Gene:
VKORC1
vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1

Available Guidelines

  1. CPIC Guideline for warfarin and CYP2C9,VKORC1
  2. DPWG Guideline for acenocoumarol and VKORC1
  3. DPWG Guideline for phenprocoumon and VKORC1


last updated 02/07/2014

2. DPWG Guideline for acenocoumarol and VKORC1

Summary

While VKORC1 genotype has been found to contribute to acenocoumarol dose variability, there are no dosing recommendations at this time. Check INR more frequently in patients with the AA genotype at rs9934438.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.




Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for warfarin and CYP2C9,PROC,PROS1,VKORC1
  2. HCSC Label for warfarin and CYP2C9,VKORC1

last updated 06/20/2016

1. FDA Label for warfarin and CYP2C9,PROC,PROS1,VKORC1

Actionable PGx

Summary

Warfarin (Coumadin) is an anticoagulant used as a prophylaxis and to treat venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, thromboembolic complications from atrial fibrillationa and cardiac valve replacement, and to reduce the recurrence of myocardial infarction. The FDA recommends genetic testing for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants prior to initiating treatment with warfarin. The drug label notes that deficiency in protein C (PROC) or protein S (PROS1) have been associated with tissue necrosis following warfarin administration.

Annotation

The VKORC1:G-1639A polymorphism is associated with lower dose requirements for warfarin in Caucasian and Asian patients. Increased bleeding risk and lower initial warfarin dose requirements have been associated with the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles. Approximately 30% of the variance in warfarin dose could be attributed to genetic variation in VKORC1, and about 40% of dose variance could be explained taking into consideration both VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms. Accounting for genetic variation in both VKORC1 and CYP2C9, age, height, body weight, interacting drugs, and indication for warfarin therapy explained about 55% of the variability in warfarin dose. The drug label also notes that hereditary or acquired deficiency of protein C (encoded by the PROC gene) or protein S (PROS1) have been associated with tissue necrosis following administration of warfarin.

Excerpts from the warfarin drug label:

The patient's CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype information, when available, can assist in selection of the starting dose. Table 5 describes the range of stable maintenance doses observed in multiple patients having different combinations of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene variants. Consider these ranges in choosing the initial dose.

Known or suspected deficiency in protein C mediated anticoagulant response: Hereditary or acquired deficiencies of protein C or its cofactor, protein S, have been associated with tissue necrosis following warfarin administration.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the warfarin drug label. Pharmacogenomics-related dosing information is found in Table 5 on page 27.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the FDA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Full label available at DailyMed

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label

  • Arteriosclerosis
    • Warnings section
    • source: PHONT
  • Atrial Fibrillation
    • Indications & usage section
    • source: PHONT
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic
    • Precautions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Chondrodysplasia Punctata
    • Contraindications section
    • source: PHONT
  • Death
    • Contraindications section, Warnings section
    • source: PHONT
  • Death, Sudden, Cardiac
    • Indications & usage section, Warnings section
    • source: PHONT
  • Heart Diseases
    • Contraindications section, Precautions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Hemorrhage
    • Contraindications section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section, Precautions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Myocardial Infarction
    • Indications & usage section
    • source: PHONT
  • Neoplasms
    • Contraindications section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section, Precautions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Peripheral Vascular Diseases
    • Warnings section
    • source: PHONT
  • Pulmonary Embolism
    • Indications & usage section
    • source: PHONT
  • Stroke
    • Indications & usage section
    • source: PHONT
  • Thromboembolism
    • Contraindications section, Warnings section
    • source: PHONT
  • Thrombosis
    • Indications & usage section, Warnings section, Precautions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Venous Thrombosis
    • Warnings section
    • source: PHONT
  • Ventricular Fibrillation
    • Indications & usage section
    • source: PHONT
  • CYP2C9
    • dosage, metabolism/PK, Dosage & administration section, Clinical pharmacology section, Precautions section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • VKORC1
    • dosage, efficacy, Dosage & administration section, Clinical pharmacology section, Precautions section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

last updated 06/08/2015

2. HCSC Label for warfarin and CYP2C9,VKORC1

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for warfarin (COUMADIN) notes that patients carrying one or two copies of the CYP2C9*2 or *3 alleles may require a decreased mean daily warfarin dose, and have an increased bleeding risk, as compared to those homozygous for the CYP2C9*1 allele. Additionally, variations in the VKORC1 gene, such as -1639G>A, are also associated with changes in the dose requirement of warfarin.

Annotation

Warfarin (COUMADIN) is an anticoagulant. Excerpts from the warfarin (COUMADIN) product monograph:

A meta-analysis of 9 qualified studies including 2775 patients (99% Caucasian)...suggested an increased bleeding risk for patients carrying either the CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 alleles. Patients carrying at least one copy of the CYP2C9*2 allele required a mean daily warfarin dose that was 17% less than the mean daily dose for patients homozygous for the CYP2C9*1 allele. For patients carrying at least one copy of the CYP2C9*3 allele, the mean daily warfarin dose was 37% less than the mean daily dose for patients homozygous for the CYP2C9*1 allele.

In an observational study...in 219 Swedish patients...The relative risk of over anticoagulation as measured by INR >3 during the first 2 weeks of therapy was approximately doubled for those patients classified as *2 or *3 compared to patients who were homozygous for the *1 allele.

Certain single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VKORC1 gene (especially the -1639G>A allele) have been associated with lower dose requirements for warfarin. In 201 Caucasian patients treated with stable warfarin doses, genetic variations in the VKORC1 gene were associated with lower warfarin doses. In this study, about 30% of the variance in warfarin dose could be attributed to variations in the VKORC1 gene alone; about 40% of the variance in warfarin dose could be attributed to variations in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genes combined. About 55% of the variability in warfarin dose could be explained by the combination of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes, age, height, body weight, interacting drugs and indication for warfarin therapy in Caucasian patients. Similar observations have been reported in Asian patients.

For the complete product monograph text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the warfarin product monograph.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by HCSC and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.


Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below. Please follow the link in the "Position" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Position" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

List of all variant annotations for VKORC1

Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA H1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA H2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA H7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA H8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA H9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs104894539 NC_000016.10:g.31094645C>A, NC_000016.9:g.31105966C>A, NG_011564.1:g.5311G>T, NM_001311311.1:c.85G>T, NM_024006.4:c.85G>T, NM_024006.5:c.85G>T, NM_206824.2:c.85G>T, NP_001298240.1:p.Val29Leu, NP_076869.1:p.Val29Leu, NP_996560.1:p.Val29Leu, XM_005255568.1:c.85G>T, XM_011545943.1:c.85G>T, XM_011545944.1:c.85G>T, XM_011545945.1:c.85G>T, XP_005255625.1:p.Val29Leu, XP_011544245.1:p.Val29Leu, XP_011544246.1:p.Val29Leu, XP_011544247.1:p.Val29Leu, XR_243303.1:n.734G>T, XR_950848.1:n.873G>T
C > A
SNP
V29L
No VIP available CA VA
rs104894540 NC_000016.10:g.31094596A>G, NC_000016.9:g.31105917A>G, NG_011564.1:g.5360T>C, NM_001311311.1:c.134T>C, NM_024006.4:c.134T>C, NM_024006.5:c.134T>C, NM_206824.2:c.134T>C, NP_001298240.1:p.Val45Ala, NP_076869.1:p.Val45Ala, NP_996560.1:p.Val45Ala, XM_005255568.1:c.134T>C, XM_011545943.1:c.134T>C, XM_011545944.1:c.134T>C, XM_011545945.1:c.134T>C, XP_005255625.1:p.Val45Ala, XP_011544245.1:p.Val45Ala, XP_011544246.1:p.Val45Ala, XP_011544247.1:p.Val45Ala, XR_243303.1:n.783T>C, XR_950848.1:n.922T>C, rs28940303
A > G
SNP
V45A
No VIP available CA VA
rs104894541 NC_000016.10:g.31094558T>C, NC_000016.9:g.31105879T>C, NG_011564.1:g.5398A>G, NM_001311311.1:c.172A>G, NM_024006.4:c.172A>G, NM_024006.5:c.172A>G, NM_206824.2:c.172A>G, NP_001298240.1:p.Arg58Gly, NP_076869.1:p.Arg58Gly, NP_996560.1:p.Arg58Gly, XM_005255568.1:c.172A>G, XM_011545943.1:c.172A>G, XM_011545944.1:c.172A>G, XM_011545945.1:c.172A>G, XP_005255625.1:p.Arg58Gly, XP_011544245.1:p.Arg58Gly, XP_011544246.1:p.Arg58Gly, XP_011544247.1:p.Arg58Gly, XR_243303.1:n.821A>G, XR_950848.1:n.960A>G, rs28940304
T > C
SNP
R58G
No VIP available CA VA
rs104894542 NC_000016.10:g.31091243A>C, NC_000016.9:g.31102564A>C, NG_011564.1:g.8713T>G, NM_001311311.1:c.467T>G, NM_024006.4:c.383T>G, NM_024006.5:c.383T>G, NM_206824.2:c.273T>G, NP_001298240.1:p.Leu156Arg, NP_076869.1:p.Leu128Arg, NP_996560.1:p.Ala91=, XM_005255568.1:c.467T>G, XM_011545816.1:c.-2434T>G, XM_011545817.1:c.-2434T>G, XM_011545818.1:c.-2434T>G, XM_011545819.1:c.-2434T>G, XM_011545820.1:c.-2434T>G, XM_011545943.1:c.467T>G, XM_011545944.1:c.383T>G, XM_011545945.1:c.273T>G, XP_005255625.1:p.Leu156Arg, XP_011544245.1:p.Leu156Arg, XP_011544246.1:p.Leu128Arg, XP_011544247.1:p.Ala91=, XR_243303.1:n.932T>G, XR_950848.1:n.1171T>G, rs28940305
A > C
SNP
L156A/R
No VIP available CA VA
rs11150606 NC_000016.10:g.31087690T>C, NC_000016.9:g.31099011T>C, NM_001039503.2:c.89A>G, NP_001034592.1:p.Gln30Arg, XM_005255293.1:c.89A>G, XM_005255294.1:c.-530A>G, XM_011545816.1:c.89A>G, XM_011545817.1:c.89A>G, XM_011545818.1:c.89A>G, XM_011545819.1:c.89A>G, XM_011545820.1:c.89A>G, XP_005255350.1:p.Gln30Arg, XP_011544118.1:p.Gln30Arg, XP_011544119.1:p.Gln30Arg, XP_011544120.1:p.Gln30Arg, XP_011544121.1:p.Gln30Arg, XP_011544122.1:p.Gln30Arg
T > C
SNP
Q30R
No VIP available CA VA
rs17708472 NC_000016.10:g.31094032G>A, NC_000016.9:g.31105353G>A, NG_011564.1:g.5924C>T, NM_001311311.1:c.173+525C>T, NM_024006.5:c.173+525C>T, NM_206824.2:c.173+525C>T, XM_005255568.1:c.173+525C>T, XM_011545943.1:c.173+525C>T, XM_011545944.1:c.173+525C>T, XM_011545945.1:c.173+525C>T, XR_243303.1:n.822+525C>T, XR_950848.1:n.961+525C>T, rs386544324
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs17878544 NC_000016.10:g.31096606T>C, NC_000016.9:g.31107927T>C, NG_011564.1:g.3350A>G, NM_001311311.1:c.-1877A>G, NM_024006.5:c.-1877A>G, NM_206824.2:c.-1877A>G, XM_005255568.1:c.-1877A>G, XM_011545943.1:c.-1877A>G, XM_011545944.1:c.-1490A>G, XM_011545945.1:c.-1490A>G, XR_243303.1:n.-1228A>G, XR_950848.1:n.-269A>G
T > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs17880887 NC_000016.10:g.31099180G>T, NC_000016.9:g.31110501G>T, NG_011564.1:g.776C>A
G > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs17886199 NC_000016.10:g.31093126A>G, NC_000016.9:g.31104447A>G, NG_011564.1:g.6830T>C, NM_001311311.1:c.283+186T>C, NM_024006.5:c.283+186T>C, NM_206824.2:c.173+1431T>C, XM_005255568.1:c.283+186T>C, XM_011545943.1:c.283+186T>C, XM_011545944.1:c.283+186T>C, XM_011545945.1:c.173+1431T>C, XR_243303.1:n.832+186T>C, XR_950848.1:n.1071+186T>C
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2359612 NC_000016.10:g.31092475A>G, NC_000016.9:g.31103796A>G, NG_011564.1:g.7481T>C, NM_001311311.1:c.367+308T>C, NM_024006.5:c.283+837T>C, NM_206824.2:c.174-1133T>C, XM_005255568.1:c.367+308T>C, XM_011545943.1:c.367+308T>C, XM_011545944.1:c.283+837T>C, XM_011545945.1:c.174-1133T>C, XR_243303.1:n.832+837T>C, XR_950848.1:n.1071+837T>C, rs17884333
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2884737 NC_000016.10:g.31094233A>C, NC_000016.9:g.31105554A>C, NG_011564.1:g.5723T>G, NM_001311311.1:c.173+324T>G, NM_024006.5:c.173+324T>G, NM_206824.2:c.173+324T>G, XM_005255568.1:c.173+324T>G, XM_011545943.1:c.173+324T>G, XM_011545944.1:c.173+324T>G, XM_011545945.1:c.173+324T>G, XR_243303.1:n.822+324T>G, XR_950848.1:n.961+324T>G, rs17882154
A > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs55894764 NC_000016.10:g.31094694C>T, NC_000016.9:g.31106015C>T, NG_011564.1:g.5262G>A, NM_001311311.1:c.36G>A, NM_024006.5:c.36G>A, NM_206824.2:c.36G>A, NP_001298240.1:p.Arg12=, NP_076869.1:p.Arg12=, NP_996560.1:p.Arg12=, XM_005255568.1:c.36G>A, XM_011545943.1:c.36G>A, XM_011545944.1:c.36G>A, XM_011545945.1:c.36G>A, XP_005255625.1:p.Arg12=, XP_011544245.1:p.Arg12=, XP_011544246.1:p.Arg12=, XP_011544247.1:p.Arg12=, XR_243303.1:n.685G>A, XR_950848.1:n.824G>A
C > T
SNP
R12R
No VIP available CA VA
rs61162043 NC_000016.10:g.31102913A>G, NC_000016.9:g.31114234A>G
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs61742245 NC_000016.10:g.31094624C>A, NC_000016.9:g.31105945C>A, NG_011564.1:g.5332G>T, NM_001311311.1:c.106G>T, NM_024006.4:c.106G>T, NM_024006.5:c.106G>T, NM_206824.2:c.106G>T, NP_001298240.1:p.Asp36Tyr, NP_076869.1:p.Asp36Tyr, NP_996560.1:p.Asp36Tyr, XM_005255568.1:c.106G>T, XM_011545943.1:c.106G>T, XM_011545944.1:c.106G>T, XM_011545945.1:c.106G>T, XP_005255625.1:p.Asp36Tyr, XP_011544245.1:p.Asp36Tyr, XP_011544246.1:p.Asp36Tyr, XP_011544247.1:p.Asp36Tyr, XR_243303.1:n.755G>T, XR_950848.1:n.894G>T, rs104894543
C > A
SNP
D36Y
No VIP available CA VA
rs7196161 NC_000016.10:g.31099660G>A, NC_000016.9:g.31110981G>A, NG_011564.1:g.296C>T, rs17882285
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs7200749 NC_000016.10:g.31091268G>A, NC_000016.9:g.31102589G>A, NG_011564.1:g.8688C>T, NM_001311311.1:c.442C>T, NM_024006.5:c.358C>T, NM_206824.2:c.248C>T, NP_001298240.1:p.Leu148=, NP_076869.1:p.Leu120=, NP_996560.1:p.Pro83Leu, XM_005255568.1:c.442C>T, XM_011545816.1:c.-2459C>T, XM_011545817.1:c.-2459C>T, XM_011545818.1:c.-2459C>T, XM_011545819.1:c.-2459C>T, XM_011545820.1:c.-2459C>T, XM_011545943.1:c.442C>T, XM_011545944.1:c.358C>T, XM_011545945.1:c.248C>T, XP_005255625.1:p.Leu148=, XP_011544245.1:p.Leu148=, XP_011544246.1:p.Leu120=, XP_011544247.1:p.Pro83Leu, XR_243303.1:n.907C>T, XR_950848.1:n.1146C>T, rs17881770, rs59562965
G > A
SNP
L148L
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72547529 NC_000016.10:g.31093399C>T, NC_000016.9:g.31104720C>T, NG_011564.1:g.6557G>A, NM_001311311.1:c.196G>A, NM_024006.5:c.196G>A, NM_206824.2:c.173+1158G>A, NP_001298240.1:p.Val66Met, NP_076869.1:p.Val66Met, XM_005255568.1:c.196G>A, XM_011545943.1:c.196G>A, XM_011545944.1:c.196G>A, XM_011545945.1:c.173+1158G>A, XP_005255625.1:p.Val66Met, XP_011544245.1:p.Val66Met, XP_011544246.1:p.Val66Met, XR_243303.1:n.823-78G>A, XR_950848.1:n.984G>A
C > T
SNP
V66M
rs7294 NC_000016.10:g.31091000C>T, NC_000016.9:g.31102321C>T, NG_011564.1:g.8956G>A, NM_001311311.1:c.*134G>A, NM_024006.5:c.*134G>A, NM_206824.2:c.*237G>A, XM_005255568.1:c.*134G>A, XM_011545816.1:c.-2191G>A, XM_011545817.1:c.-2191G>A, XM_011545818.1:c.-2191G>A, XM_011545819.1:c.-2191G>A, XM_011545820.1:c.-2191G>A, XM_011545943.1:c.*134G>A, XM_011545944.1:c.*134G>A, XM_011545945.1:c.*237G>A, XR_243303.1:n.1175G>A, XR_950848.1:n.1414G>A, rs17880624, rs59098562
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs749671 NC_000016.10:g.31077026G>A, NC_000016.9:g.31088347G>A, NM_014699.3:c.702G>A, NP_055514.3:p.Glu234=, XM_005255710.1:c.702G>A, XM_005255710.2:c.702G>A, XM_005255711.1:c.702G>A, XM_005255711.2:c.702G>A, XM_005255712.1:c.702G>A, XM_005255712.2:c.702G>A, XM_011545990.1:c.702G>A, XP_005255767.1:p.Glu234=, XP_005255768.1:p.Glu234=, XP_005255769.1:p.Glu234=, XP_011544292.1:p.Glu234=, rs17846139, rs17859147, rs386610694
G > A
SNP
E234E
No VIP available CA VA
rs8050894 NC_000016.10:g.31093188C>G, NC_000016.9:g.31104509C>G, NG_011564.1:g.6768G>C, NM_001311311.1:c.283+124G>C, NM_024006.5:c.283+124G>C, NM_206824.2:c.173+1369G>C, XM_005255568.1:c.283+124G>C, XM_011545943.1:c.283+124G>C, XM_011545944.1:c.283+124G>C, XM_011545945.1:c.173+1369G>C, XR_243303.1:n.832+124G>C, XR_950848.1:n.1071+124G>C, rs17886369
C > G
C > T
SNP
rs9923231 NC_000016.10:g.31096368C=, NC_000016.10:g.31096368C>T, NC_000016.9:g.31107689C=, NC_000016.9:g.31107689C>T, NG_011564.1:g.3588G=, NG_011564.1:g.3588G>A, NM_001311311.1:c.-1639G=, NM_001311311.1:c.-1639G>A, NM_024006.5:c.-1639G=, NM_024006.5:c.-1639G>A, NM_206824.2:c.-1639G=, NM_206824.2:c.-1639G>A, XM_005255568.1:c.-1639G=, XM_005255568.1:c.-1639G>A, XM_011545943.1:c.-1639G=, XM_011545943.1:c.-1639G>A, XM_011545944.1:c.-1252G=, XM_011545944.1:c.-1252G>A, XM_011545945.1:c.-1252G=, XM_011545945.1:c.-1252G>A, XR_243303.1:n.-990G=, XR_243303.1:n.-990G>A, XR_950848.1:n.-31G=, XR_950848.1:n.-31G>A, rs117572127, rs17878363, rs60511154
C > A
C > G
C > T
SNP
rs9934438 NC_000016.10:g.31093557G>A, NC_000016.9:g.31104878G>A, NG_011564.1:g.6399C>T, NM_001311311.1:c.174-136C>T, NM_024006.5:c.174-136C>T, NM_206824.2:c.173+1000C>T, XM_005255568.1:c.174-136C>T, XM_011545943.1:c.174-136C>T, XM_011545944.1:c.174-136C>T, XM_011545945.1:c.173+1000C>T, XR_243303.1:n.823-236C>T, XR_950848.1:n.962-136C>T, rs17641219
G > A
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Alternate Names:  VKCFD2
Alternate Symbols:  None
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA133787052

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr16 : p11.2 - p11.2
GP mRNA Boundary: chr16 : 31102175 - 31106699
GP Gene Boundary: chr16 : 31099175 - 31116699
Strand: minus

Visualization

UCSC has a Genome Browser that you can use to view PharmGKB annotations for this gene in context with many other sources of information.

View on UCSC Browser
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Introductory Information

The VKORC1 gene encodes the VKORC1 (Vitamin K epoxide reductase) protein, which is a key enzyme in the Vitamin K cycle [Articles:14765194, 14765195]. VKORC1 is a 163 amino acid integral membrane protein associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, and VKORC1 mRNA is broadly expressed in many different tissues [Article:16677080]. VKORC1 is predicted to have at least one, and most likely three transmembrane domains. Several studies have highlighted candidate residues that likely form the active site [Articles:17124179, 16270630, 15514077, 15276181]. VKORC1 is responsible for the conversion of Vitamin K-epoxide to Vitamin K, which is the rate-limiting step in the physiological process of Vitamin K recycling [Articles:15640149, 16030016]. The availability of reduced Vitamin K is of particular importance for several coagulation factor proteins that require it as a cofactor, including Factor VII, Factor IX, and Factor X [Article:16102054]. VKORC1 is of therapeutic interest both for its role in contributing to high interpatient variability in coumarin anticoagulant dose requirements and as a potential player in vitamin K-deficiency disorders [Article:14765194].

Warfarin

Warfarin is a commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant used to prevent thromboembolic diseases in patients with deep vein thrombosis, atrial fibrillation, recurrent stroke or heart valve prosthesis [Article:16960144]. Warfarin, as well as other coumarin type drugs with similar mechanisms of action, act as inhibitors of VKORC1, which physiologically leads to a reduced amount of Vitamin K available to serve as a cofactor for clotting proteins [Article:14765194]. One of the goals of warfarin therapy is to maintain a stable international normalized ratio (INR), typically of 2.0-3.0 [Articles:15597574, 15865594, 15938684]. INR is a clinically defined measure that should give similar values independent of the laboratory that conducts the measurement. Commercial warfarin is administered as a racemic mixture of its R and S enantiomers [Article:17124101]. The metabolic fates of the two enantiomers are different [Article:17124101]. The more potent S-warfarin is metabolized primarily by CYP2C9, and is excreted in the bile, whereas the R-warfarin enantiomer is metabolized by other members of the cytochrome P450 family and is excreted in the urine [Article:17124101]. Although effective, warfarin dosing is challengIng due to its narrow therapeutic index and high degree of inter-individual variability in optimal dosing (between 0.6 and 15.5 mg/day) [Articles:11926893, 12931134, 15358623, 15930419, 16888441]. Inappropriate dosing of warfarin has been associated with a substantial risk of both major and minor hemorrhage [Articles:16960144, 16983400, 16888441, 14765195]. As the pharmacological target of warfarin, VKORC1 is considered a candidate gene for the variability in warfarin response [Article:9684798].

Cloning of VKORC1

Although VKORC1 activity was described as early as the 1970s [Article:5497142], it would prove resistant to all cloning efforts until 2004 when it was cloned by two different groups [Articles:14765194, 14765195]. The eventual cloning of VKORC1 set off an avalanche of studies that examined the role of genetic variation of VKORC1 in warfarin resistance (see important variants of warfarin for tables containing PMIDs). The subsequent examination of VKORC1 variants has shown that polymorphisms in the VKORC1 gene are associated with high and low warfarin dose phenotypes in humans [Articles:17110455, 17124101].

Factors in warfarin resistance

The high degree of inter-individual variation in the response to warfarin has lead to many studies that have attempted to explain the factors that influence warfarin response [Articles:17161452, 16960144, 16888441, 16722840]. Prior to the cloning and characterization of VKORC1, it was known that the CYP2C9 genotype of patients played a role in warfarin metabolism and subsequent response [Articles:11127854, 14676821]. The CYP2C9 genotype of the patients explained ~10% of the observed variability in the therapeutic warfarin dose [Articles:11127854, 14676821]. However, more recent studies have consistently shown that VKORC1 genotype appears to be the single biggest predictor of warfarin dose [Articles:17161452, 17111199, 17048007, 17015052, 16815313]. Overall, VKORC1 polymorphisms account for ~25% of the variance in stabilized warfarin dose [Articles:16815312, 18535201]. Although the genotype of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are clearly the most important genetic factors for warfarin response, other studies have shown a minor association with genetic variation in other genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE) [Articles:16847429, 17048007, 17112295], and the vitamin K cycle genes GGCX [Articles:16676068, 17048007, 17049586, 17112295, 17189218] and CALU [Article:17189218]. Other, non-genetic factors including age, BMI, gender, weight, and INR are also known to play a role in warfarin response and collectively contribute to ~20% of variance in dose [Articles:17042764, 17015052, 16493479]. Some studies have attempted to define a warfarin dosing algorithm that takes into account both genetic and non-genetic factors in order to predict an optimal warfarin dose [Articles:17111199, 17042764, 17015052, 15947090]. In 2007, pharmacogenomic information for warfarin was approved by FDA to be included in the product label stating that VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes may be useful in determining the optimal initial dose of warfarin [Article:17906972]. A number of large scale randomized clinical trials are now in progress to develop a globally applicable dosing strategy for warfarin.

VKORC1 variants

Several studies in independent populations have shown the importance of genetic variation in VKORC1, and a few important polymorphisms and haplotypes have been defined [Articles:15930419, 16270629, 16869821]. In the sections that follow, we summarize the importance of three of the most common and well-studied VKORC1 polymorphisms in detail. However, there have been several studies that examined the influence of rare VKORC1 variants, or variants that were more common in special populations that we do not review [Articles:17110455, 17059426, 15978113, 15630486, 15358623].

Citation VKORC1 pharmacogenomics summary. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Owen Ryan P, Gong Li, Sagreiya Hersh, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Ryan Owen, Li Gong (PharmGKB)

Variant Summaries rs7294, rs9923231, rs9934438
Haplotype Summaries VKORC1*2, H1 and H2, Haplotype group A, VKORC1*3, VKORC1*1 , VKORC1*4
Drugs
Diseases

Haplotype Overview

There are two ways of reporting VKORC1 haplotypes: the H haplotypes as defined by Reider et al (2005) [Article:15930419] and star haplotypes as described by Geisen et al (2005) [Article:16270629]. Please note the H haplotypes can be further grouped into the low-dose haplotype group (A, include H1, H2) and a high dose haplotype group (B, include H7,H8,H9) [Article:15930419].

Source: PharmGKB

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Simplified diagram of the target of warfarin action and downstream genes and effects.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this gene. To report a pathway, click here.

Curated Information ?

Evidence Gene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APOE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP4F2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GGCX
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
PRSS53

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
abacavir
acenocoumarol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
alemtuzumab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
alfentanil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
amiodarone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
amitriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
amlodipine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
anastrozole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
aripiprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
arsenic trioxide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
aspirin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
atenolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
atomoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
atorvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
azathioprine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
boceprevir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
busulfan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
caffeine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
capecitabine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
carbamazepine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
carisoprodol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
carvedilol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
celecoxib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cetuximab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cevimeline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
chloroquine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
citalopram
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clobazam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clomipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clopidogrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clozapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
codeine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
coumarin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
crizotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cyclosporine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dabigatran
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dapsone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dasatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
daunorubicin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
desipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dextromethorphan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
diazepam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
doxepin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
erlotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
esomeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
exemestane
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
flecainide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
flucloxacillin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
fluindione
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fluorouracil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fluoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
flurbiprofen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fluticasone propionate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fulvestrant
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
furosemide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
gefitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
gemcitabine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
gemtuzumab ozogamicin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
haloperidol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
hydralazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
hydrochlorothiazide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
iloperidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
imatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
imipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
indacaterol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
interferon alfa-2a, recombinant
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
irinotecan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
isoniazid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ivacaftor
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lansoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lapatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lenalidomide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
letrozole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
levothyroxine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lisinopril
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
losartan
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lovastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
maraviroc
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
mercaptopurine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
metformin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
methotrexate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
metoprolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
modafinil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
morphine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
mycophenolate mofetil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nelfinavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nilotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nortriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
olanzapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
omeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
oxaliplatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
oxycodone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pamidronate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
panitumumab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pantoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
paroxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
peginterferon alfa-2a
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
peginterferon alfa-2b
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
perphenazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pertuzumab
DG No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
phenprocoumon
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
phenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pimozide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pitavastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
prasugrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pravastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
prednisone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
primaquine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
procainamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
propafenone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
propranolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
protriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
quinidine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rabeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ramipril
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rasburicase
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ribavirin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rifampin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
risperidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rosuvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sertraline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
simvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sirolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sorafenib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
sunitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tacrolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tegafur
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
telaprevir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
temsirolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
terbinafine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tetrabenazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
thioguanine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
thioridazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ticagrelor
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
timolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tiotropium
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tolterodine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
toremifene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tramadol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tranilast
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
trastuzumab
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tretinoin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
trimipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
valproic acid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
vemurafenib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
venlafaxine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
voriconazole
warfarin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
zoledronate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
zuclopenthixol

Curated Information ?

Evidence Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Acute coronary syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
adverse events
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Agranulocytosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Alcoholism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arteriosclerosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
Atrial Fibrillation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Atrial Flutter
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Bipolar Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Breast Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Brugada syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Coagulation Protein Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Colonic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Colorectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Coronary Artery Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Coronary Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Crohn Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cystic Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Death
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Death, Sudden, Cardiac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Depression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Hypersensitivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epidermal Necrolysis, Toxic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Esophagitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gilbert's syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Graft vs Host Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Failure
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Valve Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
heart valve replacement
Hemorrhage
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIV Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperbilirubinemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypercholesterolemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypersensitivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperthyroidism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypothyroidism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Intracranial Hemorrhages
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Kidney Transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Nonlymphocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Long QT Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lung Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Muscular Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mycoses
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myocardial Infarction
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myopathy, Central Core
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasm Metastasis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nephrotoxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ocular Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Osteonecrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
over-anticoagulation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pain
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Embolism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Rheumatic Heart Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Schizophrenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sjogren's Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stroke
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sudden Infant Death
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tardive dyskinesia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thromboembolism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thrombosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thyrotoxicosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
time above therapeutic range
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
time in therapeutic range
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
time to achieve stable dose
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
time to therapeutic inr
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Torsades de Pointes
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Urinary Incontinence
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Vascular Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
venous thromboembolism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Venous Thrombosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ventricular Fibrillation

Publications related to VKORC1: 329

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variations of phenprocoumon metabolism in patients with ventricular assist devices. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. 2016. Brehm Kerstin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase on the variability in stable warfarin maintenance dose in Han Chinese. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Zeng Wu-Tao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic determinants of warfarin maintenance dose and time in therapeutic treatment range: a RE-LY genomics substudy. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Eriksson Niclas, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 Polymorphisms on Daily Acenocoumarol Dose Requirement in South Indian Patients With Mechanical Heart Valves. Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2016. Kalpana S R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Factors influencing quality of anticoagulation control and warfarin dosage in patients after aortic valve replacement within the 3 months of follow up. Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society. 2016. Wypasek E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CFP4F2, and GGCX Gene Polymorphisms on Warfarin Dose in Japanese Pediatric Patients. Molecular diagnosis & therapy. 2016. Wakamiya Takuya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development and Comparison of Warfarin Dosing Algorithms in Stroke Patients. Yonsei medical journal. 2016. Cho Sun Mi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
An expanded pharmacogenomics warfarin dosing table with utility in generalised dosing guidance. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2016. Shahabi Payman, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirements in a pediatric population. Anatolian journal of cardiology. 2016. Dilge Taşkın Birce, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 with bleeding following warfarin: A case-control study. Current clinical pharmacology. 2016. Thatte Urmila. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Artificial neural network-based pharmacogenomic algorithm for warfarin dose optimization. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Pavani Addepalli, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
High prevalence of VKORC1*3 (G9041A) genetic polymorphism in north Indians: A study on patients with cardiac disorders on acenocoumarol. Drug discoveries & therapeutics. 2016. Sehgal Tushar, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A multi-factorial analysis of response to warfarin in a UK prospective cohort. Genome medicine. 2016. Bourgeois Stephane, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A New Pharmacogenetic Algorithm to Predict the Most Appropriate Dosage of Acenocoumarol for Stable Anticoagulation in a Mixed Spanish Population. PloS one. 2016. Tong Hoi Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A Novel Admixture-Based Pharmacogenetic Approach to Refine Warfarin Dosing in Caribbean Hispanics. PloS one. 2016. Duconge Jorge, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Prediction of Warfarin Dose in Pediatric Patients: An Evaluation of the Predictive Performance of Several Models. The journal of pediatric pharmacology and therapeutics : JPPT : the official journal of PPAG. 2016. Marek Elizabeth, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
VKORC1 gene polymorphisms and adverse events in Croatian patients on warfarin therapy. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2015. Mandic Dario, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genotype-guided therapy improves initial acenocoumarol dosing. Results from a prospective randomised study. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2015. Cerezo-Manchado Juan Jose, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The influence of VKORC1 gene polymorphism on warfarin maintenance dosage in pediatric patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Thrombosis research. 2015. Zhang Jinhua, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic Allele Nomenclature: International Workgroup Recommendations for Test Result Reporting. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2015. Kalman Lisa V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison of genetic variation in drug ADME-related genes in Thais with Caucasian, African and Asian HapMap populations. Journal of human genetics. 2015. Jittikoon Jiraphun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin resistance associated with genetic polymorphism of VKORC1: linking clinical response to molecular mechanism using computational modeling. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Lewis Benjamin C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 polymorphisms on stable warfarin doses in Korean patients with mechanical cardiac valves. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Chung Jee-Eun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide association study of warfarin maintenance dose in a Brazilian sample. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Parra Esteban J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Race influences warfarin dose changes associated with genetic factors. Blood. 2015. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development of a pharmacogenetic-based warfarin dosing algorithm and its performance in Brazilian patients: highlighting the importance of population-specific calibration. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Santos Paulo Caleb Junior Lima, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The Influence of VKORC1 Polymorphisms on Warfarin Doses in Thai Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. 2015. Sermsathanasawadi Nuttawut, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Evidence for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics in Cardiac Drugs. Mayo Clinic proceedings. 2015. Kaufman Amy L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Application of Genotype-guided Dosing of Warfarin in Patients with Acute Stroke. Archives of medical research. 2015. Šupe Svjetlana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in genes controlling warfarin disposition and response in American Indian and Alaska Native people: CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, CYP4F11, GGCX. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Fohner Alison E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithm decreases time to stable anticoagulation and the risk of major hemorrhage: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2015. Wang Zhi-Quan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Alcohol misuse, genetics, and major bleeding among warfarin therapy patients in a community setting. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2015. Roth Joshua A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical benefits of pharmacogenetic algorithm-based warfarin dosing: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Thrombosis research. 2015. Li Xiaoqi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetics and the clinical response to warfarin and edoxaban: findings from the randomised, double-blind ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial. Lancet. 2015. Mega Jessica L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Factors affecting time to maintenance dose in patients initiating warfarin. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2015. Finkelman Brian S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
An acenocoumarol dosing algorithm exploiting clinical and genetic factors in South Indian (Dravidian) population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Krishna Kumar Dhakchinamoorthi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms of CYP2C9, VKORC1, MDR1, APOE and UGT1A1 Genes and the Therapeutic Warfarin Dose in Brazilian Patients with Thrombosis: A Prospective Cohort Study. Molecular diagnosis & therapy. 2014. de Oliveira Almeida Vanessa Cristina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genotype and risk of major bleeding during warfarin treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Kawai Vivian K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Predicting paclitaxel-induced neutropenia using the DMET platform. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Nieuweboer Annemieke J M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Universal versus genotype-guided use of direct oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation patients: a decision analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. You Joyce H S. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Validation of warfarin pharmacogenetic algorithms in 586 Han Chinese patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Peng Qi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A Randomized Trial of Pharmacogenetic Warfarin Dosing in Naïve Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation. PloS one. 2015. Pengo Vittorio, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison of Nine Statistical Model Based Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Dosing Algorithms Using the Racially Diverse International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium Cohort Database. PloS one. 2015. Liu Rong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin dosage response related pharmacogenetics in chinese population. PloS one. 2015. Li Siyue, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin pharmacogenetics: it matters if you're black or white. Blood. 2014. Wadelius Mia. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Extremely elevated international normalized ratio of warfarin in a patient with CYP2C9*1/*3 and thyrotoxicosis. Journal of Korean medical science. 2014. Lee Ji Eun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2C9-VKORC1 interaction on warfarin stable dosage and its predictive algorithm. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Li Xi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects on bleeding complications of pharmacogenetic testing for initial dosing of vitamin K antagonists: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2014. Franchini M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic association study of warfarin safety endpoints in Puerto Ricans. Puerto Rico health sciences journal. 2014. Valentín Isa I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics role in the safety of acenocoumarol therapy. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2014. Jiménez-Varo E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin pharmacogenetics. Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2014. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prediction of stable acenocoumarol dose by a pharmacogenetic algorithm. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Jiménez-Varo Enrique, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Characterizing variability in warfarin dose requirements in children using modelling and simulation. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Hamberg Anna-Karin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic epidemiology of pharmacogenetic variations in CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and VKORC1 genes associated with warfarin dosage in the Indian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Giri Anil K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of GATA4 variants on stable warfarin doses in patients with prosthetic heart valves. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Jeong E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of warfarin in a paediatric population: time in therapeutic range, initial and stable dosing and adverse effects. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Hawcutt D B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic determinants of acenocoumarol and warfarin maintenance dose requirements in Slavic population: A potential role of CYP4F2 and GGCX polymorphisms. Thrombosis research. 2014. Wypasek Ewa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The impact of age and CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants on stable warfarin dose in the paediatric population. British journal of haematology. 2014. Vear Susan I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of gene polymorphisms with the risk of warfarin bleeding complications at therapeutic INR in patients with mechanical cardiac valves. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2014. An S H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes are predictors of warfarin-related outcomes in children. Pediatric blood & cancer. 2014. Shaw Kaitlyn, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Methodological issues in the development of a pharmacogenomic algorithm for warfarin dosing: comparison of two regression approaches. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Pavani Addepalli, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Personalized pharmacogenomics profiling using whole-genome sequencing. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Mizzi Clint, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 genetic variants in early outcomes during acenocoumarol treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Cerezo-Manchado Juan Jose, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A new algorithm for weekly phenprocoumon dose variation in a southern Brazilian population: role for CYP2C9, CYP3A4/5 and VKORC1 genes polymorphisms. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2014. Botton Mariana R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of coumarin anticoagulants: algorithms for warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Verhoef Talitha I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prioritizing genomic applications for action by level of evidence: a horizon-scanning method. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Dotson W D, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1 and F5 variants: influence on quality of long-term anticoagulation. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2014. Nahar Risha, et al. PubMed
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Adoption of a clinical pharmacogenomics implementation program during outpatient care-initial results of the University of Chicago "1,200 Patients Project". American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2014. O'Donnell Peter H, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: an illustration of the importance of studies in minority populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Perera M A, et al. PubMed
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Improved accuracy of anticoagulant dose prediction using a pharmacogenetic and artificial neural network-based method. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Isma'eel Hussain A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic Risk Factors for Major Bleeding in Warfarin Patients in a Community Setting. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Roth Joshua A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Hamberg Anna-Karin, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX genetic variants on warfarin maintenance dose and explicating a new pharmacogenetic algorithm in South Indian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Krishna Kumar Dhakchinamoorthi, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of optimal warfarin maintenance dose using advanced artificial neural networks. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Grossi Enzo, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacogenetics-based warfarin maintenance dosing algorithm from northern chinese patients. PloS one. 2014. Chen Jinxing, et al. PubMed
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Exploring the distribution of genetic markers of pharmacogenomics relevance in brazilian and mexican populations. PloS one. 2014. Bonifaz-Peña Vania, et al. PubMed
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Verification of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in han-chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement. PloS one. 2014. Zhao Li, et al. PubMed
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Clinically actionable genotypes among 10,000 patients with preemptive pharmacogenomic testing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Van Driest Sara L, et al. PubMed
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An acenocoumarol dose algorithm based on a South-Eastern European population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Pop Tudor Radu, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic and clinical factors on dose requirements and quality of anticoagulation therapy in Polish patients receiving acenocoumarol: dosing calculation algorithm. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Wolkanin-Bartnik Jolanta, et al. PubMed
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A Pharmacogenetic versus a Clinical Algorithm for Warfarin Dosing. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Kimmel Stephen E, et al. PubMed
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A Randomized Trial of Genotype-Guided Dosing of Acenocoumarol and Phenprocoumon. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Verhoef Talitha I, et al. PubMed
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A Randomized Trial of Genotype-Guided Dosing of Warfarin. The New England journal of medicine. 2013. Pirmohamed Munir, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase genetic polymorphisms A503V and rs2868177 do not significantly affect warfarin stable dosage in Han-Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Tan Sheng-Lan, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in warfarin-treated patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Yang Jie, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genotype-guided dosing on anticoagulation visits for adults starting warfarin: a randomized controlled trial. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Jonas Daniel E, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: a controlled dose-response study in healthy subjects. Vascular medicine (London, England). 2013. Kadian-Dodov Daniella L, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacogenetic predictive model for paclitaxel clearance based on the DMET platform. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2013. de Graan Anne-Joy M, et al. PubMed
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PS3-4: Genetic Risk Factors for Major Bleeding in Warfarin Patients in a Community Setting. Clinical medicine & research. 2013. Roth Joshua, et al. PubMed
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Ethnicity-specific pharmacogenetics: the case of warfarin in African Americans. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Hernandez W, et al. PubMed
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Mechanical heart valve recipients: anticoagulation in patients with genetic variations of phenprocoumon metabolism. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. 2013. Brehm Kerstin, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene polymorphisms on warfarin dosage, over anticoagulation and other adverse outcomes in Indian population. European journal of pharmacology. 2013. Gaikwad Tejasvita, et al. PubMed
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Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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Influence of ORM1 polymorphisms on the maintenance stable warfarin dosage. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Wang Lian Sheng, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the vulnerability to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions during acenocoumarol treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Gschwind Liliane, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms influence warfarin dose variability in patients on long-term anticoagulation. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Santos Paulo Caleb Junior Lima, et al. PubMed
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Influence of the VKORC1 3730 G > A polymorphism on warfarin dose. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Skov Jane, et al. PubMed
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The influence of VKORC1 3730 G > A polymorphism on warfarin dose: reply. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cini Michela, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and clinical determinants influencing warfarin dosing in children with heart disease. Pediatric cardiology. 2013. Nguyen Nguyenvu, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphisms on mean daily maintenance dose of acenocoumarol in South Indian patients. Thrombosis research. 2013. Krishna Kumar Dhakchinamoorthi, et al. PubMed
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Impact of Genetic Factors (CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2) on Warfarin Dose Requirement in the Turkish Population. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2013. Ozer Mahmut, et al. PubMed
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The impact of the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms on acenocoumarol dose requirements in a Romanian population. Blood cells, molecules & diseases. 2013. Buzoianu Anca Dana, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetic tests: what is the evidence for use in clinical practice?. Current opinion in cardiology. 2013. Shahin Mohamed H A, et al. PubMed
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Responsiveness to low-dose warfarin associated with genetic variants of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP4F2 in an Indonesian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Rusdiana T, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 Asp36Tyr geographic distribution and its impact on warfarin dose requirements in Egyptians. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2013. Shahin M H A, et al. PubMed
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Gene-gene-environment interactions between drugs, transporters, receptors, and metabolizing enzymes: Statins, SLCO1B1, and CYP3A4 as an example. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2013. Sadee Wolfgang. PubMed
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The influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 gene sequence variants on the stability of maintenance phase warfarin treatment. Thrombosis research. 2013. Skov Jane, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single dose (R)- and (S)-warfarin administered separately and together: relationship to VKORC1 genotype. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Maddison John, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 (CYP2C9*2,*3) & vitamin-K epoxide reductase complex (VKORC1 -1639G The Indian journal of medical research. 2013. Kaur Anupriya, et al. PubMed
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Pathway analysis of genome-wide data improves warfarin dose prediction. BMC genomics. 2013. Daneshjou Roxana, et al. PubMed
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The bleeding risk during warfarin therapy is associated with the number of variant alleles of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Cardiology. 2013. Tomek Aleš, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP4F2 polymorphisms and plasma vitamin K levels on warfarin sensitivity in Japanese pediatric patients. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2013. Hirai Keita, et al. PubMed
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Influence of warfarin dose-associated genotypes on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in Chinese patients on warfarin. International journal of hematology. 2012. Ma Cong, et al. PubMed
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Long-term anticoagulant effects of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes in phenprocoumon users. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2012. Verhoef T I, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype is associated with over-anticoagulation during initiation of warfarin therapy in children. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2012. Biss T T, et al. PubMed
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Development of a pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing algorithm for Puerto Rican patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Ramos Alga S, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and cardiovascular disease--implications for personalized medicine. Pharmacological reviews. 2013. Johnson Julie A, et al. PubMed
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Novel associations of VKORC1 variants with higher acenocoumarol requirements. PloS one. 2013. Anton Ana Isabel, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin anticoagulant therapy: a southern Italy pharmacogenetics-based dosing model. PloS one. 2013. Mazzaccara Cristina, et al. PubMed
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Randomised trial of a clinical dosing algorithm to start anticoagulation with phenprocoumon. Swiss medical weekly. 2013. Caduff Good Angela, et al. PubMed
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Oral anticoagulation and VKORC1 polymorphism in patients with a mechanical heart prosthesis: a 6-year follow-up. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2012. Giansante Carlo, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics in clinical practice and drug development. Nature biotechnology. 2012. Harper Andrew R, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene polymorphism is inessential for bleeding development under conditions of oral application of anticoagulant acenocoumarol in Russian patients at high risk of thromboembolic complications. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine. 2012. Sychev D V, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetics and non-genetic factors on acenocoumarol maintenance dose requirement in Moroccan patients. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2012. Smires F Z, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: development of a dosing algorithm for Omani patients. Journal of human genetics. 2012. Pathare Anil, et al. PubMed
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A new warfarin dosing algorithm including VKORC1 3730 G > A polymorphism: comparison with results obtained by other published algorithms. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Cini Michela, et al. PubMed
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The population attributable fraction as a measure of the impact of warfarin pharmacogenetic testing. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Chan Sze Ling, et al. PubMed
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Validation of the acenocoumarol EU-PACT algorithms: similar performance in the Rotterdam Study cohort as in the original study. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. van Schie Rianne Mf, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the VKORC1 D36Y variant on warfarin dose requirement and pharmacogenetic dose prediction. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2012. Kurnik D, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in VKORC1 have more impact than CYP2C9 polymorphisms on early warfarin International Normalized Ratio control and bleeding rates. British journal of haematology. 2012. Lund Kirstin, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C9*3, VKORC1-1639, CYP4F2rs2108622 genetic polymorphism and clinical factors on warfarin maintenance dose in Han-Chinese patients. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2012. Liang Ruijuan, et al. PubMed
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Retrospective evidence for clinical validity of expanded genetic model in warfarin dose optimization in a South Indian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Pavani Addepalli, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms on warfarin clearance and sensitivity in Korean patients with mechanical cardiac valves. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2012. Lee Kyung-Eun, et al. PubMed
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A new algorithm to predict warfarin dose from polymorphisms of CYP4F2 , CYP2C9 and VKORC1 and clinical variables: derivation in Han Chinese patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2012. Wei Meng, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the warfarin-resistance polymorphism, VKORC1 Asp36Tyr, and its effect on dosage algorithms in a genetically heterogeneous anticoagulant clinic. Clinical biochemistry. 2012. Shuen Andrew Y, et al. PubMed
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Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics: current status and future directions-report of a national heart, lung, and blood institute working group. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2012. Musunuru Kiran, et al. PubMed
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Long-term anticoagulant effects of the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes in acenocoumarol users. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2012. Verhoef T I, et al. PubMed
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Impact of genetic factors (VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and EPHX1) on the anticoagulation response to fluindione. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Lacut Karine, et al. PubMed
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Randomized and Clinical Effectiveness Trial Comparing Two Pharmacogenetic Algorithms and Standard Care for Individualizing Warfarin Dosing: CoumaGen-II. Circulation. 2012. Anderson Jeffrey L, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms are associated with variations in warfarin maintenance dose in Han Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Zhang Wei, et al. PubMed
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Predicting warfarin dosage in European-Americans and African-Americans using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Ramirez Andrea H, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of warfarin dose reductions in Puerto Rican patients, based on combinatorial CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2012. Valentin Isa Ivette, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype and patient characteristics explain a large proportion of the variability in warfarin dose requirement among children. Blood. 2012. Biss Tina T, et al. PubMed
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Vitamin K antagonists in children with heart disease: height and VKORC1 genotype are the main determinants of the warfarin dose requirement. Blood. 2012. Moreau Caroline, et al. PubMed
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Validation of warfarin pharmacogenetic algorithms in clinical practice. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Marin-Leblanc Mélina, et al. PubMed
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Association of the GGCX (CAA)16/17 repeat polymorphism with higher warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Cavallari Larisa H, et al. PubMed
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Copy number variation and warfarin dosing: evaluation of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX and CALU. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants in CYP (-1A2, -2C9, -2C19, -3A4 and -3A5), VKORC1 and ABCB1 genes in a black South African population: a window into diversity. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Dandara Collet, et al. PubMed
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An acenocoumarol dosing algorithm using clinical and pharmacogenetic data in spanish patients with thromboembolic disease. PloS one. 2012. Borobia Alberto M, et al. PubMed
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Therapeutic dosing of acenocoumarol: proposal of a population specific pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm and its validation in north Indians. PloS one. 2012. Rathore Saurabh Singh, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of Coumarin Dosing: Prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Polymorphisms in the Lebanese Population. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2011. Djaffar-Jureidini Isabelle, et al. PubMed
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Development and comparison of a warfarin-dosing algorithm for Korean patients with atrial fibrillation. Clinical therapeutics. 2011. Cho Hyun-Jung, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms on warfarin and acenocoumarol in a sample of Lebanese people. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Esmerian Maria O, et al. PubMed
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Genomics of ADME gene expression: mapping expression quantitative trait loci relevant for absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs in human liver. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Schröder A, et al. PubMed
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Influence of genetic, biological and pharmacological factors on warfarin dose in a Southern Brazilian population of European ancestry. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Botton Mariana Rodrigues, et al. PubMed
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Extremely low warfarin dose in patients with genotypes of CYP2C9*3/*3 and VKORC1-1639A/A. Chinese medical journal. 2011. Gao Lei, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Genotypes and Warfarin Dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
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Novel VKORC1 mutations associated with warfarin sensitivity. Cardiovascular therapeutics. 2011. Baniasadi Shadi, et al. PubMed
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Loading and maintenance dose algorithms for phenprocoumon and acenocoumarol using patient characteristics and pharmacogenetic data. European heart journal. 2011. van Schie Rianne M F, et al. PubMed
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Prospective evaluation of a pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin loading and maintenance dose regimen for initiation of therapy. Blood. 2011. Gong Inna Y, et al. PubMed
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Facilitating pharmacogenetic studies using electronic health records and natural-language processing: a case study of warfarin. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA. 2011. Xu Hua, et al. PubMed
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Prospective-retrospective biomarker analysis for regulatory consideration: white paper from the industry pharmacogenomics working group. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Patterson Scott D, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in the interethnic variability of warfarin dose in Malaysian populations. Annals of hematology. 2011. Gan Gin Gin, et al. PubMed
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Effect of the VKORC1 genotype on warfarin dose requirements in Japanese pediatric patients. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2011. Kato Yuya, et al. PubMed
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The influence of genetic polymorphisms and interacting drugs on initial response to warfarin in Chinese patients with heart valve replacement. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Zhong Shi-Long, et al. PubMed
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Novel CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene variants associated with warfarin dosage variability in the South African black population. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Mitchell Cathrine, et al. PubMed
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The impact of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism on the maintenance dose of oral anticoagulants for thromboembolic prophylaxis in North India: A pilot study. Indian journal of human genetics. 2011. Rathore S S, et al. PubMed
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Genetics informatics trial (GIFT) of warfarin to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT): rationale and study design. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Do E J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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Prediction of phenprocoumon maintenance dose and phenprocoumon plasma concentration by genetic and non-genetic parameters. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Geisen Christof, et al. PubMed
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Proposal of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithm in Korean patients. Journal of human genetics. 2011. Choi Jung Ran, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics: From Bench to Byte- An Update of Guidelines. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
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The missing association: sequencing-based discovery of NOVEL SNPs in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 that affect warfarin dose in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Perera M A, et al. PubMed
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Genomics and drug response. The New England journal of medicine. 2011. Wang Liewei, et al. PubMed
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Optimization of warfarin dose by population-specific pharmacogenomic algorithm. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Pavani A, et al. PubMed
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Translational aspects of genetic factors in the prediction of drug response variability: a case study of warfarin pharmacogenomics in a multi-ethnic cohort from Asia. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Chan S L, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of warfarin dose requirements in Hispanics. Blood cells, molecules & diseases. 2011. Cavallari Larisa H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic warfarin dosing tables versus algorithms. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2011. Finkelman Brian S, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of 1173C > T polymorphism in the VKORC1 gene to warfarin dose requirements in Han Chinese patients receiving anticoagulation. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Yang J, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin dosing algorithm using clinical, demographic and pharmacogenetic data from Chinese patients. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2011. You Joyce H S, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and nongenetic factors associated with warfarin doserequirements in Egyptian patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Shahin Mohamed Hossam A, et al. PubMed
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Comparison of warfarin pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms in a racially diverse large cohort. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Shin Jaekyu, et al. PubMed
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Practical recommendations for pharmacogenomics-based prescription: 2010 ESF-UB Conference on Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Impact of pharmacokinetic (CYP2C9) and pharmacodynamic (VKORC1, F7, GGCX, CALU, EPHX1) gene variants on the initiation and maintenance phases of phenprocoumon therapy. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2011. Luxembourg Baete, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1 genotypes and old age on warfarin pharmacologic sensitivity in korean patients with thromboembolic disease. Annals of clinical and laboratory science. 2011. Moon Hee-Won, et al. PubMed
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In pediatric patients, age has more impact on dosing of vitamin K antagonists than VKORC1 or CYP2C9 genotypes. Blood. 2010. Nowak-Göttl Ulrike, et al. PubMed
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Genome-wide association study identifies genetic determinants of warfarin responsiveness for Japanese. Human molecular genetics. 2010. Cha Pei-Chieng, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation of VKORC1 and CYP4F2 genes related to warfarin maintenance dose in patients with myocardial infarction. Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology. 2011. Kringen Marianne K, et al. PubMed
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Clinical and Genetic Determinants of Warfarin Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics during Treatment Initiation. PloS one. 2011. Gong Inna Y, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of 107 genomic DNA reference materials for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, VKORC1, and UGT1A1: a GeT-RM and Association for Molecular Pathology collaborative project. The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD. 2010. Pratt Victoria M, et al. PubMed
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Statistical design of personalized medicine interventions: The Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG) trial. Trials. 2010. French Benjamin, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 pharmacogenomics summary. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Owen Ryan P, et al. PubMed
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New genetic variant that might improve warfarin dose prediction in African Americans. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Schelleman Hedi, et al. PubMed
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Expectations, validity, and reality in pharmacogenetics. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2010. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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Worldwide allele frequency distribution of four polymorphisms associated with warfarin dose requirements. Journal of human genetics. 2010. Ross Kendra A, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 polymorphisms in Brazilians: comparison with the Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking Africans and pharmacogenetic implications. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Suarez-Kurtz Guilherme, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 V66M mutation in African Brazilian patients resistant to oral anticoagulant therapy. Thrombosis research. 2010. Orsi Fernanda A, et al. PubMed
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CYP4F2 rs2108622: a minor significant genetic factor of warfarin dose in Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Cen Han-Jing, et al. PubMed
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Extending and evaluating a warfarin dosing algorithm that includes CYP4F2 and pooled rare variants of CYP2C9. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Sagreiya Hersh, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacometric model describing the relationship between warfarin dose and INR response with respect to variations in CYP2C9, VKORC1, and age. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Hamberg A-K, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 -1639G>A and CYP2C9*3 are the major genetic predictors of phenprocoumon dose requirement. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Puehringer Helene, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin genotyping reduces hospitalization rates results from the MM-WES (Medco-Mayo Warfarin Effectiveness study). Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010. Epstein Robert S, et al. PubMed
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Combined CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 frequencies among racial and ethnic groups. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Gene-based warfarin dosing compared with standard of care practices in an orthopedic surgery population: a prospective, parallel cohort study. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2010. McMillin Gwendolyn A, et al. PubMed
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A regression model to predict warfarin dose from clinical variables and polymorphisms in CYP2C9, CYP4F2, and VKORC1: Derivation in a sample with predominantly a history of venous thromboembolism. Thrombosis research. 2010. Wells P S, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: a single VKORC1 polymorphism is predictive of dose across 3 racial groups. Blood. 2010. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of pharmacogenetic algorithm for warfarin dose requirements in Japanese patients. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2010. Takeuchi Fumihiko, et al. PubMed
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Integration of genetic, clinical, and INR data to refine warfarin dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Lenzini P, et al. PubMed
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Increased frequency of CYP2C9 variant alleles and homozygous VKORC1*2B carriers in warfarin-treated patients with excessive INR response. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Molden Espen, et al. PubMed
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Comparative performance of gene-based warfarin dosing algorithms in a multiethnic population. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Lubitz S A, et al. PubMed
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Clinical assessment incorporating a personal genome. Lancet. 2010. Ashley Euan A, et al. PubMed
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A polymorphism in the VKORC1 regulator calumenin predicts higher warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Voora D, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and clinical predictors of warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Cavallari L H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and clinical predictors of warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Cavallari L H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon maintenance dose requirements. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Cadamuro Janne, et al. PubMed
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The impact of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism and patient characteristics upon warfarin dose requirements in an adult Turkish population. Heart and vessels. 2010. Ozer Nihat, et al. PubMed
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Genetic factors (VKORC1, CYP2C9, EPHX1, and CYP4F2) are predictor variables for warfarin response in very elderly, frail inpatients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Pautas E, et al. PubMed
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Ability of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose during the initial weeks of therapy. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2010. Ferder N S, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 genetic-based algorithm for warfarin dosing: an Italian retrospective study. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Zambon Carlo-Federico, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of warfarin dosing in the Han-Chinese population. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Lee M T Michael, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 pharmacogenetics and pharmacoproteomics in patients on warfarin anticoagulant therapy: transthyretin precursor as a potential biomarker. PloS one. 2010. Saminathan Ramasamy, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: role in medicines approval and clinical use. Public health genomics. 2010. Novelli G, et al. PubMed
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Influence of clinical and genetic factors on warfarin dose requirements among Japanese patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Ohno Masako, et al. PubMed
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Interactive modeling for ongoing utility of pharmacogenetic diagnostic testing: application for warfarin therapy. Clinical chemistry. 2009. Linder Mark W, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and environmental factors determining clinical outcomes and cost of warfarin therapy: a prospective study. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Jorgensen Andrea L, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic trial design: use of a PK/PD model to explore warfarin dosing interventions through clinical trial simulation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Salinger David H, et al. PubMed
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Genotype-guided dosing of coumarin derivatives: the European pharmacogenetics of anticoagulant therapy (EU-PACT) trial design. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. van Schie Rianne M F, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics in cardiovascular antithrombotic therapy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009. Marín Francisco, et al. PubMed
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Generating genome-scale candidate gene lists for pharmacogenomics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Hansen N T, et al. PubMed
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Exploring warfarin pharmacogenomics with the extreme-discordant-phenotype methodology: impact of FVII polymorphisms on stable anticoagulation with warfarin. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Fuchshuber-Moraes Mateus, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic characteristics of patients with complicated phenprocoumon dosing. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Werner D, et al. PubMed
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Dependency of phenprocoumon dosage on polymorphisms in the VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genes. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2009. Qazim Berisha, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9*8 is prevalent among African-Americans: implications for pharmacogenetic dosing. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Clinically available pharmacogenomics tests. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Flockhart D A, et al. PubMed
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Effect of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism, body weight, age, and serum albumin alterations on warfarin response in Japanese patients. Thrombosis research. 2009. Yoshizawa Misa, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic relevance of CYP4F2 V433M polymorphism on acenocoumarol therapy. Blood. 2009. Pérez-Andreu Virginia, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and stroke. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2009. Meschia James F. PubMed
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Relative contribution of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and early INR response to the prediction of warfarin sensitivity during initiation of therapy. Blood. 2009. Li Chun, et al. PubMed
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Genotypes associated with reduced activity of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 and their modification of acenocoumarol anticoagulation during the initial treatment period. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Teichert M, et al. PubMed
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Data-driven methods to discover molecular determinants of serious adverse drug events. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Chiang A P, et al. PubMed
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A genome-wide association study confirms VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 as principal genetic determinants of warfarin dose. PLoS genetics. 2009. Takeuchi Fumihiko, et al. PubMed
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Validation of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes on interindividual warfarin maintenance dose: a prospective study in Chinese patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Huang Sheng-Wen, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of acenocoumarol: CYP2C9 *2 and VKORC1 c.-1639G>A, 497C>G, 1173C>T, and 3730G>A variants influence drug dose in anticoagulated patients. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2009. Verde Zoraida, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on early-phase and steady-state warfarin dosing in Korean patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
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CYP4F2 genetic variant (rs2108622) significantly contributes to warfarin dosing variability in the Italian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Borgiani Paola, et al. PubMed
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Estimation of the warfarin dose with clinical and pharmacogenetic data. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics--tailoring treatment for the outliers. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Woodcock Janet, et al. PubMed
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Cost-effectiveness of using pharmacogenetic information in warfarin dosing for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Annals of internal medicine. 2009. Eckman Mark H, et al. PubMed
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The largest prospective warfarin-treated cohort supports genetic forecasting. Blood. 2009. Wadelius Mia, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin response during initiation of therapy. Blood cells, molecules & diseases. 2009. Limdi N A, et al. PubMed
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The influence of polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 on major gastrointestinal bleeding risk in anticoagulated patients. British journal of haematology. 2008. Montes Ramón, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic testing for guiding de novo phenprocoumon therapy in stroke patients. Cerebrovascular diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 2009. Arnold Marie-Luise, et al. PubMed
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Arrhythmia pharmacogenomics: methodological considerations. Current pharmaceutical design. 2009. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 diplotype-derived dosing model to explain variability in warfarin dose requirements in Asian patients. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2009. Sandanaraj Edwin, et al. PubMed
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A vitamin K epoxide reductase-oxidase complex gene polymorphism (-1639G>A) and interindividual variability in the dose-effect of vitamin K antagonists. Journal of applied genetics. 2009. Stepien E, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic differences between warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2008. Beinema Maarten, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 allelic variants influence acenocoumarol dose requirements in Greek patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Markatos Christos N, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 polymorphisms in Amerindian populations of Brazil. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Perini Jamila A, et al. PubMed
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Laboratory and clinical outcomes of pharmacogenetic vs. clinical protocols for warfarin initiation in orthopedic patients. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2008. Lenzini P A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacodynamic resistance to warfarin is associated with nucleotide substitutions in VKORC1. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2008. Harrington D J, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose among African-Americans and European-Americans. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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Dosing algorithms to predict warfarin maintenance dose in Caucasians and African Americans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Schelleman H, et al. PubMed
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The critical path of warfarin dosing: finding an optimal dosing strategy using pharmacogenetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Lesko L J. PubMed
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Use of pharmacogenetic and clinical factors to predict the therapeutic dose of warfarin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Gage B F, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms are associated with warfarin dose requirements in Turkish patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Oner Ozgon G, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on INR variations and dose requirements during initial phase of anticoagulant therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Spreafico Marta, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics. Pharmacotherapy. 2008. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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A genome-wide scan for common genetic variants with a large influence on warfarin maintenance dose. Blood. 2008. Cooper Gregory M, et al. PubMed
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Regulatory polymorphism in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) affects gene expression and warfarin dose requirement. Blood. 2008. Wang Danxin, et al. PubMed
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Integrating genomic based information into clinical warfarin (Coumadin) management: an illustrative case report. Connecticut medicine. 2008. LaSala Anthony, et al. PubMed
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An analysis of the relative effects of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 variants on anticoagulation related outcomes in warfarin-treated patients. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2008. Meckley Lisa M, et al. PubMed
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Prospective study of warfarin dosage requirements based on CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Wen M-S, et al. PubMed
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Oral anticoagulants: Pharmacogenetics Relationship between genetic and non-genetic factors. Blood reviews. 2008. D'Andrea Giovanna, et al. PubMed
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Combination of phenotype assessments and CYP2C9-VKORC1 polymorphisms in the determination of warfarin dose requirements in heavily medicated patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Michaud V, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: development of a dosing algorithm for brazilian patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Perini J A, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin dose, anticoagulation attainment and maintenance among European-Americans and African-Americans. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Limdi Nita A, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of response to warfarin during initial anticoagulation. The New England journal of medicine. 2008. Schwarz Ute I, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin pharmacogenetics: CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes predict different sensitivity and resistance frequencies in the Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jewish populations. American journal of human genetics. 2008. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 1173C/T genotype on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in African-American and European-American patients on warfarin. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Limdi N A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: regulatory, scientific, and clinical issues. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2008. Gage Brian F, et al. PubMed
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Dosing algorithm for warfarin using CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping from a multi-ethnic population: comparison with other equations. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Wu Alan H B, et al. PubMed
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Apolipoprotein E genotype and warfarin dosing among Caucasians and African Americans. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2008. Kimmel S E, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of oral anticoagulants: a basis for dose individualization. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2008. Stehle Simone, et al. PubMed
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Randomized trial of genotype-guided versus standard warfarin dosing in patients initiating oral anticoagulation. Circulation. 2007. Anderson Jeffrey L, et al. PubMed
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Factors influencing warfarin dose requirements in African-Americans. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Momary Kathryn M, et al. PubMed
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Genetic-based dosing in orthopedic patients beginning warfarin therapy. Blood. 2007. Millican Eric A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism analysis might be necessary in patients with Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene G2021A mutation(s). Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B. 2007. Leung Allen, et al. PubMed
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The genetic interaction between VKORC1 c1173t and calumenin a29809g modulates the anticoagulant response of acenocoumarol. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2007. González-Conejero R, et al. PubMed
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Estimation of warfarin maintenance dose based on VKORC1 (-1639 G>A) and CYP2C9 genotypes. Clinical chemistry. 2007. Zhu Yusheng, et al. PubMed
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Ethnic differences in the VKORC1 gene polymorphism and an association with warfarin dosage requirements in cardiovascular surgery patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Nakai Kenji, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin response and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 in African Americans and Caucasians. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Schelleman H, et al. PubMed
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Identifying the genotype behind the phenotype: a role model found in VKORC1 and its association with warfarin dosing. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Crawford Dana C, et al. PubMed
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A PK-PD model for predicting the impact of age, CYP2C9, and VKORC1 genotype on individualization of warfarin therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Hamberg A-K, et al. PubMed
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Factors affecting the interindividual variability of warfarin dose requirement in adult Korean patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Cho Hyun-Jung, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: current status and future challenges. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Wadelius M, et al. PubMed
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A coding VKORC1 Asp36Tyr polymorphism predisposes to warfarin resistance. Blood. 2007. Loebstein Ronen, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of genetic factors for warfarin dose prediction. Clinical medicine & research. 2007. Caldwell Michael D, et al. PubMed
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Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism. Human genetics. 2007. Wadelius Mia, et al. PubMed
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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like phenotype with cutis laxa and multiple coagulation factor deficiency represents a separate genetic entity. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2007. Vanakker Olivier M, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes and phenprocoumon anticoagulation status: interaction between both genotypes affects dose requirement. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Schalekamp T, et al. PubMed
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Genotypes of the cytochrome p450 isoform, CYP2C9, and the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 conjointly determine stable warfarin dose: a prospective study. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2006. Carlquist John F, et al. PubMed
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Genotypes of vitamin K epoxide reductase, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, and cytochrome P450 2C9 as determinants of daily warfarin dose in Japanese patients. Thrombosis research. 2007. Kimura Rina, et al. PubMed
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A warfarin-dosing model in Asians that uses single-nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex and cytochrome P450 2C9. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Tham Lai-San, et al. PubMed
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Multiple gene polymorphisms and warfarin sensitivity. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Shikata Eriko, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in the VKORC1 gene are strongly associated with warfarin dosage requirements in patients receiving anticoagulation. Journal of medical genetics. 2006. Li T, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 gene variations are the major contributors of variation in warfarin dose in Japanese patients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Obayashi Kyoko, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes and acenocoumarol anticoagulation status: interaction between both genotypes affects overanticoagulation. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Schalekamp Tom, et al. PubMed
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The influence of sequence variations in factor VII, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex genes on warfarin dose requirement. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2006. Herman Darja, et al. PubMed
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The c.-1639G > A polymorphism of the VKORC1 gene is a major determinant of the response to acenocoumarol in anticoagulated patients. British journal of haematology. 2006. Montes Ramón, et al. PubMed
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Influence of coagulation factor, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, and cytochrome P450 2C9 gene polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirements. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Aquilante Christina L, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 haplotypes are associated with arterial vascular diseases (stroke, coronary heart disease, and aortic dissection). Circulation. 2006. Wang Yibo, et al. PubMed
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Interethnic variability of warfarin maintenance requirement is explained by VKORC1 genotype in an Asian population. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Lee Soo-Chin, et al. PubMed
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Combined genetic profiles of components and regulators of the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system affect individual sensitivity to warfarin. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2006. Vecsler Manuela, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics-based coumarin therapy. Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program. 2006. Gage Brian F. PubMed
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Association of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms with warfarin dose requirements in Japanese patients. Journal of human genetics. 2006. Mushiroda Taisei, et al. PubMed
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1173C>T polymorphism in VKORC1 modulates the required warfarin dose. Pediatric cardiology. 2006. Kosaki K, et al. PubMed
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The impact of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism and patient characteristics upon warfarin dose requirements: proposal for a new dosing regimen. Blood. 2005. Sconce Elizabeth A, et al. PubMed
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A C1173T dimorphism in the VKORC1 gene determines coumarin sensitivity and bleeding risk. PLoS medicine. 2005. Reitsma Pieter H, et al. PubMed
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Site-directed mutagenesis of coumarin-type anticoagulant-sensitive VKORC1: evidence that highly conserved amino acids define structural requirements for enzymatic activity and inhibition by warfarin. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2005. Rost Simone, et al. PubMed
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VKORC1 haplotypes and their impact on the inter-individual and inter-ethnical variability of oral anticoagulation. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2005. Geisen Christof, et al. PubMed
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Increased production of functional recombinant human clotting factor IX by baby hamster kidney cells engineered to overexpress VKORC1, the vitamin K 2,3-epoxide-reducing enzyme of the vitamin K cycle. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2005. Wajih Nadeem, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) genotypes as determinants of acenocoumarol sensitivity. Blood. 2005. Bodin Laurent, et al. PubMed
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A novel functional VKORC1 promoter polymorphism is associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in warfarin sensitivity. Human molecular genetics. 2005. Yuan Hsiang-Yu, et al. PubMed
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Effect of VKORC1 haplotypes on transcriptional regulation and warfarin dose. The New England journal of medicine. 2005. Rieder Mark J, et al. PubMed
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A polymorphism in the VKORC1 gene is associated with an interindividual variability in the dose-anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Blood. 2005. D'Andrea Giovanna, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacodynamic resistance to warfarin associated with a Val66Met substitution in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2005. Harrington Dominic J, et al. PubMed
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Common VKORC1 and GGCX polymorphisms associated with warfarin dose. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005. Wadelius M, et al. PubMed
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Mutations in VKORC1 cause warfarin resistance and multiple coagulation factor deficiency type 2. Nature. 2004. Rost Simone, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

NCBI Gene:
79001
OMIM:
122700
607473
608547
RefSeq RNA:
NM_024006
NM_206824
RefSeq Protein:
NP_076869
NP_996560
HuGE:
VKORC1
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database:
79001
ModBase:
Q9BQB6
HumanCyc Gene:
HS15548
HGNC:
23663

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