetic screening for carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions. PloS one. 2014. Chen Zhibin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics testing for type B adverse drug reactions to anti-infective drugs: the example of hypersensitivity to abacavir. Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery. 2014. Agundez Jose A G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-DR9 and DR14 Are Associated with the Allopurinol-Induced Hypersensitivity in Hematologic Malignancy. The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine. 2014. Jung Jae-Woo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-A*31:01 and different types of carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions: an international study and meta-analysis. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Genin E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous drug reactions and HLA-B*1502 allele status, and dose and treatment duration in paediatric neurology patients in Singapore. Archives of disease in childhood. 2013. Chong Kok Wee, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Allopurinol hypersensitivity is primarily mediated by dose-dependent oxypurinol-specific T cell response. Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2013. Yun J, et al. PubMed
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Specific HLA types are associated with antiepileptic drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in Japanese subjects. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Kaniwa Nahoko, et al. PubMed
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Association between HLA-B*1301 and dapsone-induced hypersensitivity reactions among leprosy patients in China. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2013. Wang Hongsheng, et al. PubMed
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A weighted genetic risk score using all known susceptibility variants to estimate rheumatoid arthritis risk. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2013. Yarwood Annie, et al. PubMed
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HLA-B*13:01 and the dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Zhang F-R, et al. PubMed
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Predictive markers for carbamazepine and lamotrigine-induced maculopapular exanthema in Han Chinese. Epilepsy research. 2013. Li Li-Juan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available