Gene:
KRAS
Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.


Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for cetuximab and EGFR,KRAS
  2. FDA Label for panitumumab and EGFR,KRAS
  3. FDA Label for regorafenib and EGFR,KRAS,VEGFA
  4. EMA Label for cetuximab and EGFR,KRAS
  5. EMA Label for panitumumab and KRAS
  6. EMA Label for regorafenib and KRAS,UGT1A1
  7. PMDA Label for cetuximab and EGFR,KRAS
  8. PMDA Label for panitumumab and KRAS
  9. HCSC Label for cetuximab and EGFR,KRAS
  10. HCSC Label for panitumumab and EGFR,KRAS











PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

List of all variant annotations for KRAS

Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
rs112445441 NC_000012.11:g.25398281C>A, NC_000012.11:g.25398281C>G, NC_000012.11:g.25398281C>T, NC_000012.12:g.25245347C>A, NC_000012.12:g.25245347C>G, NC_000012.12:g.25245347C>T, NG_007524.1:g.10574G>A, NG_007524.1:g.10574G>C, NG_007524.1:g.10574G>T, NM_004985.4:c.38G>A, NM_004985.4:c.38G>C, NM_004985.4:c.38G>T, NM_033360.3:c.38G>A, NM_033360.3:c.38G>C, NM_033360.3:c.38G>T, NP_004976.2:p.Gly13Ala, NP_004976.2:p.Gly13Asp, NP_004976.2:p.Gly13Val, NP_203524.1:p.Gly13Ala, NP_203524.1:p.Gly13Asp, NP_203524.1:p.Gly13Val, XM_005253365.1:c.38G>A, XM_005253365.1:c.38G>C, XM_005253365.1:c.38G>T, XM_006719069.2:c.38G>A, XM_006719069.2:c.38G>C, XM_006719069.2:c.38G>T, XM_011520653.1:c.38G>A, XM_011520653.1:c.38G>C, XM_011520653.1:c.38G>T, XP_005253422.1:p.Gly13Ala, XP_005253422.1:p.Gly13Asp, XP_005253422.1:p.Gly13Val, XP_006719132.1:p.Gly13Ala, XP_006719132.1:p.Gly13Asp, XP_006719132.1:p.Gly13Val, XP_011518955.1:p.Gly13Ala, XP_011518955.1:p.Gly13Asp, XP_011518955.1:p.Gly13Val
C > A
C > G
C > T
SNP
G13A/D/V
rs121913529 NC_000012.11:g.25398284C>A, NC_000012.11:g.25398284C>G, NC_000012.11:g.25398284C>T, NC_000012.12:g.25245350C>A, NC_000012.12:g.25245350C>G, NC_000012.12:g.25245350C>T, NG_007524.1:g.10571G>A, NG_007524.1:g.10571G>C, NG_007524.1:g.10571G>T, NM_004985.4:c.35G>A, NM_004985.4:c.35G>C, NM_004985.4:c.35G>T, NM_033360.3:c.35G>A, NM_033360.3:c.35G>C, NM_033360.3:c.35G>T, NP_004976.2:p.Gly12Ala, NP_004976.2:p.Gly12Asp, NP_004976.2:p.Gly12Val, NP_203524.1:p.Gly12Ala, NP_203524.1:p.Gly12Asp, NP_203524.1:p.Gly12Val, XM_005253365.1:c.35G>A, XM_005253365.1:c.35G>C, XM_005253365.1:c.35G>T, XM_006719069.2:c.35G>A, XM_006719069.2:c.35G>C, XM_006719069.2:c.35G>T, XM_011520653.1:c.35G>A, XM_011520653.1:c.35G>C, XM_011520653.1:c.35G>T, XP_005253422.1:p.Gly12Ala, XP_005253422.1:p.Gly12Asp, XP_005253422.1:p.Gly12Val, XP_006719132.1:p.Gly12Ala, XP_006719132.1:p.Gly12Asp, XP_006719132.1:p.Gly12Val, XP_011518955.1:p.Gly12Ala, XP_011518955.1:p.Gly12Asp, XP_011518955.1:p.Gly12Val, rs121913531, rs121913534
C > A
C > G
C > T
SNP
G12A/D/V
No VIP available CA VA
rs61764370 NC_000012.11:g.25360224A>C, NC_000012.12:g.25207290A>C, NG_007524.1:g.48631T>G, NM_004985.4:c.*2505T>G, NM_033360.3:c.*2626T>G, XM_011520653.1:c.*2505T>G, rs200812391
A > C
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Alternate Names:  KRAS2; v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog
Alternate Symbols:  KRAS1
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA30196

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr12 : p12.1 - p12.1
GP mRNA Boundary: chr12 : 25358180 - 25403870
GP Gene Boundary: chr12 : 25355180 - 25413870
Strand: minus

Visualization

UCSC has a Genome Browser that you can use to view PharmGKB annotations for this gene in context with many other sources of information.

View on UCSC Browser
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

The KRAS gene is an important predictive pharmacogene for cancer PGx.

KRAS codes for one of the three RAS family proteins which are key players in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway (reviewed in [Article:26299805]). Approximately 40% of colorectal cancers have mutated KRAS [Article:26299805]. These mutations are clustered; there are variants for all three bases in codons 12, 13, 61, 117 and 146 [Article:26299805]. These mutations result in activated KRAS proteins which leads to ligand independent stimulation of downstream signaling for growth and proliferation. Some KRAS mutations are able to bypass inhibition of EGFR receptors and confer drug resistance [Article:26299805].

Mutations in KRAS and BRAF are mutually exclusive: In a study of 330 colorectal tumors, approximately 50% had mutant KRAS and 10% had mutant BRAF but none had both mutated KRAS and BRAF [Article:12198537] Since drugs targeted against BRAF function against mutant (V600E) BRAF, KRAS mutant tumors, are unlikely to respond to either anti-EGFR or anti-BRAF therapies [Article:26299805]. Current clinical trials are looking at targeting various points in the pathway in combination to avoid drug resistance [Article:26299805].

Current recommendation from FDA requires that exon 12 and 13 KRAS testing be used to exclude patients with these mutations from receiving cetuximab or panitumumab due to lack of benefit beyond that of chemotherapy alone (see drug labels on Clinical PGx tab). Recent studies, using next generation sequencing techniques, suggest that resistance to anti-EGFR drugs is more complex than previously thought [Article:25605843] [Article:24942275] [Article:26508446](see VIP variants [rs112445441] and [rs121913529].
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2009 guidelines recommended testing for codon 12 and 13 (exon 2) KRAS [Article:19188670] however this was updated in 2015 to also include exons 3 (codons 59 and 61) and 4 (codons 117 and 146) [Article:26438111]. The Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) working group's guidelines from 2013 published that there was strong evidence for testing codons 12 and 13 but inadequate evidence for other mutations [Article:23429431].

Table of rs numbers for important variants

rs numberprotein changemRNA change
rs121913529p.Gly12Val (G12V)c.35G>T
rs121913529p.Gly12Asp (G12D)c.35G>A
rs121913529p.Gly12Ala (G12A)c.35G>C
rs121913530p.Gly12Cys (G12C)c.34G>T
rs121913530p.Gly12Arg (G12R)c.34G>C
rs121913530p.Gly12Ser (G12S)c.34G>A
rs121913535p.Gly13Arg (G13R)c.37G>C
rs121913535p.Gly13Cys (G13C)c.37G>T
rs112445441p.Gly13Asp (G13D)c.38G>A
rs112445441p.Gly13Val (G13V)c.38G>T
rs121913528p.Ala59Thr (A59T)175G>A
rs104886029p.Ala59Val (A59V)c.176C>T
rs121913238p.Gln61Lys (Q61K)c.181C>A
rs121913240p.Gln61Leu (Q61L)c.182A>T
rs17851045p.Gln61His (Q61H)c.183A>T
rs121913527p.Ala146Thr (A146T)c.436G>A
Citation
M. Whirl-Carrillo, E.M. McDonagh, J. M. Hebert, L. Gong, K. Sangkuhl, C.F. Thorn, R.B. Altman and T.E. Klein. "Pharmacogenomics Knowledge for Personalized Medicine" Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2012) 92(4): 414-417. Full text
History

Submitted by Caroline F Thorn

Key Publications
  1. Extended RAS Gene Mutation Testing in Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma to Predict Response to Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Monoclonal Antibody Therapy: American Society of Clinical Oncology Provisional Clinical Opinion Update 2015. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2015. Allegra Carmen J, Rumble R Bryan, Hamilton Stanley R, Mangu Pamela B, Roach Nancy, Hantel Alexander, Schilsky Richard L. PubMed
  2. Fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan plus cetuximab treatment and RAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2015. Van Cutsem Eric, Lenz Heinz-Josef, Köhne Claus-Henning, Heinemann Volker, Tejpar Sabine, Melezínek Ivan, Beier Frank, Stroh Christopher, Rougier Philippe, van Krieken J Han, Ciardiello Fortunato. PubMed
  3. Recommendations from the EGAPP Working Group: can testing of tumor tissue for mutations in EGFR pathway downstream effector genes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer improve health outcomes by guiding decisions regarding anti-EGFR therapy?. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2013. Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Working Group. PubMed
  4. American Society of Clinical Oncology provisional clinical opinion: testing for KRAS gene mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma to predict response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2009. Allegra Carmen J, Jessup J Milburn, Somerfield Mark R, Hamilton Stanley R, Hammond Elizabeth H, Hayes Daniel F, McAllister Pamela K, Morton Roscoe F, Schilsky Richard L. PubMed
Variant Summaries rs112445441, rs121913529
Drugs
Diseases
Pathways

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Bisphosphonate Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Representation of genes involved in bisphosphonates' effects in osteoclasts.
  1. EGFR Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Model non-tissue specific cancer cell displaying genes that may be involved in the treatment using epidermal growth factor receptor specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies.
  1. Sorafenib Pharmacodynamics
    Mechanism of action of sorafenib
  1. VEGF Signaling Pathway
    Model endothelial cell displaying genes of the VEGF signalling pathway and the sites at which bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, brivanib and cilengitide are known to act.

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
abacavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
alemtuzumab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
alfentanil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
amitriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
anastrozole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
aripiprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
arsenic trioxide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
atomoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
atorvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
azathioprine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
bevacizumab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
boceprevir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
busulfan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
capecitabine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
carbamazepine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
carisoprodol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
carvedilol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
celecoxib
cetuximab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cevimeline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
chloroquine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
citalopram
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clobazam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clomipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clopidogrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clozapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
codeine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
crizotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cyclosporine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dabrafenib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dapsone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dasatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
daunorubicin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
desipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dextromethorphan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
diazepam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
docetaxel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
doxepin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
erlotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
esomeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
exemestane
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
flucloxacillin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
fluorouracil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fluoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
flurbiprofen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fulvestrant
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
gefitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
gemcitabine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
gemtuzumab ozogamicin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
hydralazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
iloperidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
imatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
imipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
indacaterol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
irinotecan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
isoniazid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ivacaftor
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lapatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lenalidomide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
letrozole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
maraviroc
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
mercaptopurine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
methotrexate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
metoprolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
modafinil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
morphine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
mycophenolate mofetil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nelfinavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nilotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nortriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
olanzapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
omeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
oxaliplatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
paclitaxel
panitumumab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pantoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
paroxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
peginterferon alfa-2b
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
perphenazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pertuzumab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
phenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pimozide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pitavastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
prasugrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pravastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
primaquine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
propafenone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
propranolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
protriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
quinidine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rabeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ramipril
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rasburicase
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
regorafenib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rifampin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
risperidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rituximab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rosuvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
simvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sirolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sorafenib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sunitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tacrolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
telaprevir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
temsirolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
terbinafine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tetrabenazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
thioguanine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
thioridazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ticagrelor
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
timolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tiotropium
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tolterodine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
toremifene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tramadol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
trametinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
trastuzumab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tretinoin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
trimipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
valproic acid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
vemurafenib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
venlafaxine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
voriconazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
warfarin

Curated Information ?

Evidence Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Adenocarcinoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Atrial Fibrillation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Bipolar Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Brain Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Breast Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardio-facio-cutaneous Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Colonic Neoplasms
Colorectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Crohn Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cystic Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Depression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Diarrhea
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Hypersensitivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Resistance
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Esophagitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
event-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glioblastoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glioma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Graft vs Host Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Failure
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hemorrhage
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIV Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypercholesterolemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Kidney Transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myeloid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Nonlymphocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lung Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Melanoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Muscular Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mycoses
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myocardial Infarction
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasm Metastasis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nephrotoxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neurofibromatosis 1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neutropenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Noonan Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ocular Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ovarian Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
overall survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pain
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Pancreatic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
progression-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Rectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Schizophrenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sjogren's Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stomach Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stroke
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thromboembolism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thrombosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thyroid Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Urinary Incontinence

Publications related to KRAS: 55

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy between KRAS G13D and other KRAS mutant metastatic colorectal cancer tumours. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2016. Rowland Andrew, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prognostic utility of molecular factors by age at diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2015. McCleary Nadine J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Extended RAS Gene Mutation Testing in Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma to Predict Response to Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Monoclonal Antibody Therapy: American Society of Clinical Oncology Provisional Clinical Opinion Update 2015. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2015. Allegra Carmen J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Phase II study of single-agent cetuximab in KRAS G13D mutant metastatic colorectal cancer. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2015. Schirripa M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Prognostic role of the LCS6 KRAS variant in locally advanced rectal cancer: results of the EXPERT-C trial. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2015. Sclafani F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cetuximab treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer with KRAS p.G13D mutations improves progression-free survival. Molecular and clinical oncology. 2015. Osumi Hiroki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan plus cetuximab treatment and RAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2015. Van Cutsem Eric, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The Hippo effector YAP promotes resistance to RAF- and MEK-targeted cancer therapies. Nature genetics. 2015. Lin Luping, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Molecular biomarkers in colorectal carcinoma. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Puerta-García Elena, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A let-7 microRNA-binding site polymorphism in KRAS predicts improved outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with salvage cetuximab/panitumumab monotherapy. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2014. Saridaki Zenia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Targeting pathways downstream of KRAS in lung adenocarcinoma. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Zhu Zehua, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association study of the let-7 miRNA-complementary site variant in the 3' untranslated region of the KRAS gene in stage III colon cancer (NCCTG N0147 Clinical Trial). Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2014. Sha Dan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of solute carrier transporters in pancreatic cancer: a review. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lemstrová Radmila, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prioritizing genomic applications for action by level of evidence: a horizon-scanning method. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Dotson W D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EMA Initiatives and Perspectives on Pharmacogenomics. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Ehmann Falk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The involvement of Kras gene 3'-UTR polymorphisms in risk of cancer and influence on patient response to anti-EGFR therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. OncoTargets and therapy. 2014. Ying Hou-Qun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Recommendations from the EGAPP Working Group: can testing of tumor tissue for mutations in EGFR pathway downstream effector genes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer improve health outcomes by guiding decisions regarding anti-EGFR therapy?. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2013. Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Working Group. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The LCS6 polymorphism in the binding site of let-7 microRNA to the KRAS 3'-untranslated region: its role in the efficacy of anti-EGFR-based therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Sebio Ana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics: a bridge to individualized cancer therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Weng Liming, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between KRAS codon 13 mutations and clinical response to anti-EGFR treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: results from a meta-analysis. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2013. Chen Jian, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of KRAS p.G13D mutation in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab. Clinical colorectal cancer. 2012. Gajate Pablo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical outcome of Japanese metastatic colorectal cancer patients harbouring the KRAS p.G13D mutation treated with cetuximab + irinotecan. Japanese journal of clinical oncology. 2012. Bando Hideaki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A Novel Fully Automated Molecular Diagnostic System (AMDS) for Colorectal Cancer Mutation Detection. PloS one. 2013. Kitano Shiro, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of KRAS G13D tumor mutations with outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with or without cetuximab. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2012. Tejpar Sabine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mutations and deregulation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades which alter therapy response. Oncotarget. 2012. McCubrey James A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics: role of mutational analysis in anti-cancer targeted therapy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Savonarola A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development of molecular biomarkers in individualized treatment of colorectal cancer. Clinical colorectal cancer. 2011. De Mattos-Arruda Leticia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prospective-retrospective biomarker analysis for regulatory consideration: white paper from the industry pharmacogenomics working group. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Patterson Scott D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Key pathways are frequently mutated in high risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood. 2011. Zhang Jinghui, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The Role of KRAS rs61764370 in Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Implications for Clinical Testing. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2011. Pharoah Paul D P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Frequency of KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 2011. Vaughn Cecily P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Practical recommendations for pharmacogenomics-based prescription: 2010 ESF-UB Conference on Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic tests in cancer chemotherapy: what physicians should know for clinical application. The Journal of pathology. 2011. Lee Soo-Youn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic contribution to drug response. Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.). 2011. Watson Roshawn G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PIK3CA mutations frequently coexist with RAS and BRAF mutations in patients with advanced cancers. PloS one. 2011. Janku Filip, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of KRAS p.G13D mutation with outcome in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab. JAMA. 2010. De Roock Wendy, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic modulation of the Let-7 microRNA binding to KRAS 3'-untranslated region and survival of metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with salvage cetuximab-irinotecan. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Graziano F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis. The Lancet. Oncology. 2010. De Roock Wendy, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Targeted cancer therapies in the twenty-first century: lessons from imatinib. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Stegmeier F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic RNA interference reveals that oncogenic KRAS-driven cancers require TBK1. Nature. 2009. Barbie David A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics and biomarkers in colorectal cancer. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2009. Strimpakos A S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
American Society of Clinical Oncology provisional clinical opinion: testing for KRAS gene mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma to predict response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2009. Allegra Carmen J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
K-ras mutations and benefit from cetuximab in advanced colorectal cancer. The New England journal of medicine. 2008. Karapetis Christos S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Core signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancers revealed by global genomic analyses. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2008. Jones Sin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The cancer biomarker problem. Nature. 2008. Sawyers Charles L. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Network analysis of oncogenic Ras activation in cancer. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2007. Stites Edward C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gain-of-function RAF1 mutations cause Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nature genetics. 2007. Pandit Bhaswati, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Germline gain-of-function mutations in RAF1 cause Noonan syndrome. Nature genetics. 2007. Razzaque M Abdur, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical relevance of KRAS mutation detection in metastatic colorectal cancer treated by Cetuximab plus chemotherapy. British journal of cancer. 2007. Di Fiore F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2006. Sjöblom Tobias, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Germline missense mutations affecting KRAS Isoform B are associated with a severe Noonan syndrome phenotype. American journal of human genetics. 2006. Carta Claudio, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mutational analysis of BRAF and K-ras in gastric cancers: absence of BRAF mutations in gastric cancers. Human genetics. 2003. Kim Il-Jin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tumorigenesis: RAF/RAS oncogenes and mismatch-repair status. Nature. 2002. Rajagopalan Harith, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

NCBI Gene:
3845
OMIM:
109800
114480
115150
137215
190070
211980
218040
260350
609942
UCSC Genome Browser:
NM_004985
RefSeq RNA:
NM_004985
NM_033360
RefSeq Protein:
NP_004976
NP_203524
RefSeq DNA:
NG_007524
NT_009714
UniProtKB:
RASK_HUMAN (P01116)
Ensembl:
ENSG00000133703
GenAtlas:
KRAS
GeneCard:
KRAS
MutDB:
KRAS
ALFRED:
LO000285P
HuGE:
KRAS
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
3845
ModBase:
P01116
HumanCyc Gene:
HS05779
HGNC:
6407

Common Searches