protein S (alpha)

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB annotates drug labels containing pharmacogenetic information approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan (PMDA), and Health Canada (Santé Canada) (HCSC). PharmGKB annotations provide a brief summary of the PGx in the label, an excerpt from the label and a downloadable highlighted label PDF file. A list of genes and phenotypes found within the label is mapped to label section headers and listed at the end of each annotation. PharmGKB also attempts to interpret the level of action implied in each label with the "PGx Level" tag.

See the legend for more information about drug label sources and PGx Levels.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA, PMDA, HCSC or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.

last updated 06/01/2015

1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for warfarin and CYP2C9, PROC, PROS1, VKORC1

Actionable PGx


Warfarin (Coumadin) is an anticoagulant used as a prophylaxis and to treat venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, thromboembolic complications from atrial fibrillationa and cardiac valve replacement, and to reduce the recurrence of myocardial infarction. The FDA recommends genetic testing for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants prior to initiating treatment with warfarin. The drug label notes that deficiency in protein C (PROC) or protein S (PROS1) have been associated with tissue necrosis following warfarin administration.

There's more of this label. Read more.

last updated 06/08/2015

3. Health Canada Santé Canada (HCSC) for ethinyl estradiol, norelgestromin and F2, F5, MTHFR, PROC, PROS1, SERPINC1

Actionable PGx


The product monograph for norelgestromin and ethinyl estradiol (EVRA) states that the drug is contraindicated in women with Factor V Leiden mutation, antithrombin-III-deficiency, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteinaemia due to mutations in the MTHFR gene and prothrombin mutation G20210A (among other contraindications), due to the risk for arterial or venous thrombosis.

There's more of this label. Read more.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

List of all variant annotations for PROS1

Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8178607 149138G>A, 43943C>T, 77-7741C>T, 93653992G>A
G > A
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 144


Alternate Names:  PROS
Alternate Symbols:  None
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA33809


Cytogenetic Location: chr3 : q11.2 - q11.1
GP mRNA Boundary: chr3 : 93591881 - 93692934
GP Gene Boundary: chr3 : 93588881 - 93702934
Strand: minus


UCSC has a Genome Browser that you can use to view PharmGKB annotations for this gene in context with many other sources of information.

View on UCSC Browser
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.
No related genes are available

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Evidence Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
time to achieve stable dose

Publications related to PROS1: 3

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic and environmental factors determining clinical outcomes and cost of warfarin therapy: a prospective study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Jorgensen Andrea L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of oral and transdermal hormonal contraception on vascular risk markers: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2008. Johnson Julia V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Site-directed mutagenesis of coumarin-type anticoagulant-sensitive VKORC1: evidence that highly conserved amino acids define structural requirements for enzymatic activity and inhibition by warfarin. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2005. Rost Simone, et al. PubMed


NCBI Gene:
UCSC Genome Browser:
RefSeq RNA:
RefSeq Protein:
RefSeq DNA:
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
HumanCyc Gene:

Common Searches