Gene:
GGCX
gamma-glutamyl carboxylase

Available Prescribing Info

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

List of all variant annotations for GGCX

Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10654848 unknown
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs112936952
- > TTG
- > TTGTTG
- > TTGTTGTTG
- > TTGTTGTTGTTG
microsatellite
No VIP available CA VA
rs11676382 NC_000002.11:g.85777633C>G, NC_000002.12:g.85550510C>G, NG_011811.2:g.16025G>C, NM_000821.6:c.2084+45G>C, NM_001142269.3:c.1913+45G>C, XM_005264259.1:c.2078+45G>C, XM_005264259.3:c.2078+45G>C, XM_011532764.1:c.1262+45G>C, XM_011532765.1:c.1262+45G>C, XR_939677.1:n.2216G>C
C > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs12714145 NC_000002.11:g.85787341C>T, NC_000002.12:g.85560218C>T, NG_011811.2:g.6317G>A, NM_000821.6:c.214+597G>A, NM_001142269.3:c.44-1143G>A, NM_001311312.1:c.214+597G>A, XM_005264259.1:c.214+597G>A, XM_005264259.3:c.214+597G>A, XM_011532764.1:c.-445+597G>A, XM_011532765.1:c.-444-1143G>A, XR_939677.1:n.279+597G>A, rs59983638
C > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2592551 NC_000002.11:g.85780131G>A, NC_000002.12:g.85553008G>A, NG_011811.2:g.13527C>T, NM_000821.6:c.1218C>T, NM_001142269.3:c.1047C>T, NP_000812.2:p.Arg406=, NP_001135741.1:p.Arg349=, XM_005264259.1:c.1218C>T, XM_005264259.3:c.1218C>T, XM_011532764.1:c.396C>T, XM_011532765.1:c.396C>T, XP_005264316.1:p.Arg406=, XP_011531066.1:p.Arg132=, XP_011531067.1:p.Arg132=, XR_939677.1:n.1283C>T, rs118075290, rs61110673
G > A
SNP
R406R
No VIP available CA VA
rs699664 NC_000002.11:g.85780536C>T, NC_000002.12:g.85553413C>T, NG_011811.2:g.13122G>A, NM_000821.6:c.974G>A, NM_001142269.3:c.803G>A, NP_000812.2:p.Arg325Gln, NP_001135741.1:p.Arg268Gln, XM_005264259.1:c.974G>A, XM_005264259.3:c.974G>A, XM_011532764.1:c.152G>A, XM_011532765.1:c.152G>A, XP_005264316.1:p.Arg325Gln, XP_011531066.1:p.Arg51Gln, XP_011531067.1:p.Arg51Gln, XR_939677.1:n.1039G>A, rs116926260, rs17617541, rs386606475, rs52835631
C > T
SNP
R325Q
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Alternate Names:  vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase
Alternate Symbols:  VKCFD1
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA28660

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr2 : p12 - p11.2
GP mRNA Boundary: chr2 : 85771978 - 85788657
GP Gene Boundary: chr2 : 85768978 - 85798657
Strand: minus

Visualization

UCSC has a Genome Browser that you can use to view PharmGKB annotations for this gene in context with many other sources of information.

View on UCSC Browser
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Simplified diagram of the target of warfarin action and downstream genes and effects.

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Curated Information ?

Publications related to GGCX: 45

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The association between GGCX, miR-133 genetic polymorphisms and warfarin stable dosage in Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2017. Tang X-Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic determinants of variability in warfarin response after the dose-titration phase. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2016. Iwuchukwu Otito F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development of neuro-fuzzy model to explore gene-nutrient interactions modulating warfarin dose requirement. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Pavani Addepalli, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CFP4F2, and GGCX Gene Polymorphisms on Warfarin Dose in Japanese Pediatric Patients. Molecular diagnosis & therapy. 2016. Wakamiya Takuya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of GGCX, STX1B and FPGS Polymorphisms on Warfarin Dose Requirements in European-Americans and Egyptians. Clinical and translational science. 2016. Hamadeh I S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of polymorphisms of the GGCX gene on maintenance warfarin dose in Chinese populations: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta gene. 2015. Tian Lihong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 polymorphisms on stable warfarin doses in Korean patients with mechanical cardiac valves. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Chung Jee-Eun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in genes controlling warfarin disposition and response in American Indian and Alaska Native people: CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, CYP4F11, GGCX. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Fohner Alison E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
An acenocoumarol dosing algorithm exploiting clinical and genetic factors in South Indian (Dravidian) population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Krishna Kumar Dhakchinamoorthi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of gamma-glutamyl carboxylase gene polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirement: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Thrombosis research. 2015. Sun Yifan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin dosage response related pharmacogenetics in chinese population. PloS one. 2015. Li Siyue, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic determinants of acenocoumarol and warfarin maintenance dose requirements in Slavic population: A potential role of CYP4F2 and GGCX polymorphisms. Thrombosis research. 2014. Wypasek Ewa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of coumarin anticoagulants: algorithms for warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Verhoef Talitha I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP4F2 1347 G > A & GGCX 12970 C > G polymorphisms: frequency in north Indians & their effect on dosing of acenocoumarol oral anticoagulant. The Indian journal of medical research. 2014. Rathore Saurabh Singh, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX genetic variants on warfarin maintenance dose and explicating a new pharmacogenetic algorithm in South Indian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Krishna Kumar Dhakchinamoorthi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of genetic polymorphisms with warfarin dose requirements in Chinese patients. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2013. Liang Yundan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A pharmacogenetics-based warfarin maintenance dosing algorithm from northern chinese patients. PloS one. 2014. Chen Jinxing, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of GGCX gene polymorphism with warfarin dose in atrial fibrillation population in Xinjiang. Lipids in health and disease. 2013. Kamali Xiayizha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Retrospective evidence for clinical validity of expanded genetic model in warfarin dose optimization in a South Indian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Pavani Addepalli, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms on warfarin clearance and sensitivity in Korean patients with mechanical cardiac valves. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2012. Lee Kyung-Eun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Predicting warfarin dosage in European-Americans and African-Americans using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Ramirez Andrea H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of the GGCX (CAA)16/17 repeat polymorphism with higher warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Cavallari Larisa H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Copy number variation and warfarin dosing: evaluation of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX and CALU. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Therapeutic dosing of acenocoumarol: proposal of a population specific pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm and its validation in north Indians. PloS one. 2012. Rathore Saurabh Singh, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Prediction of phenprocoumon maintenance dose and phenprocoumon plasma concentration by genetic and non-genetic parameters. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Geisen Christof, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Proposal of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithm in Korean patients. Journal of human genetics. 2011. Choi Jung Ran, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic warfarin dosing tables versus algorithms. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2011. Finkelman Brian S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of GGCX genotype on warfarin dose requirements in Chinese patients. Thrombosis research. 2011. Huang Sheng-Wen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of pharmacokinetic (CYP2C9) and pharmacodynamic (VKORC1, F7, GGCX, CALU, EPHX1) gene variants on the initiation and maintenance phases of phenprocoumon therapy. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2011. Luxembourg Baete, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase and its influence on warfarin dose. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2010. King Cristi R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Comparative performance of gene-based warfarin dosing algorithms in a multiethnic population. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Lubitz S A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic determinants of acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon maintenance dose requirements. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Cadamuro Janne, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic factors (VKORC1, CYP2C9, EPHX1, and CYP4F2) are predictor variables for warfarin response in very elderly, frail inpatients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Pautas E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of clinical and genetic factors on warfarin dose requirements among Japanese patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Ohno Masako, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Familial deficiency of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2008. Weston B W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) tagSNPs have limited utility for predicting warfarin maintenance dose. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. Rieder M J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism. Human genetics. 2007. Wadelius Mia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like phenotype with cutis laxa and multiple coagulation factor deficiency represents a separate genetic entity. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2007. Vanakker Olivier M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
High-resolution SNP and haplotype maps of the human gamma-glutamyl carboxylase gene (GGCX) and association study between polymorphisms in GGCX and the warfarin maintenance dose requirement of the Japanese population. Journal of human genetics. 2007. Cha Pei-Chieng, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genotypes of vitamin K epoxide reductase, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, and cytochrome P450 2C9 as determinants of daily warfarin dose in Japanese patients. Thrombosis research. 2007. Kimura Rina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The influence of sequence variations in factor VII, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex genes on warfarin dose requirement. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2006. Herman Darja, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Combined genetic profiles of components and regulators of the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system affect individual sensitivity to warfarin. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2006. Vecsler Manuela, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Common genetic variants of microsomal epoxide hydrolase affect warfarin dose requirements beyond the effect of cytochrome P450 2C9. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Loebstein Ronen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Common VKORC1 and GGCX polymorphisms associated with warfarin dose. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Wadelius M, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

NCBI Gene:
2677
OMIM:
137167
277450
610842
UCSC Genome Browser:
NM_000821
RefSeq RNA:
NM_000821
NM_001142269
RefSeq Protein:
NP_000812
NP_001135741
RefSeq DNA:
NG_011811
NT_022184
UniProtKB:
B4DMC5_HUMAN (B4DMC5)
VKGC_HUMAN (P38435)
Ensembl:
ENSG00000115486
GenAtlas:
GGCX
GeneCard:
GGCX
MutDB:
GGCX
ALFRED:
LO174149A
HuGE:
GGCX
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
2677
ModBase:
P38435
HumanCyc Gene:
HS03897
HGNC:
4247

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