Gene:
CYP2D6
cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6

Available Prescribing Info

Dosing Guidelines
  1. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  2. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  3. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for codeine and CYP2D6
  4. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for desipramine and CYP2D6
  5. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for doxepin and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  6. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for fluvoxamine and CYP2D6
  7. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  8. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for nortriptyline and CYP2D6
  9. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for ondansetron and CYP2D6
  10. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for paroxetine and CYP2D6
  11. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for trimipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  12. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for tropisetron and CYP2D6
  13. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2D6
  14. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for aripiprazole and CYP2D6
  15. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for atomoxetine and CYP2D6
  16. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for carvedilol and CYP2D6
  17. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2D6
  18. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for clozapine and CYP2D6
  19. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for codeine and CYP2D6
  20. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for doxepin and CYP2D6
  21. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for duloxetine and CYP2D6
  22. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for flecainide and CYP2D6
  23. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for flupenthixol and CYP2D6
  24. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for haloperidol and CYP2D6
  25. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for imipramine and CYP2D6
  26. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for metoprolol and CYP2D6
  27. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for mirtazapine and CYP2D6
  28. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for nortriptyline and CYP2D6
  29. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for olanzapine and CYP2D6
  30. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for oxycodone and CYP2D6
  31. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for paroxetine and CYP2D6
  32. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for propafenone and CYP2D6
  33. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for risperidone and CYP2D6
  34. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for tamoxifen and CYP2D6
  35. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for tramadol and CYP2D6
  36. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for venlafaxine and CYP2D6
  37. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for zuclopenthixol and CYP2D6
  38. Annotation of CPNDS Guideline for codeine and CYP2D6
last updated 03/15/2017

1. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers and CYP2C19 ultrarapid, rapid or poor metabolizers. If amitriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

2. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including clomipramine. The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers and CYP2C19 ultrarapid, rapid or poor metabolizers. If amitriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 05/02/2017

3. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for codeine and CYP2D6

Summary

Alternate analgesics are recommended for CYP2D6 ultrarapid and poor metabolizers. A label recommended age- or weight-specific codeine dose is warranted for CYP2D6 extensive and intermediate metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

4. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for desipramine and CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline/nortriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including desipramine. The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for nortriptyline recommends a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers. For CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers, an alternative drug should be considered. If nortriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

5. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for doxepin and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including doxepin. The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers and CYP2C19 ultrarapid, rapid or poor metabolizers. If amitriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

6. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for fluvoxamine and CYP2D6

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline for the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine recommends to consider a 25-50% reduction of recommended starting dose and titrate to response or use an alternative drug not metabolized by CYP2D6 for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

7. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including imipramine. The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers and CYP2C19 ultrarapid, rapid or poor metabolizers. If amitriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

8. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for nortriptyline and CYP2D6

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for nortriptyline recommends a 25% dose reduction for CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers. For CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers, an alternative drug should be considered. If nortriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

9. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for ondansetron and CYP2D6

Summary

The CPIC dosing guideline for ondansetron recommends selecting an alternate drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers. It is recommended that the alternate drug not be predominantly metabolized by CYP2D6 (eg. granisetron).

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

10. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for paroxetine and CYP2D6

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline for the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine recommends an alternative drug not predominantly metabolized by CYP2D6 for CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers and for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, if paroxetine use is warranted, consider a 50% reduction of recommended starting dose and titrate to response.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

11. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for trimipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including trimipramine. The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers and CYP2C19 ultrarapid, rapid or poor metabolizers. If amitriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

12. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for tropisetron and CYP2D6

Summary

The CPIC dosing guideline for tropisetron recommends selecting an alternate drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers. It is recommended that the alternate drug not be predominantly metabolized by CYP2D6 (eg. granisetron).

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 08/10/2011

13. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2D6

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for amitriptyline recommends to select an alternative drug or monitor amitriptyline and nortriptyline plasma concentration for patients who are CYP2D6 poor or ultrarapid metabolizers. Reduce the initial dose for patients who are intermediate metabolizers or select an alternative drug.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.





last updated 08/10/2011

17. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2D6

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for clomipramine recommends to reduce the dose by 50% for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, and select an alternative drug for ultrarapid metabolizers. Monitor (desmethyl)clomipramine plasma concentration.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.




last updated 08/10/2011

20. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for doxepin and CYP2D6

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for doxepin recommends to reduce the dose by 60% for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers and by 20% for intermediate metabolizers. Select an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.






last updated 08/10/2011

25. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for imipramine and CYP2D6

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for imipramine recommends to reduce the dose for CYP2D6 poor and intermediate metabolizer patients, and monitor imipramine and desipramine plasma concentrations. Select an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 08/10/2011

26. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for metoprolol and CYP2D6

Summary

Select another drug or reduce dose of metoprolol for CYP2D6 poor and intermediate metabolizer patients. Use a dose titration of metoprolol for CYP2D6 ultra metabolizers or select an alternative drug.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.



last updated 08/10/2011

28. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for nortriptyline and CYP2D6

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for nortriptyline recommends to reduce the dose for CYP2D6 poor or intermediate metabolizer patients. For CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers, select an alternative drug or increase the dose by 60%. Monitoring of nortriptyline and 10-hydroxynortriptyline plasma concentrations is recommended.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.



last updated 08/10/2011

30. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for oxycodone and CYP2D6

Summary

Use an alternate drug rather than oxycodone (not codeine or tramadol) for CYP2D6 poor and intermediate metabolizer patients, or be alert to insufficient pain relief. For CYP2D6 ultra metabolizer patients, use an alternate drug rather than oxycodone (not codeine or tramadol), or be alert to adverse drug events.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.



last updated 08/10/2011

32. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for propafenone and CYP2D6

Summary

Reduce the dose of propafenone by 70% for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, and adjust propafenone dose according to plasma concentrations or use an alternative drug for CYP2D6 intermediate and ultrarapid metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 08/10/2011

33. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for risperidone and CYP2D6

Summary

Select an alternative drug or be extra alert to adverse drug events (ADR) for patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers, or ultrarapid metabolizers with risperidone. Adjust risperidone dose to clinical response.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 08/10/2011

34. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for tamoxifen and CYP2D6

Summary

For CYP2D6 poor and intermediate metabolizers, consider using aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women due to increased risk for relapse of breast cancer with tamoxifen. For intermediate metabolizers, avoid concomitant CYP2D6 inhibitor use.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 05/02/2017

35. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for tramadol and CYP2D6

Summary

For CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PM), select an alternative to tramadol (not oxycodone or codeine) and be alert for symptoms of insufficient pain relief. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers (IM), be alert for symptoms of insufficient pain relief, and consider dose increase or select an alternative to tramadol (not oxycodone or codeine). For CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers, use a 30% decreased dose and be alert for ADEs, or use an alternative to tramadol (not oxycodone or codeine).

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 08/10/2011

36. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for venlafaxine and CYP2D6

Summary

For CYP2D6 poor (PM) and intermediate metabolizers (IM), select an alternative to venlafaxine or adjust dose to clinical response and monitor patient's plasma metabolite level. For CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers(UM), titrate dose to a maximum of 150% of the normal dose or select an alternative to venlafaxine.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 08/10/2011

37. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for zuclopenthixol and CYP2D6

Summary

For CYP2D6 poor and intermediate metabolizers, reduce zuclopenthixol dose or select an alternative drug. For ultrarapid metabolizers, be alert to low zuclopenthixol plasma concentrations or select an alternative drug.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 05/02/2017

38. Annotation of CPNDS Guideline for codeine and CYP2D6

Summary

The Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety (CPNDS) clinical recommendation group has published guidelines for the use of CYP2D6 genotype when prescribing codeine. They recommend that poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 should not receive codeine for pain relief, and ultrametabolizers of CYP2D6 should avoid codeine for pain relief.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.



Annotated Labels

  1. Annotation of FDA Label for amitriptyline and CYP2D6
  2. Annotation of FDA Label for arformoterol and CYP2D6,UGT1A1
  3. Annotation of FDA Label for aripiprazole and CYP2D6
  4. Annotation of FDA Label for aripiprazole lauroxil and CYP2D6
  5. Annotation of FDA Label for atomoxetine and CYP2D6
  6. Annotation of FDA Label for brexpiprazole and CYP2D6
  7. Annotation of FDA Label for carvedilol and CYP2D6
  8. Annotation of FDA Label for cevimeline and CYP2D6
  9. Annotation of FDA Label for citalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  10. Annotation of FDA Label for clomipramine and CYP2D6
  11. Annotation of FDA Label for clozapine and CYP2D6
  12. Annotation of FDA Label for codeine and CYP2D6
  13. Annotation of FDA Label for darifenacin and CYP2D6
  14. Annotation of FDA Label for desipramine and CYP2D6
  15. Annotation of FDA Label for donepezil and CYP2D6
  16. Annotation of FDA Label for doxepin and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  17. Annotation of FDA Label for duloxetine and CYP2D6
  18. Annotation of FDA Label for eliglustat and CYP2D6
  19. Annotation of FDA Label for escitalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  20. Annotation of FDA Label for fesoterodine and CYP2D6
  21. Annotation of FDA Label for flibanserin and CYP2C19,CYP2C9,CYP2D6
  22. Annotation of FDA Label for fluoxetine and CYP2D6
  23. Annotation of FDA Label for fluvoxamine and CYP2D6
  24. Annotation of FDA Label for galantamine and CYP2D6
  25. Annotation of FDA Label for iloperidone and CYP2D6
  26. Annotation of FDA Label for imipramine and CYP2D6
  27. Annotation of FDA Label for metoprolol and CYP2D6
  28. Annotation of FDA Label for modafinil and CYP2D6
  29. Annotation of FDA Label for nebivolol and CYP2D6
  30. Annotation of FDA Label for nefazodone and CYP2D6
  31. Annotation of FDA Label for nortriptyline and CYP2D6
  32. Annotation of FDA Label for ondansetron and CYP2D6
  33. Annotation of FDA Label for palonosetron and CYP2D6
  34. Annotation of FDA Label for paroxetine and CYP2D6
  35. Annotation of FDA Label for perphenazine and CYP2D6
  36. Annotation of FDA Label for pimozide and CYP2D6
  37. Annotation of FDA Label for propafenone and CYP2D6
  38. Annotation of FDA Label for propranolol and CYP2D6
  39. Annotation of FDA Label for protriptyline and CYP2D6
  40. Annotation of FDA Label for quinidine and CYP2D6
  41. Annotation of FDA Label for quinine and CYP2D6,G6PD
  42. Annotation of FDA Label for risperidone and CYP2D6
  43. Annotation of FDA Label for rucaparib and BRCA1,BRCA2,CYP1A2,CYP2D6
  44. Annotation of FDA Label for tamsulosin and CYP2D6
  45. Annotation of FDA Label for terbinafine and CYP2D6
  46. Annotation of FDA Label for tetrabenazine and CYP2D6
  47. Annotation of FDA Label for thioridazine and CYP2D6
  48. Annotation of FDA Label for timolol and CYP2D6
  49. Annotation of FDA Label for tiotropium and CYP2D6
  50. Annotation of FDA Label for tolterodine and CYP2D6
  51. Annotation of FDA Label for tramadol and CYP2D6
  52. Annotation of FDA Label for trimipramine and CYP2D6
  53. Annotation of FDA Label for venlafaxine and CYP2D6
  54. Annotation of FDA Label for vortioxetine and CYP2D6
  55. Annotation of FDA Label for dextromethorphan,quinidine and CYP2D6
  56. Annotation of FDA Label for fluoxetine,olanzapine and CYP2D6
  57. Annotation of EMA Label for aripiprazole and CYP2D6,CYP3A4
  58. Annotation of EMA Label for darifenacin and CYP2D6
  59. Annotation of EMA Label for dronedarone and CYP2D6,CYP3A4
  60. Annotation of EMA Label for eliglustat and CYP2D6
  61. Annotation of EMA Label for fesoterodine and CYP2D6
  62. Annotation of EMA Label for gefitinib and CYP2D6,CYP3A4,EGFR
  63. Annotation of EMA Label for olanzapine and CYP1A2,CYP2D6
  64. Annotation of EMA Label for propranolol and CYP2D6
  65. Annotation of EMA Label for ranolazine and CYP2D6
  66. Annotation of EMA Label for ritonavir and CYP2D6,CYP3A4
  67. Annotation of EMA Label for timolol and CYP2D6
  68. Annotation of EMA Label for vortioxetine and CYP2D6
  69. Annotation of EMA Label for dextromethorphan,quinidine and CYP2D6
  70. Annotation of PMDA Label for atomoxetine and CYP2D6
  71. Annotation of PMDA Label for codeine and CYP2D6
  72. Annotation of PMDA Label for eliglustat and CYP2D6
  73. Annotation of PMDA Label for escitalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  74. Annotation of PMDA Label for fesoterodine and CYP2D6
  75. Annotation of PMDA Label for gefitinib and CYP2D6,EGFR
  76. Annotation of PMDA Label for perphenazine and CYP2D6
  77. Annotation of PMDA Label for tetrabenazine and CYP2D6
  78. Annotation of PMDA Label for tolterodine and CYP2D6
  79. Annotation of HCSC Label for aripiprazole and CYP2D6
  80. Annotation of HCSC Label for atomoxetine and CYP2D6
  81. Annotation of HCSC Label for carvedilol and CYP2D6
  82. Annotation of HCSC Label for codeine and CYP2D6
  83. Annotation of HCSC Label for darifenacin and CYP2D6
  84. Annotation of HCSC Label for fesoterodine and CYP2D6
  85. Annotation of HCSC Label for galantamine and CYP2D6
  86. Annotation of HCSC Label for metoprolol and CYP2D6
  87. Annotation of HCSC Label for nortriptyline and CYP2D6
  88. Annotation of HCSC Label for propafenone and CYP2D6
  89. Annotation of HCSC Label for risperidone and CYP2D6
  90. Annotation of HCSC Label for tamoxifen and CYP2D6,ESR1,ESR2
  91. Annotation of HCSC Label for tetrabenazine and CYP2D6
  92. Annotation of HCSC Label for tolterodine and CYP2D6
  93. Annotation of HCSC Label for vortioxetine and CYP2D6
  94. Annotation of HCSC Label for acetaminophen,tramadol and CYP2D6

last updated 12/16/2013

1. Annotation of FDA Label for amitriptyline and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for amitriptyline contains information regarding the metabolism of tricyclic antidepressants by CYP2D6: CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may have higher plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants, and the label suggests monitoring of plasma levels if this drug is co-administrered with a CYP2D6 inhibitor.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 10/25/2013

3. Annotation of FDA Label for aripiprazole and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for aripiprazole states that in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, the dose should be reduced to 50% of the usual dose then adjusted to receive a favorable clinical response. Poor metabolizers who are given a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor should have their dose reduced by 25% of the usual dose. It also states that laboratory tests are available to identify CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


4. Annotation of FDA Label for aripiprazole lauroxil and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for aripiprazole lauroxil (ARISTADA) states that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers who are taking a concomitant medicine that is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor should have their dose reduced to 441 mg from 662 mg or 882 mg. No adjustment is necessary in patients taking the 441 mg dose, if it is tolerated.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

5. Annotation of FDA Label for atomoxetine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for atomoxetine (Strattera) recommends a dose adjustment in children or adolescents who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, or who are administered strong CYP2D6 inhibitors. Additionally, the label notes a number of adverse events that occurred more frequently in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers than extensive metabolizers in clinical trials. Laboratory tests are available to identify CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


6. Annotation of FDA Label for brexpiprazole and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for brexpiprazole (REXULTI) states that known CYP2D6 poor metabolizers should have their usual dosage reduced by half, and that known CYP2D6 poor metabolizers who are also taking strong/moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors should be administered a quarter of the usual dose. However, the label does not mention genetic testing.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

7. Annotation of FDA Label for carvedilol and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Carvedilol is metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP2C9. The drug label states that carvedilol is affected by the poor metabolizers of debrisoquin (a marker for cytochrome P450 2D6) resulting in higher plasma concentrations of R( + )-carvedilol. Additionally, retrospective analysis of side effects in clinical trials showed that poor CYP2D6 metabolizers had a higher rate of dizziness during up-titration, presumably resulting from vasodilating effects of the higher concentrations of the a-blocking R(+) enantiomer.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

8. Annotation of FDA Label for cevimeline and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

CYP2D6 and CYP3A3/4 are responsible for the metabolism of cevimeline, therefore the drug label states that drugs which inhibit CYP2D6 and CYP3A3/4 also inhibit the metabolism of cevimeline. Additionally, cevimeline should be used with caution in individuals known or suspected to be CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, based on previous experience, as they may be at a higher risk of adverse events.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

9. Annotation of FDA Label for citalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label recommends a maximum dose of 20 mg/day of citalopram (Celexa) in patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, due to an increase in citalopram exposure. This increased exposure leads to a greater risk for QT prolongation, a potentially fatal abnormality in the heart's electrical activity.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

10. Annotation of FDA Label for clomipramine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The drug label for clomipramine (Anafranil) notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), such as clomipramine, when given typical doses. Additionally, certain drugs inhibit the activity of this isozyme and make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers. It is therefore desirable to monitor TCA plasma levels whenever a TCA is going to be co-administered with another drug known to be a CYP2D6 inhibitor.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

11. Annotation of FDA Label for clozapine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Clozapine is a substrate of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6. The drug label notes to use caution when administering it concomitantly with drugs that are inducers or inhibitors of these enzymes. Additionally, it may be necessary to reduce the clozapine dose in patients with significant renal or hepatic impairment, or in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 05/01/2017

12. Annotation of FDA Label for codeine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for codeine states in a black box warning that respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received codeine following a tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy and who had evidence of being CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers. The label also states that deaths have occurred in nursing infants who were exposed to high levels of morphine in breast milk because their mothers were CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

13. Annotation of FDA Label for darifenacin and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for darifenacin (Enablex) notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may have increased maximum plasma concentrations of darifenacin, as compared to CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers. However, the label does not comment on the clinical significance of these increased concentrations.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

14. Annotation of FDA Label for desipramine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for desipramine (NORPRAMIN) notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), such as desipramine, when given typical doses. Additionally, certain drugs inhibit the activity of this isozyme and make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers. It is therefore desirable to monitor TCA plasma levels whenever a TCA is going to be co-administered with another drug known to be a CYP2D6 inhibitor.

There's more of this label. Read more.


15. Annotation of FDA Label for donepezil and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for donepezil (ARICEPT) states that it is metabolized by the CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes, and that there are differences in clearance values among CYP2D6 poor, extensive and ultra-rapid metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

16. Annotation of FDA Label for doxepin and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Doxepin is primarily metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. The drug label notes that CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of doxepin when given typical doses. Additionally, inhibitors of these CYP isozymes may increase the exposure of doxepin.

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17. Annotation of FDA Label for duloxetine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Duloxetine (CYMBALTA) is metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP1A2. The FDA-approved drug label notes that concomitant administration of duloxetine and fluvoxamine (a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor) to CYP2D6 poor metabolizers resulted in a 6-fold increase in duloxetine AUC and Cmax.

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18. Annotation of FDA Label for eliglustat and CYP2D6

Testing required

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for eliglustat (CERDELGA) states that it is indicated for patients with Gaucher disease type 1. CYP2D6 intermediate and extensive metabolizers have a recommended dose of 84 mg twice daily, while poor metabolizers have a recommended dose of 84 mg once daily. The label notes that CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers may not achieve adequate concentrations of eliglustat to achieve a therapeutic effect.

There's more of this label. Read more.


19. Annotation of FDA Label for escitalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for escitalopram (Lexapro) notes that escitalopram exposure under a supratherapeutic 30 mg dose is similar to the steady state concentrations expected in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers following a therapeutic dose of 20 mg. The label also comments on the relationship between CYP2D6 and escitalopram.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

20. Annotation of FDA Label for fesoterodine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for fesoterodine (Toviaz) notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may have increased maximum plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of fesoterodine, as compared to CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers. However, the label does not comment on the clinical significance of these increased concentrations.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

21. Annotation of FDA Label for flibanserin and CYP2C19,CYP2C9,CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for flibanserin (ADDYI) states that poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 had increased exposure to the drug as compared to extensive metabolizers. One subject who was a poor metabolizer experienced syncope. The label also notes the influence of CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 on flibanserin exposure.

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last updated 10/25/2013

22. Annotation of FDA Label for fluoxetine and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Fluoxetine is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, and panic disorder. Fluoxetine is metabolized by several cytochrome P450 enzymes with CYP2D6 being a major contributor. At the same time, fluoxetine is an inhibitor of CYP2D6 mediated reactions.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

23. Annotation of FDA Label for fluvoxamine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for fluvoxamine states that it appears to be metabolized, at least in part, by CYP2D6, and that caution should be used in treating patients with low CYP2D6 activity and those receiving other medication known to inhibit CYP2D6.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 10/25/2013

25. Annotation of FDA Label for iloperidone and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Co-administration of FANAPT with known strong inhibitors of CYP2D6 like fluoxetine results in a 2.3 fold increase in iloperidone plasma exposure, and therefore one-half of the FANAPT dose should be administered. Similarly, PMs of CYP2D6 have higher exposure to iloperidone compared with EMs and PMs should have their dose reduced by one half.

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last updated 10/25/2013

26. Annotation of FDA Label for imipramine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of TCAs when given usual doses. Concomitant use of TCAs with drugs that can inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 may require lower doses than usually prescribed for either the tricyclic antidepressant or the other drug; monitor TCA plasma levels.

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last updated 10/25/2013

27. Annotation of FDA Label for metoprolol and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Metoprolol is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver with a major contribution of CYP2D6. Poor metabolizers and extensive metabolizers who concomitantly use CYP2D6 inhibiting drugs will have increased (several-fold) metoprolol blood levels, decreasing metoprolol's cardioselectivity.

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last updated 10/25/2013

28. Annotation of FDA Label for modafinil and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Modafinil, used to improve wakefulness, is metabolized by many cytochrome P450s. Patients that are poor metabolizers for CYP2D6 may need dose modifications for medications that have ancillary metabolism via CYP2C19, such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).

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29. Annotation of FDA Label for nebivolol and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for nebivolol (BYSTOLIC) states that, though it is metabolized by CYP2D6, no dose adjustments are necessary for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, as the clinical effect and safety profile was similar between poor and extensive metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 10/25/2013

31. Annotation of FDA Label for nortriptyline and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) when given usual doses. In addition, certain drugs inhibit the activity of this isozyme and make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers; co-administration with these inhibitors' can make the patient abruptly toxic.

It is desirable to monitor TCA plasma levels whenever a TCA is going to be co-administered with another drug known to be an inhibitor.

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last updated 10/25/2013

34. Annotation of FDA Label for paroxetine and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The metabolism of paroxetine is accomplished in part by cytochrome CYP2D6. Coadministration of paroxetine with other drugs that are metabolized by this isozyme should be approached with caution. Due to the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death potentially associated with elevated plasma levels of thioridazine, paroxetine and thioridazine should not be coadministered.

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last updated 10/25/2013

35. Annotation of FDA Label for perphenazine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

CYP2D6 is involved in the pharmacokinetics of perphenazine. Poor metabolizers demonstrate higher plasma concentrations of antipsychotic drugs at usual doses, which may correlate with emergence of side effects. Prospective phenotyping of elderly patients prior to antipsychotic treatment may identify those at risk for adverse events.

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last updated 10/25/2013

36. Annotation of FDA Label for pimozide and CYP2D6

Testing required

Summary

CYP2D6 genotyping should be performed at doses above 0.05mg/kg/day in children or above 4 mg/day in adults. In poor CYP2D6 metabolizers, pimozide doses should not exceed 0.05mg/kg/day in children or 4 mg/day in adults and doses should not be increased earlier than 14 days.

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last updated 10/25/2013

37. Annotation of FDA Label for propafenone and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Propafenone is metabolized by CYP2D6,CYP3A4,and CYP1A2 isoenzymes. Inhibitors of CYP2D6, 1A2, and 3A4 may increase propafenone levels which may lead to cardiac arrhythmias. Simultaneous use with both a CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitor (or in a patient with CYP2D6 deficiency) should be avoided.

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last updated 10/25/2013

38. Annotation of FDA Label for propranolol and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Propranolol is metabolized primarily by CYP2D6. CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 may also play a role in propranolol metabolism. The drug label states that proranolol should be used with caution when co-administered with drugs that have an affect on CYP2D6, 1A2, or 2C19 metabolic pathways. Co-administration of such drugs with propranolol may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions and changes on its efficacy and/or toxicity.

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last updated 10/25/2013

40. Annotation of FDA Label for quinidine and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Quinidine inhibits the action of cytochrome P450IID6, effectively converting CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers into poor metabolizers. The drug label advises caution whenever quinidine is prescribed together with drugs metabolized by CYP2D6.

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last updated 12/20/2013

41. Annotation of FDA Label for quinine and CYP2D6,G6PD

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for quinine (QUALAQUIN) states that it is contraindicated in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency due to the risk for hemolysis. G6PD deficiency is a condition caused by variants in the G6PD gene which can be determined by enzymatic or genetic tests, however the drug label does not specifically mention testing.

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43. Annotation of FDA Label for rucaparib and BRCA1,BRCA2,CYP1A2,CYP2D6

Testing required

Summary

Rucaparib (RUBRACA) is indicated for the treatment of patients with deleterious BRCA mutation-associated advanced ovarian cancer. Patients should be selected for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for RUBRACA. The label notes that rucaparib concentrations did not differ significantly based on CYP2D6 or CYP1A2 genotypes.

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44. Annotation of FDA Label for tamsulosin and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for tamsulosin (FLOMAX) states that it should be used in caution in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, particularly at doses higher than 0.4 mg, due to the potential for a significant increase in exposure of the drug.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

45. Annotation of FDA Label for terbinafine and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Terbinafine is an antifungal drug. It is an inhibitor of CYP450 2D6 and has an effect on metabolism of desipramine, cimetidine, fluconazole, cyclosporine, rifampin, and caffeine. Coadministration of terbinafine with drugs dependent on CYP2D6 for metabolism should be done with careful monitoring and may require a reduction in dose of the 2D6-metabolized drug.

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last updated 10/25/2013

46. Annotation of FDA Label for tetrabenazine and CYP2D6

Testing required

Summary

Tetrabenazine is used to treat Huntington's Disease chorea. Its primary metabolites are metabolized mainly by CYP2D6. Patients requiring doses above 50 mg per day should be genotyped for the drug metabolizing enzyme CYP2D6 to determine if the patient is a poor metabolizer (PM) or an extensive metabolizer (EM). People with CYP2D6 poor metabolizer genotypes should be treated with lower doses.

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last updated 10/25/2013

47. Annotation of FDA Label for thioridazine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Thioridazine is used to treat schizophrenia, but has been associated with Torsades de pointes and sudden death. Due to the potentially fatal side effects, it is typically reserved for patients who do not respond well to other anti-psychotics. This drug is contraindicated in patients with reduced CYP2D6 activity.

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last updated 10/25/2013

48. Annotation of FDA Label for timolol and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Timolol is a non-selective beta adrenergic agonist applied to the eye to reduce intraocular pressure. This drug-biomarker pair was previously in the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" but has subsequently been removed.

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last updated 10/25/2013

49. Annotation of FDA Label for tiotropium and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Tiotropium is an inhalation powder used daily for the treatment of bronchospasms associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and believed to be in small part metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. This drug-biomarker pair was previously in the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" but has subsequently been removed.

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last updated 10/25/2013

50. Annotation of FDA Label for tolterodine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Tolterodine is used for the treatment of overactive bladder and is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6. Poor metabolizers may have greater plasma concentrations of the drug which could possibly have an effect QT interval. However, no recommendations for testing for CYP2D6 metabolizer status are provided on the label.

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last updated 05/01/2017

51. Annotation of FDA Label for tramadol and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved label for tramadol (ULTRAM) states that it is metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, and that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers had approximately 20% higher concentrations of the drug as compared to extensive metabolizers. Additionally, concentrations of the metabolite M1 (O-desmethyltramadol; pharmacologically active) were 40% lower in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers as compared to extensive metabolizers.

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last updated 10/25/2013

52. Annotation of FDA Label for trimipramine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Trimipramine (Surmontil) is a tricyclic antidepressant used to treat depression. Like many antidepressants, it has a black box warning for increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Trimipramine is metabolized by CYP2D6 and poor metabolizers my experience higher plasma concentrations of the drug at typical doses.

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last updated 10/25/2013

53. Annotation of FDA Label for venlafaxine and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Venlafaxine (Effexor) is an inhibitor of neuronal serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake and weak inhibitor of dopamine reuptake used in the treatment of depression. It is metabolized by CYP2D6, and to a lesser extent, CYP3A4 (shown in vitro).

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last updated 10/25/2013

55. Annotation of FDA Label for dextromethorphan,quinidine and CYP2D6

Testing recommended

Summary

The quinidine component of NUEDEXTA is a CYP2D6 inhibitor used to increase the plasma availability of dextromethorphan, which is metabolized by CYP2D6. Therefore, CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may be at risk of experiencing toxicity.

The label states, "The quinidine component of NUEDEXTRA is not expected to contribute to the effectiveness of NUEDEXTA in PMs [CYP2D6 poor metabolizers], but adverse events of the quinidine are still possible. In those patients who may be at risk of significant toxicity due to quinidine, genotyping to determine if they are PMs should be considered prior to making the decision to treat with NUEDEXTA."

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last updated 12/17/2013

56. Annotation of FDA Label for fluoxetine,olanzapine and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Symbyax, a drug mixture of fluoxetine and olanzapine, is used for the treatment of bipolar disorder and treatment resistant depression and, due to its potent CYP2D6 inhibition as a result of fluoxetine, exhibits drug interactions with other medications also metabolized by CYP2D6. Coadministration with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 should be approached with caution.

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last updated 10/25/2013

57. Annotation of EMA Label for aripiprazole and CYP2D6,CYP3A4

Actionable PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) recommends dose adjustments when aripiprazole is taken with CYP3A4 inhibitors in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, or concomitant use of CYP3A4 or CYP2D6 inhibitors, or CYP3A4 inducers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 08/07/2014

58. Annotation of EMA Label for darifenacin and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for darifenacin (Emselex) contains information regarding differences in exposure to drug in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers compared to extensive metabolizers. Darifenacin is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, therefore exposure to darifenacin may be greater in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers when CYP3A4 inhibitors are taken concomitantly.

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last updated 09/16/2014

59. Annotation of EMA Label for dronedarone and CYP2D6,CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for dronedarone (MULTAQ) states that it is a mild inhibitor of CYP2D6, and that the effect on metoprolol and propranol exposure is much below the difference seen between poor and extensive CYP2D6 metabolisers. It also contains information regarding metabolism of by dronedarone CYP3A4, and that concomitant drugs that are potent CYP3A4 inhibitors are contraindicated and potent CYP3A4 inducers are not recommended.

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60. Annotation of EMA Label for eliglustat and CYP2D6

Testing required

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for eliglustat (Cerdelga) states that it is indicated for adults with Gaucher disease type 1. CYP2D6 intermediate and extensive metabolizers have a recommended dose of 84 mg twice daily, while poor metabolizers have a recommended dose of 84 mg once daily. The label notes that eliglustat should not be used in patients who are CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers or indeterminate metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 08/07/2014

61. Annotation of EMA Label for fesoterodine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for fesoterodine (Toviaz) contains information regarding differences in exposure to drug in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers compared to extensive metabolizers. Exposure to fesoterodine may be greater in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, particularly when CYP3A4 inhibitors are taken concomitantly.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

62. Annotation of EMA Label for gefitinib and CYP2D6,CYP3A4,EGFR

Testing required

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) contains biomarker information regarding the indication of gefitinib (Iressa) in patients with tumors that have activating EGFR mutations, due to its mechanism of action.

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last updated 10/27/2013

63. Annotation of EMA Label for olanzapine and CYP1A2,CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for olanzapine (Zalasta) contains information regarding the metabolism of the drug by the enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP2D6: factors that induce or inhibit CYP1A2 may alter the concentration of olanzapine and thus may require dosage monitoring. The EPAR does not mention pharmacogenetics or testing of genetic variants in these genes.

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last updated 06/26/2014

64. Annotation of EMA Label for propranolol and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for propranolol hydrochloride (Hemangiol) gives information regarding the metabolism of the drug by three different routes which varies between individuals, but that no difference in oral clearance or elimination is observed between CYP2D6 extensive and poor metabolizers.

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65. Annotation of EMA Label for ranolazine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for ranolazine (Ranexa) lists subgroups of patients in which caution should be taken when prescribing or uptitrating the drug. These precuations are based on the risk in CYP2D6 poor metabolizer patients (who are at risk of increased exposure to the drug leading to adverse events), and the EPAR states that there is a lower need for precautions in patients who are CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers.

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last updated 09/15/2014

66. Annotation of EMA Label for ritonavir and CYP2D6,CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for ritonavir (Norvir) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains information regarding use of ritonavir as a pharmacokinetic enhancer for certain drugs to prolong their therapeutic effects. It is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A and CYP2D6-mediated biotransformation, and the EPAR provides a list of drugs contraindicated for concomitant use with ritonavir.

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last updated 01/22/2014

67. Annotation of EMA Label for timolol and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA EPAR for timolol contains information regarding potentiated beta-blockade when treatment is combined with CYP2D6 inhibitors. No pharmacogenetic information was found in the label.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/15/2014

68. Annotation of EMA Label for vortioxetine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for vortioxetine (Brintellix) contains information regarding CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, who may have higher exposure to vortioxetine when coadministered a CYP3A4 or CYP2C9 inhibitor. The EPAR recommends considering dose adjustments depending on individual patient response.

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last updated 05/02/2014

69. Annotation of EMA Label for dextromethorphan,quinidine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for dextromethorphan and quinidine (Nuedexta) does not require dose adjustment based on CYP2D6 genotype. Efficacy is not expected to be affected in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, however adverse reactions to quinidine are possible. Dextromethorphan is rapidly metabolized in CYP2D6 ultrametabolizers, and may result in subtherapeutic concentrations.

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70. Annotation of PMDA Label for atomoxetine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for atomoxetine (Strattera) states that individuals who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) and administered atomoxetine may have higher exposure to the drug and be at a greater risk of experiencing adverse events. The insert recommends dosing these patients with discretion.

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71. Annotation of PMDA Label for codeine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for codeine notes that CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers are at increased risk of developing side effects due to high serum levels of morphine, and that they may also have higher morphine levels in breast milk.

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72. Annotation of PMDA Label for eliglustat and CYP2D6

Testing required

Summary

The PMDA package insert for eliglustat (CERDELGA) states that a patient's CYP2D6 genotype should be established prior to treatment, and that the drug is not recommended in CYP2D6 poor or ultrarapid metabolizers, or those who CYP2D6 metabolizer status cannot be determined.

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73. Annotation of PMDA Label for escitalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for escitalopram notes that the recommended maximum dose is 10 mg in patients with genetically absent CYP2C19 activity (poor metabolizers), due to an increased risk for developing QT prolongation and other side effects from the increased plasma concentrations.

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75. Annotation of PMDA Label for gefitinib and CYP2D6,EGFR

Testing required

Summary

The PMDA package insert for gefitinib (Iressa) states that patients should be tested for EGFR gene mutations prior to administration. It also discusses the role of CYP2D6 is the metabolism of gefitinib.

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77. Annotation of PMDA Label for tetrabenazine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for tetrabenazine states that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers and intermediate metabolizer are at increased risk of developing side effects due to higher levels of the active metabolite, and that caution should be used in treating these patients.

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78. Annotation of PMDA Label for tolterodine and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

Tolterodine is metabolized by CYP2D6 into the pharmacologically active and equipotent 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite (DD01). The PMDA package insert for tolterodine (Detrusitol) notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers have negligible concentrations of the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite and significantly increased concentrations of tolterodine, as compared to extensive metabolizers.

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79. Annotation of HCSC Label for aripiprazole and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for aripiprazole (ABILIFY) notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers have approximately an 80% increase in aripiprazole exposure and approximately a 30% decrease in exposure to the active metabolite compared to CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers.

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80. Annotation of HCSC Label for atomoxetine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for atomoxetine notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) have a 10-fold higher area under the curve (AUC) and a 5-fold higher peak concentration of the drug as compared to extensive metabolizers (EM); this leads to a higher rate of some adverse events for PMs compared to EMs.

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81. Annotation of HCSC Label for carvedilol and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for carvedilol notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers exhibit 2- to 3-fold higher plasma concentrations of R( + )-carvedilol compared to extensive metabolizers. Plasma levels of S( - )-carvedilol are increased only about 20 - 25% in poor metabolizers.

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82. Annotation of HCSC Label for codeine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers may experience overdose symptoms such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing at normal dosing regimens of codeine. Mothers who are ultra-rapid metabolizers and breast-feeding have higher-than-expected levels of morphine in breast milk and potentially dangerously high serum morphine levels in their breastfed infants.

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83. Annotation of HCSC Label for darifenacin and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for darifenacin notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may have higher levels of the drug as compared to extensive metabolizers. However, it also notes that there are no special dosing requirements for poor metabolizers.

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84. Annotation of HCSC Label for fesoterodine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for fesoterodine (TOVIAZ) states that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers have increased levels of the active metabolite of the drug as compared to extensive metabolizers. However, it makes no statements regarding genetic testing of CYP2D6.

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85. Annotation of HCSC Label for galantamine and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The product monograph for galantamine notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers have decreased clearance and increased AUC of galantamine as compared to extensive metabolizers. However, it also states that dosage adjustment based on CYP2D6 genotype is not necessary since the drug is individually titrated to tolerability.

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86. Annotation of HCSC Label for metoprolol and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for metoprolol notes that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers exhibit higher plasma concentrations of the drug as compared to extensive metabolizers, however these differences in plasma concentrations seem to have little to no effect on safety or tolerability.

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87. Annotation of HCSC Label for nortriptyline and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for nortriptyline notes that individuals who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may have higher than expected levels of tricyclic antidepressants (of which nortriptyline is a member) when given usual doses.

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88. Annotation of HCSC Label for propafenone and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for propafenone notes that individuals with reduced CYP2D6 activity may have higher plasma concentrations of the drug as compared to those who do not have reduced CYP2D6 activity.

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89. Annotation of HCSC Label for risperidone and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The product monograph for risperidone notes that since CYP2D6 is responsible for the metabolism of risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, the levels of each differ between CYP2D6 poor and extensive metabolizers. However, the concentration of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone combined does not differ substantially between poor and extensive metabolizers.

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90. Annotation of HCSC Label for tamoxifen and CYP2D6,ESR1,ESR2

Testing required

Summary

The product monograph for tamoxifen states that it is indicated for treatment of early breast cancer in women with estrogen receptor positive tumors. It also notes that individuals with low CYP2D6 activity (or using CYP2D6 inhibitors) may have reductions in plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of tamoxifen.

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91. Annotation of HCSC Label for tetrabenazine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for tetrabenazine notes that the tetrabenazine active metabolite HTBZ is likely increased in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers as compared to extensive metabolizers, and that caution in dosing should be exercised.

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92. Annotation of HCSC Label for tolterodine and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The product monograph for tolterodine notes that CYP2D6 is responsible for the metabolism of tolterodine to its active metabolite DD 01. However, since tolterodine and DD 01 have similar pharmacological effects, the net activity of tolterodine is expected to be similar regardless of CYP2D6 metabolizer status.

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93. Annotation of HCSC Label for vortioxetine and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for vortioxetine (TRINTELLIX) states that the concentration of the drug is approximately 2 times higher in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers as compared to extensive metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


94. Annotation of HCSC Label for acetaminophen,tramadol and CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monographs for tramadol and acetaminophen (APO-TRAMADOL/ACET) and tramadol (APO-TRAMADOL) note that patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may have increased tramadol concentrations as compared to those who are CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below. Please follow the link in the "Position" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Position" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Clinical Annotation for CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*1xN, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*2xN, CYP2D6*3, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*5, CYP2D6*6, nortriptyline and Depressive Disorder, Major (level 1A Efficacy, Toxicity/ADR, Metabolism/PK)

Level of Evidence
Level 1A
Type
Efficacy, Toxicity/ADR, Metabolism/PK
Variant
*1, *10, *1xN, *2, *2xN, *3, *4, *5, *6
Genes
CYP2D6
Phenotypes
Depressive Disorder, Major
OMB Race
Mixed Population
Race Notes
Asian, Mixed, and White

To see the rest of this clinical annotation please register or sign in.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

List of all variant annotations for CYP2D6

Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *1xN N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *2xN N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *4A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *4D N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *4xN N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *6B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *10 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *10A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *10B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *10x2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *11 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *12 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *13 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *14 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *14A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *14B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *15 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *17 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *18 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *19 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *20 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *21 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *22 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *23 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *24 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *25 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *26 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *27 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *28 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *29 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *30 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *31 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *32 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *33 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *35 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *35xN N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *36 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *36xN N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *37 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *38 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *39 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *40 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *41 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *42 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *43 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *44 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *45 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *46 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *47 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *48 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *49 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *50 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *51 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *52 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *53 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *54 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *55 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *56 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *57 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *59 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *61 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *62 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *63 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *64 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *65 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *69 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *70 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *71 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *72 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *75 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *81 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *84 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *87 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *88 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *89 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *90 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *91 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *92 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *93 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *94 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *95 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *96 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *97 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *98 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *100 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *101 N/A N/A N/A
rs1065852 NC_000022.10:g.42526694G=, NC_000022.10:g.42526694G>A, NC_000022.11:g.42130692G=, NC_000022.11:g.42130692G>A, NG_008376.3:g.4300C=, NG_008376.3:g.4300C>T, NM_000106.5:c.100C=, NM_000106.5:c.100C>T, NM_001025161.2:c.100C=, NM_001025161.2:c.100C>T, NP_000097.3:p.Pro34=, NP_000097.3:p.Pro34Ser, NP_001020332.2:p.Pro34=, NP_001020332.2:p.Pro34Ser, NT_187682.1:g.53033G=, NT_187682.1:g.53033G>A, NW_004504305.1:g.53019A=, NW_004504305.1:g.53019A>G, NW_009646208.1:g.16258A=, NW_009646208.1:g.16258A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.100T=, XM_005278353.1:c.100T>C, XM_005278354.1:c.-1454C>T, XM_005278354.1:c.-1454T>C, XM_005278354.3:c.-1454C>T, XM_005278354.3:c.-1454T>C, XM_011529966.1:c.100C=, XM_011529966.1:c.100C>T, XM_011529967.1:c.100C=, XM_011529967.1:c.100C>T, XM_011529968.1:c.100C=, XM_011529968.1:c.100C>T, XM_011529969.1:c.37+605C>T, XM_011529969.1:c.37+605T>C, XM_011529970.1:c.100C=, XM_011529970.1:c.100C>T, XM_011529971.1:c.37+605C>T, XM_011529971.1:c.37+605T>C, XM_011529972.1:c.100C=, XM_011529972.1:c.100C>T, XM_011547541.1:c.-1454C>T, XM_011547541.1:c.-1454T>C, XM_011547750.1:c.37+605C>T, XM_011547750.1:c.37+605T>C, XM_011547751.1:c.-1114C>T, XM_011547751.1:c.-1114T>C, XM_011547756.1:c.42+469A>G, XM_011547756.1:c.42+469G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.-1454C>T, XM_011548819.1:c.-1454T>C, XP_005278410.1:p.Ser34=, XP_005278410.1:p.Ser34Pro, XP_011528268.1:p.Pro34=, XP_011528268.1:p.Pro34Ser, XP_011528269.1:p.Pro34=, XP_011528269.1:p.Pro34Ser, XP_011528270.1:p.Pro34=, XP_011528270.1:p.Pro34Ser, XP_011528272.1:p.Pro34=, XP_011528272.1:p.Pro34Ser, XP_011528274.1:p.Pro34=, XP_011528274.1:p.Pro34Ser, XR_430455.2:n.328+4A>G, XR_430455.2:n.328+4G>A, XR_952536.1:n.-1751A>G, XR_952536.1:n.-1751G>A, XR_952537.1:n.-1751A>G, XR_952537.1:n.-1751G>A, XR_952538.1:n.-1751A>G, XR_952538.1:n.-1751G>A, XR_952539.1:n.-1462A>G, XR_952539.1:n.-1462G>A, XR_952745.1:n.1257C=, XR_952745.1:n.1257C>T, rs117813846, rs58862176
G > A
SNP
P34S
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1080983 NC_000022.10:g.42528568T=, NC_000022.10:g.42528568T>C, NC_000022.11:g.42132561C=, NC_000022.11:g.42132561C>T, NG_008376.3:g.2431G=, NG_008376.3:g.2431G>A, NM_000106.5:c.-1770A>G, NM_000106.5:c.-1770G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.-1770A>G, NM_001025161.2:c.-1770G>A, NT_187682.1:g.54907T=, NT_187682.1:g.54907T>C, NW_004504305.1:g.54891C=, NW_004504305.1:g.54891C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.18129C=, NW_009646208.1:g.18129C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.-1773A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.-1773G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529966.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.-1045-725A>G, XM_011529967.1:c.-1045-725G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529968.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.-1228A>G, XM_011529969.1:c.-1228G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529970.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.-1228A>G, XM_011529971.1:c.-1228G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529972.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.-1233A>G, XM_011547750.1:c.-1233G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.42+2343C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.42+2343T>C, XR_430455.2:n.836C>T, XR_430455.2:n.836T>C, XR_952536.1:n.122C=, XR_952536.1:n.122C>T, XR_952537.1:n.122C=, XR_952537.1:n.122C>T, XR_952538.1:n.122C=, XR_952538.1:n.122C>T, XR_952539.1:n.40+371C>T, XR_952539.1:n.40+371T>C, XR_952540.1:n.-1213C>T, XR_952540.1:n.-1213T>C, XR_952745.1:n.-618A>G, XR_952745.1:n.-618G>A, rs57121857
T > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1080985 NC_000022.10:g.42528382C=, NC_000022.10:g.42528382C>G, NC_000022.11:g.42132375G=, NC_000022.11:g.42132375G>C, NG_008376.3:g.2617C=, NG_008376.3:g.2617C>G, NM_000106.5:c.-1584C>G, NM_000106.5:c.-1584G>C, NM_001025161.2:c.-1584C>G, NM_001025161.2:c.-1584G>C, NT_187682.1:g.54721C=, NT_187682.1:g.54721C>G, NW_004504305.1:g.54705G=, NW_004504305.1:g.54705G>C, NW_009646208.1:g.17943G=, NW_009646208.1:g.17943G>C, XM_005278353.1:c.-1587C>G, XM_005278353.1:c.-1587G>C, XM_011529966.1:c.-1584C>G, XM_011529966.1:c.-1584G>C, XM_011529967.1:c.-1045-539C>G, XM_011529967.1:c.-1045-539G>C, XM_011529968.1:c.-1584C>G, XM_011529968.1:c.-1584G>C, XM_011529969.1:c.-1042C>G, XM_011529969.1:c.-1042G>C, XM_011529970.1:c.-1584C>G, XM_011529970.1:c.-1584G>C, XM_011529971.1:c.-1042C>G, XM_011529971.1:c.-1042G>C, XM_011529972.1:c.-1584C>G, XM_011529972.1:c.-1584G>C, XM_011547750.1:c.-1047C>G, XM_011547750.1:c.-1047G>C, XM_011547756.1:c.42+2157C>G, XM_011547756.1:c.42+2157G>C, XR_430455.2:n.650C>G, XR_430455.2:n.650G>C, XR_952536.1:n.-65C>G, XR_952536.1:n.-65G>C, XR_952537.1:n.-65C>G, XR_952537.1:n.-65G>C, XR_952538.1:n.-65C>G, XR_952538.1:n.-65G>C, XR_952539.1:n.40+185C>G, XR_952539.1:n.40+185G>C, XR_952540.1:n.-1399C>G, XR_952540.1:n.-1399G>C, XR_952745.1:n.-432C>G, XR_952745.1:n.-432G>C, rs61604987
C > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1080989 NC_000022.10:g.42527793C=, NC_000022.10:g.42527793C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42131791C=, NC_000022.11:g.42131791C>T, NG_008376.3:g.3201G=, NG_008376.3:g.3201G>A, NM_000106.5:c.-1000A>G, NM_000106.5:c.-1000G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.-1000A>G, NM_001025161.2:c.-1000G>A, NT_187682.1:g.54132C=, NT_187682.1:g.54132C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.54118T=, NW_004504305.1:g.54118T>C, NW_009646208.1:g.17357T=, NW_009646208.1:g.17357T>C, XM_005278353.1:c.-1000A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529966.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529967.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529968.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.-458G=, XM_011529969.1:c.-458G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529970.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.-458G=, XM_011529971.1:c.-458G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529972.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.-458G=, XM_011547750.1:c.-458G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.42+1568C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.42+1568T>C, XR_430455.2:n.329-263C>T, XR_430455.2:n.329-263T>C, XR_952536.1:n.-652C>T, XR_952536.1:n.-652T>C, XR_952537.1:n.-652C>T, XR_952537.1:n.-652T>C, XR_952538.1:n.-652C>T, XR_952538.1:n.-652T>C, XR_952539.1:n.-363C>T, XR_952539.1:n.-363T>C, XR_952540.1:n.-1986C>T, XR_952540.1:n.-1986T>C, XR_952745.1:n.158G=, XR_952745.1:n.158G>A
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1135840 NC_000022.10:g.42522613G=, NC_000022.10:g.42522613G>C, NC_000022.11:g.42126611C=, NC_000022.11:g.42126611C>G, NG_008376.3:g.8381G=, NG_008376.3:g.8381G>C, NM_000106.5:c.1457G=, NM_000106.5:c.1457G>C, NM_001025161.2:c.1304G=, NM_001025161.2:c.1304G>C, NP_000097.3:p.Ser486=, NP_000097.3:p.Ser486Thr, NP_001020332.2:p.Ser435=, NP_001020332.2:p.Ser435Thr, NT_187682.1:g.48952G=, NT_187682.1:g.48952G>C, NW_004504305.1:g.48938G=, NW_004504305.1:g.48938G>C, NW_009646208.1:g.12177G=, NW_009646208.1:g.12177G>C, XM_005278353.1:c.1313C=, XM_005278353.1:c.1313C>G, XM_005278354.1:c.1157C=, XM_005278354.1:c.1157C>G, XM_005278354.3:c.1157C=, XM_005278354.3:c.1157C>G, XM_011529966.1:c.1452+5C>G, XM_011529966.1:c.1452+5G>C, XM_011529967.1:c.1452+5C>G, XM_011529967.1:c.1452+5G>C, XM_011529968.1:c.1452+5C>G, XM_011529968.1:c.1452+5G>C, XM_011529969.1:c.1308+5C>G, XM_011529969.1:c.1308+5G>C, XM_011529970.1:c.1299+5C>G, XM_011529970.1:c.1299+5G>C, XM_011529971.1:c.1313G=, XM_011529971.1:c.1313G>C, XM_011547750.1:c.1313C=, XM_011547750.1:c.1313C>G, XM_011547751.1:c.1241C=, XM_011547751.1:c.1241C>G, XP_005278410.1:p.Thr438=, XP_005278410.1:p.Thr438Ser, XP_005278411.1:p.Thr386=, XP_005278411.1:p.Thr386Ser, XP_011528273.1:p.Ser438=, XP_011528273.1:p.Ser438Thr, XP_011546052.1:p.Thr438=, XP_011546052.1:p.Thr438Ser, XP_011546053.1:p.Thr414=, XP_011546053.1:p.Thr414Ser, XR_952745.1:n.2472C=, XR_952745.1:n.2472C>G, rs57862116
G > C
SNP
S486T
No VIP available CA VA
rs138417770 NC_000022.10:g.42526720C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42130718C>T, NG_008376.3:g.4274G>A, NM_000106.5:c.74G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.74G>A, NP_000097.3:p.Arg25Gln, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg25Gln, NT_187682.1:g.53059C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.53045C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.16284C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.74G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.-1480G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.-1480G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.74G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.74G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.74G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.37+579G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.74G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.37+579G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.74G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.-1480G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.37+579G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.-1140G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.42+495C>T, XM_011548819.1:c.-1480G>A, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg25Gln, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg25Gln, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg25Gln, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg25Gln, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg25Gln, XP_011528274.1:p.Arg25Gln, XR_430455.2:n.328+30C>T, XR_952536.1:n.-1725C>T, XR_952537.1:n.-1725C>T, XR_952538.1:n.-1725C>T, XR_952539.1:n.-1436C>T, XR_952745.1:n.1231G>A
C > T
SNP
R25Q
rs16947 NC_000022.10:g.42523943A=, NC_000022.10:g.42523943A>G, NC_000022.11:g.42127941G=, NC_000022.11:g.42127941G>A, NG_008376.3:g.7051C=, NG_008376.3:g.7051C>T, NM_000106.5:c.886C=, NM_000106.5:c.886C>T, NM_001025161.2:c.733C=, NM_001025161.2:c.733C>T, NP_000097.3:p.Arg296=, NP_000097.3:p.Arg296Cys, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg245=, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg245Cys, NT_187682.1:g.50282A=, NT_187682.1:g.50282A>G, NW_004504305.1:g.50268G=, NW_004504305.1:g.50268G>A, NW_009646208.1:g.13507G=, NW_009646208.1:g.13507G>A, XM_005278353.1:c.742C=, XM_005278353.1:c.742C>T, XM_005278354.1:c.586C=, XM_005278354.1:c.586C>T, XM_005278354.3:c.586C=, XM_005278354.3:c.586C>T, XM_011529966.1:c.886C=, XM_011529966.1:c.886C>T, XM_011529967.1:c.886C=, XM_011529967.1:c.886C>T, XM_011529968.1:c.886C=, XM_011529968.1:c.886C>T, XM_011529969.1:c.742C=, XM_011529969.1:c.742C>T, XM_011529970.1:c.733C=, XM_011529970.1:c.733C>T, XM_011529971.1:c.742C=, XM_011529971.1:c.742C>T, XM_011529972.1:c.843+233C>T, XM_011529972.1:c.843+233T>C, XM_011547541.1:c.586C=, XM_011547541.1:c.586C>T, XM_011547750.1:c.742T=, XM_011547750.1:c.742T>C, XM_011547751.1:c.670T=, XM_011547751.1:c.670T>C, XM_011547756.1:c.-2094A>G, XM_011547756.1:c.-2094G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.586C=, XM_011548819.1:c.586C>T, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg248=, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg248Cys, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg196=, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg196Cys, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg296=, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg296Cys, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg296=, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg296Cys, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg296=, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg296Cys, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg248=, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg248Cys, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg245=, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg245Cys, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg248=, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg248Cys, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg196=, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg196Cys, XP_011546052.1:p.Cys248=, XP_011546052.1:p.Cys248Arg, XP_011546053.1:p.Cys224=, XP_011546053.1:p.Cys224Arg, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg196=, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg196Cys, XR_430455.2:n.-1930A>G, XR_430455.2:n.-1930G>A, XR_952745.1:n.2000+233C>T, XR_952745.1:n.2000+233T>C, rs117039205, rs57836231
A > G
SNP
R296C
No VIP available CA VA
rs28360521 NC_000022.10:g.42528976C=, NC_000022.10:g.42528976C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42132969C=, NC_000022.11:g.42132969C>T, NG_008376.3:g.2023G=, NG_008376.3:g.2023G>A, NT_187682.1:g.55315C=, NT_187682.1:g.55315C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.55299T=, NW_004504305.1:g.55299T>C, NW_009646208.1:g.18537T=, NW_009646208.1:g.18537T>C, XM_011529966.1:c.-2178A>G, XM_011529966.1:c.-2178G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.-1045-1133A>G, XM_011529967.1:c.-1045-1133G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.-2178A>G, XM_011529968.1:c.-2178G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.-1636A>G, XM_011529969.1:c.-1636G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.-2178A>G, XM_011529970.1:c.-2178G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.-1636A>G, XM_011529971.1:c.-1636G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.-2178A>G, XM_011529972.1:c.-2178G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.-1641A>G, XM_011547750.1:c.-1641G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.43-2711C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.43-2711T>C, XR_952536.1:n.164-71C>T, XR_952536.1:n.164-71T>C, XR_952537.1:n.164-71C>T, XR_952537.1:n.164-71T>C, XR_952538.1:n.163+367C>T, XR_952538.1:n.163+367T>C, XR_952539.1:n.40+779C>T, XR_952539.1:n.40+779T>C, XR_952540.1:n.-805C>T, XR_952540.1:n.-805T>C, XR_952745.1:n.-1026A>G, XR_952745.1:n.-1026G>A, rs61186478
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs28371703 NC_000022.10:g.42525821G>T, NC_000022.11:g.42129819G>T, NG_008376.3:g.5173C>A, NM_000106.5:c.271C>A, NM_001025161.2:c.271C>A, NP_000097.3:p.Leu91Met, NP_001020332.2:p.Leu91Met, NT_187682.1:g.52160G>T, NW_004504305.1:g.52146G>T, NW_009646208.1:g.15385G>T, XM_005278353.1:c.271C>A, XM_005278354.1:c.-581C>A, XM_005278354.3:c.-581C>A, XM_011529966.1:c.271C>A, XM_011529967.1:c.271C>A, XM_011529968.1:c.271C>A, XM_011529969.1:c.128C>A, XM_011529970.1:c.271C>A, XM_011529971.1:c.128C>A, XM_011529972.1:c.271C>A, XM_011547541.1:c.-581C>A, XM_011547750.1:c.128C>A, XM_011547751.1:c.-241C>A, XM_011547756.1:c.-216G>T, XM_011548819.1:c.-581C>A, XP_005278410.1:p.Leu91Met, XP_011528268.1:p.Leu91Met, XP_011528269.1:p.Leu91Met, XP_011528270.1:p.Leu91Met, XP_011528271.1:p.Ala43Asp, XP_011528272.1:p.Leu91Met, XP_011528273.1:p.Ala43Asp, XP_011528274.1:p.Leu91Met, XP_011546052.1:p.Ala43Asp, XR_430455.2:n.-52G>T, XR_952745.1:n.1428C>A
G > T
SNP
L91M
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs28371704 NC_000022.10:g.42525811T>C, NC_000022.11:g.42129809T>C, NG_008376.3:g.5183A>G, NM_000106.5:c.281A>G, NM_001025161.2:c.281A>G, NP_000097.3:p.His94Arg, NP_001020332.2:p.His94Arg, NT_187682.1:g.52150T>C, NW_004504305.1:g.52136T>C, NW_009646208.1:g.15375T>C, XM_005278353.1:c.281A>G, XM_005278354.1:c.-571A>G, XM_005278354.3:c.-571A>G, XM_011529966.1:c.281A>G, XM_011529967.1:c.281A>G, XM_011529968.1:c.281A>G, XM_011529969.1:c.138A>G, XM_011529970.1:c.281A>G, XM_011529971.1:c.138A>G, XM_011529972.1:c.281A>G, XM_011547541.1:c.-571A>G, XM_011547750.1:c.138A>G, XM_011547751.1:c.-231A>G, XM_011547756.1:c.-226T>C, XM_011548819.1:c.-571A>G, XP_005278410.1:p.His94Arg, XP_011528268.1:p.His94Arg, XP_011528269.1:p.His94Arg, XP_011528270.1:p.His94Arg, XP_011528271.1:p.Pro46=, XP_011528272.1:p.His94Arg, XP_011528273.1:p.Pro46=, XP_011528274.1:p.His94Arg, XP_011546052.1:p.Pro46=, XR_430455.2:n.-62T>C, XR_952745.1:n.1438A>G
T > C
SNP
H94R
rs28371706 NC_000022.10:g.42525772G>A, NC_000022.11:g.42129770G>A, NG_008376.3:g.5222C>T, NM_000106.5:c.320C>T, NM_001025161.2:c.320C>T, NP_000097.3:p.Thr107Ile, NP_001020332.2:p.Thr107Ile, NT_187682.1:g.52111G>A, NW_004504305.1:g.52097G>A, NW_009646208.1:g.15336G>A, XM_005278353.1:c.320C>T, XM_005278354.1:c.-532C>T, XM_005278354.3:c.-532C>T, XM_011529966.1:c.320C>T, XM_011529967.1:c.320C>T, XM_011529968.1:c.320C>T, XM_011529969.1:c.177C>T, XM_011529970.1:c.320C>T, XM_011529971.1:c.177C>T, XM_011529972.1:c.320C>T, XM_011547541.1:c.-532C>T, XM_011547750.1:c.177C>T, XM_011547751.1:c.-192C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.-265G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.-532C>T, XP_005278410.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011528268.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011528269.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011528270.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011528271.1:p.His59=, XP_011528272.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011528273.1:p.His59=, XP_011528274.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011546052.1:p.His59=, XR_430455.2:n.-101G>A, XR_952745.1:n.1477C>T, rs587777915, rs59604033
G > A
SNP
T107I
rs28371725 NC_000022.10:g.42523805C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42127803C>T, NG_008376.3:g.7189G>A, NM_000106.5:c.985+39G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.832+39G>A, NT_187682.1:g.50144C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.50130C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.13369C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.841+39G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.685+39G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.685+39G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.985+39G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.985+39G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.985+39G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.841+39G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.832+39G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.841+39G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.844-169G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.724G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.841+39G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.769+39G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.724G>A, XP_011545843.1:p.Glu242Lys, XP_011547121.1:p.Glu242Lys, XR_952745.1:n.2001-169G>A, rs57124011, rs587777916
C > T
SNP
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs35742686 NC_000022.10:g.42524244delT, NC_000022.11:g.42128242delT, NG_008376.3:g.6750delA, NM_000106.5:c.775delA, NM_001025161.2:c.622delA, NP_000097.3:p.Arg259Glyfs, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg208Glyfs, NT_187682.1:g.50583delT, NW_004504305.1:g.50569delT, NW_009646208.1:g.13808delT, XM_005278353.1:c.631delA, XM_005278354.1:c.475delA, XM_005278354.3:c.475delA, XM_011529966.1:c.775delA, XM_011529967.1:c.775delA, XM_011529968.1:c.775delA, XM_011529969.1:c.631delA, XM_011529970.1:c.622delA, XM_011529971.1:c.631delA, XM_011529972.1:c.775delA, XM_011547541.1:c.475delA, XM_011547750.1:c.631delA, XM_011547751.1:c.559delA, XM_011547756.1:c.-1793delT, XM_011548819.1:c.475delA, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg211Glyfs, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg159Glyfs, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg259Glyfs, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg259Glyfs, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg259Glyfs, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg211Glyfs, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg208Glyfs, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg211Glyfs, XP_011528274.1:p.Arg259Glyfs, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg159Glyfs, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg211Glyfs, XP_011546053.1:p.Arg187Glyfs, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg159Glyfs, XR_430455.2:n.-1629delT, XR_952745.1:n.1932delA, rs45593132, rs60790764
T > -
T > T
indel
R259G
No VIP available CA VA
rs367543000 NC_000022.10:g.42524214G>A, NC_000022.10:g.42524214G>C, NC_000022.10:g.42524214G>T, NC_000022.11:g.42128212G>A, NC_000022.11:g.42128212G>C, NC_000022.11:g.42128212G>T, NG_008376.3:g.6780C>A, NG_008376.3:g.6780C>G, NG_008376.3:g.6780C>T, NM_000106.5:c.805C>A, NM_000106.5:c.805C>G, NM_000106.5:c.805C>T, NM_001025161.2:c.652C>A, NM_001025161.2:c.652C>G, NM_001025161.2:c.652C>T, NP_000097.3:p.Arg269=, NP_000097.3:p.Arg269Gly, NP_000097.3:p.Arg269Ter, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg218=, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg218Gly, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg218Ter, NT_187682.1:g.50553G>A, NT_187682.1:g.50553G>C, NT_187682.1:g.50553G>T, NW_004504305.1:g.50539G>A, NW_004504305.1:g.50539G>C, NW_004504305.1:g.50539G>T, NW_009646208.1:g.13778G>A, NW_009646208.1:g.13778G>C, NW_009646208.1:g.13778G>T, XM_005278353.1:c.661C>A, XM_005278353.1:c.661C>G, XM_005278353.1:c.661C>T, XM_005278354.1:c.505C>A, XM_005278354.1:c.505C>G, XM_005278354.1:c.505C>T, XM_005278354.3:c.505C>A, XM_005278354.3:c.505C>G, XM_005278354.3:c.505C>T, XM_011529966.1:c.805C>A, XM_011529966.1:c.805C>G, XM_011529966.1:c.805C>T, XM_011529967.1:c.805C>A, XM_011529967.1:c.805C>G, XM_011529967.1:c.805C>T, XM_011529968.1:c.805C>A, XM_011529968.1:c.805C>G, XM_011529968.1:c.805C>T, XM_011529969.1:c.661C>A, XM_011529969.1:c.661C>G, XM_011529969.1:c.661C>T, XM_011529970.1:c.652C>A, XM_011529970.1:c.652C>G, XM_011529970.1:c.652C>T, XM_011529971.1:c.661C>A, XM_011529971.1:c.661C>G, XM_011529971.1:c.661C>T, XM_011529972.1:c.805C>A, XM_011529972.1:c.805C>G, XM_011529972.1:c.805C>T, XM_011547541.1:c.505C>A, XM_011547541.1:c.505C>G, XM_011547541.1:c.505C>T, XM_011547750.1:c.661C>A, XM_011547750.1:c.661C>G, XM_011547750.1:c.661C>T, XM_011547751.1:c.589C>A, XM_011547751.1:c.589C>G, XM_011547751.1:c.589C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.-1823G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.-1823G>C, XM_011547756.1:c.-1823G>T, XM_011548819.1:c.505C>A, XM_011548819.1:c.505C>G, XM_011548819.1:c.505C>T, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg221=, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg221Gly, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg221Ter, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg169=, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg169Gly, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg169Ter, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg269=, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg269Gly, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg269Ter, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg269=, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg269Gly, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg269Ter, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg269=, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg269Gly, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg269Ter, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg221=, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg221Gly, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg221Ter, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg218=, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg218Gly, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg218Ter, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg221=, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg221Gly, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg221Ter, XP_011528274.1:p.Arg269=, XP_011528274.1:p.Arg269Gly, XP_011528274.1:p.Arg269Ter, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg169=, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg169Gly, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg169Ter, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg221=, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg221Gly, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg221Ter, XP_011546053.1:p.Arg197=, XP_011546053.1:p.Arg197Gly, XP_011546053.1:p.Arg197Ter, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg169=, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg169Gly, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg169Ter, XR_430455.2:n.-1659G>A, XR_430455.2:n.-1659G>C, XR_430455.2:n.-1659G>T, XR_952745.1:n.1962C>A, XR_952745.1:n.1962C>G, XR_952745.1:n.1962C>T
G > A
G > C
G > T
SNP
R269*/G/R
No VIP available CA VA
rs371793722 NC_000022.10:g.42524796A>G, NC_000022.11:g.42128794A>G, NG_008376.3:g.6198T>C, NM_000106.5:c.656T>C, NM_001025161.2:c.503T>C, NP_000097.3:p.Phe219Ser, NP_001020332.2:p.Phe168Ser, NT_187682.1:g.51135A>G, NW_004504305.1:g.51121A>G, NW_009646208.1:g.14360A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.512T>C, XM_005278354.1:c.356T>C, XM_005278354.3:c.356T>C, XM_011529966.1:c.656T>C, XM_011529967.1:c.656T>C, XM_011529968.1:c.656T>C, XM_011529969.1:c.512T>C, XM_011529970.1:c.503T>C, XM_011529971.1:c.512T>C, XM_011529972.1:c.656T>C, XM_011547541.1:c.356T>C, XM_011547750.1:c.512T>C, XM_011547751.1:c.440T>C, XM_011547756.1:c.-1241A>G, XM_011548819.1:c.356T>C, XP_005278410.1:p.Phe171Ser, XP_005278411.1:p.Phe119Ser, XP_011528268.1:p.Phe219Ser, XP_011528269.1:p.Phe219Ser, XP_011528270.1:p.Phe219Ser, XP_011528271.1:p.Phe171Ser, XP_011528272.1:p.Phe168Ser, XP_011528273.1:p.Phe171Ser, XP_011528274.1:p.Phe219Ser, XP_011545843.1:p.Phe119Ser, XP_011546052.1:p.Phe171Ser, XP_011546053.1:p.Phe147Ser, XP_011547121.1:p.Phe119Ser, XR_430455.2:n.-1077A>G, XR_952745.1:n.1813T>C
A > G
SNP
F219S
rs3892097 NC_000022.10:g.42524947C=, NC_000022.10:g.42524947C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42128945C=, NC_000022.11:g.42128945C>T, NG_008376.3:g.6047G=, NG_008376.3:g.6047G>A, NM_000106.5:c.506-1A>G, NM_000106.5:c.506-1G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.353-1A>G, NM_001025161.2:c.353-1G>A, NT_187682.1:g.51286C=, NT_187682.1:g.51286C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.51272T=, NW_004504305.1:g.51272T>C, NW_009646208.1:g.14511C=, NW_009646208.1:g.14511C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.363-2A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.363-2G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.207-2A>G, XM_005278354.1:c.207-2G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.207-2A>G, XM_005278354.3:c.207-2G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.506-1A>G, XM_011529966.1:c.506-1G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.506-1A>G, XM_011529967.1:c.506-1G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.506-1A>G, XM_011529968.1:c.506-1G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.363-2A>G, XM_011529969.1:c.363-2G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.353-1A>G, XM_011529970.1:c.353-1G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.363-2A>G, XM_011529971.1:c.363-2G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.506-1A>G, XM_011529972.1:c.506-1G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.207-2A>G, XM_011547541.1:c.207-2G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.363-2A>G, XM_011547750.1:c.363-2G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.290-1A>G, XM_011547751.1:c.290-1G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.-1090C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.-1090T>C, XM_011548819.1:c.207-2A>G, XM_011548819.1:c.207-2G>A, XR_430455.2:n.-926C>T, XR_430455.2:n.-926T>C, XR_952745.1:n.1663-1A>G, XR_952745.1:n.1663-1G>A, rs1800716, rs28371711, rs60082401, rs606231227
C > T
SNP
rs5030655 NC_000022.10:g.42525086delA, NC_000022.11:g.42129084delA, NG_008376.3:g.5908delT, NM_000106.5:c.454delT, NM_001025161.2:c.353-140delT, NP_000097.3:p.Trp152Glyfs, NT_187682.1:g.51425delA, NW_004504305.1:g.51411delA, NW_009646208.1:g.14650delA, XM_005278353.1:c.363-141delT, XM_005278354.1:c.155delT, XM_005278354.3:c.155delT, XM_011529966.1:c.454delT, XM_011529967.1:c.454delT, XM_011529968.1:c.454delT, XM_011529969.1:c.311delT, XM_011529970.1:c.353-140delT, XM_011529971.1:c.311delT, XM_011529972.1:c.454delT, XM_011547541.1:c.155delT, XM_011547750.1:c.311delT, XM_011547751.1:c.238delT, XM_011547756.1:c.-951delA, XM_011548819.1:c.155delT, XP_005278411.1:p.Val52Glyfs, XP_011528268.1:p.Trp152Glyfs, XP_011528269.1:p.Trp152Glyfs, XP_011528270.1:p.Trp152Glyfs, XP_011528271.1:p.Val104Glyfs, XP_011528273.1:p.Val104Glyfs, XP_011528274.1:p.Trp152Glyfs, XP_011545843.1:p.Val52Glyfs, XP_011546052.1:p.Val104Glyfs, XP_011546053.1:p.Trp80Glyfs, XP_011547121.1:p.Val52Glyfs, XR_430455.2:n.-787delA, XR_952745.1:n.1611delT, rs11568727, rs28371709
A > -
A > A
indel
W152G
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs5030656 NC_000022.10:g.42524176_42524178delCTT, NC_000022.11:g.42128174_42128176delCTT, NG_008376.3:g.6816_6818delAAG, NM_000106.5:c.841_843delAAG, NM_001025161.2:c.688_690delAAG, NP_000097.3:p.Lys281del, NP_001020332.2:p.Lys230del, NT_187682.1:g.50515_50517delCTT, NW_004504305.1:g.50501_50503delCTT, NW_009646208.1:g.13740_13742delCTT, XM_005278353.1:c.697_699delAAG, XM_005278354.1:c.541_543delAAG, XM_005278354.3:c.541_543delAAG, XM_011529966.1:c.841_843delAAG, XM_011529967.1:c.841_843delAAG, XM_011529968.1:c.841_843delAAG, XM_011529969.1:c.697_699delAAG, XM_011529970.1:c.688_690delAAG, XM_011529971.1:c.697_699delAAG, XM_011529972.1:c.841_843delAAG, XM_011547541.1:c.541_543delAAG, XM_011547750.1:c.697_699delAAG, XM_011547751.1:c.625_627delAAG, XM_011547756.1:c.-1861_-1859del, XM_011548819.1:c.541_543delAAG, XP_005278410.1:p.Lys233del, XP_005278411.1:p.Lys181del, XP_011528268.1:p.Lys281del, XP_011528269.1:p.Lys281del, XP_011528270.1:p.Lys281del, XP_011528271.1:p.Lys233del, XP_011528272.1:p.Lys230del, XP_011528273.1:p.Lys233del, XP_011528274.1:p.Lys281del, XP_011545843.1:p.Lys181del, XP_011546052.1:p.Lys233del, XP_011546053.1:p.Lys209del, XP_011547121.1:p.Lys181del, XR_430455.2:n.-1697_-1695del, XR_952745.1:n.1998_2000delAAG, rs587777919
CTT > -
CTT > CTT
indel
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5030865 NC_000022.10:g.42525035C>A, NC_000022.10:g.42525035C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42129033C>A, NC_000022.11:g.42129033C>T, NG_008376.3:g.5959G>A, NG_008376.3:g.5959G>T, NM_000106.5:c.505G>A, NM_000106.5:c.505G>T, NM_001025161.2:c.353-89G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.353-89G>T, NP_000097.3:p.Gly169Arg, NP_000097.3:p.Gly169Ter, NT_187682.1:g.51374C>A, NT_187682.1:g.51374C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.51360C>A, NW_004504305.1:g.51360C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.14599C>A, NW_009646208.1:g.14599C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.363-90G>A, XM_005278353.1:c.363-90G>T, XM_005278354.1:c.206G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.206G>T, XM_005278354.3:c.206G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.206G>T, XM_011529966.1:c.505G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.505G>T, XM_011529967.1:c.505G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.505G>T, XM_011529968.1:c.505G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.505G>T, XM_011529969.1:c.362G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.362G>T, XM_011529970.1:c.353-89G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.353-89G>T, XM_011529971.1:c.362G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.362G>T, XM_011529972.1:c.505G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.505G>T, XM_011547541.1:c.206G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.206G>T, XM_011547750.1:c.362G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.362G>T, XM_011547751.1:c.289G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.289G>T, XM_011547756.1:c.-1002C>A, XM_011547756.1:c.-1002C>T, XM_011548819.1:c.206G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.206G>T, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg69Gln, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg69Leu, XP_011528268.1:p.Gly169Arg, XP_011528268.1:p.Gly169Ter, XP_011528269.1:p.Gly169Arg, XP_011528269.1:p.Gly169Ter, XP_011528270.1:p.Gly169Arg, XP_011528270.1:p.Gly169Ter, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg121Gln, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg121Leu, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg121Gln, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg121Leu, XP_011528274.1:p.Gly169Arg, XP_011528274.1:p.Gly169Ter, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg69Gln, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg69Leu, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg121Gln, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg121Leu, XP_011546053.1:p.Gly97Arg, XP_011546053.1:p.Gly97Ter, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg69Gln, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg69Leu, XR_430455.2:n.-838C>A, XR_430455.2:n.-838C>T, XR_952745.1:n.1662G>A, XR_952745.1:n.1662G>T
C > A
C > T
SNP
G169*/R
No VIP available CA VA
rs567606867 NC_000022.10:g.42524809C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42128807C>T, NG_008376.3:g.6185G>A, NM_000106.5:c.643G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.490G>A, NP_000097.3:p.Glu215Lys, NP_001020332.2:p.Glu164Lys, NT_187682.1:g.51148C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.51134C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.14373C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.499G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.343G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.343G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.643G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.643G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.643G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.499G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.490G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.499G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.643G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.343G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.499G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.427G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.-1228C>T, XM_011548819.1:c.343G>A, XP_005278410.1:p.Glu167Lys, XP_005278411.1:p.Glu115Lys, XP_011528268.1:p.Glu215Lys, XP_011528269.1:p.Glu215Lys, XP_011528270.1:p.Glu215Lys, XP_011528271.1:p.Glu167Lys, XP_011528272.1:p.Glu164Lys, XP_011528273.1:p.Glu167Lys, XP_011528274.1:p.Glu215Lys, XP_011545843.1:p.Glu115Lys, XP_011546052.1:p.Glu167Lys, XP_011546053.1:p.Glu143Lys, XP_011547121.1:p.Glu115Lys, XR_430455.2:n.-1064C>T, XR_952745.1:n.1800G>A
C > T
SNP
E215K
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs59421388 NC_000022.10:g.42523610C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42127608C>T, NG_008376.3:g.7384G>A, NM_000106.5:c.1012G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.859G>A, NP_000097.3:p.Val338Met, NP_001020332.2:p.Val287Met, NT_187682.1:g.49949C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.49935C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.13174C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.868G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.712G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.712G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.1012G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.1012G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.1012G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.868G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.859G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.868G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.870G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.*118G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.868G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.796G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.*118G>A, XP_005278410.1:p.Val290Met, XP_005278411.1:p.Val238Met, XP_011528268.1:p.Val338Met, XP_011528269.1:p.Val338Met, XP_011528270.1:p.Val338Met, XP_011528271.1:p.Val290Met, XP_011528272.1:p.Val287Met, XP_011528273.1:p.Val290Met, XP_011528274.1:p.Thr290=, XP_011546052.1:p.Val290Met, XP_011546053.1:p.Val266Met, XR_952745.1:n.2027G>A
C > T
SNP
V338M
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs61736512 NC_000022.10:g.42525134C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42129132C>T, NG_008376.3:g.5860G>A, NM_000106.5:c.406G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.353-188G>A, NP_000097.3:p.Val136Met, NT_187682.1:g.51473C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.51459C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.14698C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.363-189G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.107G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.107G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.406G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.406G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.406G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.263G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.353-188G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.263G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.406G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.107G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.263G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.190G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.-903C>T, XM_011548819.1:c.107G>A, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg36His, XP_011528268.1:p.Val136Met, XP_011528269.1:p.Val136Met, XP_011528270.1:p.Val136Met, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg88His, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg88His, XP_011528274.1:p.Val136Met, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg36His, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg88His, XP_011546053.1:p.Val64Ile, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg36His, XR_430455.2:n.-739C>T, XR_952745.1:n.1563G>A
C > T
SNP
V136M
No VIP available CA VA
rs745746329 NC_000022.10:g.42523616C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42127614C>T, NG_008376.3:g.7378G>A, NM_000106.5:c.1006G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.853G>A, NP_000097.3:p.Asp336Asn, NP_001020332.2:p.Asp285Asn, NT_187682.1:g.49955C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.49941C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.13180C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.862G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.706G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.706G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.1006G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.1006G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.1006G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.862G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.853G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.862G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.864G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.*112G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.862G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.790G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.*112G>A, XP_005278410.1:p.Asp288Asn, XP_005278411.1:p.Asp236Asn, XP_011528268.1:p.Asp336Asn, XP_011528269.1:p.Asp336Asn, XP_011528270.1:p.Asp336Asn, XP_011528271.1:p.Asp288Asn, XP_011528272.1:p.Asp285Asn, XP_011528273.1:p.Asp288Asn, XP_011528274.1:p.Ser288=, XP_011546052.1:p.Asp288Asn, XP_011546053.1:p.Asp264Asn, XR_952745.1:n.2021G>A
C > T
SNP
D336N
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs74966855 NC_000022.10:g.42527291G>T, NC_000022.11:g.42131289G>T, NG_008376.3:g.3703C>A, NM_000106.5:c.-498C>A, NM_001025161.2:c.-498C>A, NT_187682.1:g.53630G>T, NW_004504305.1:g.53616G>T, NW_009646208.1:g.16855G>T, XM_005278353.1:c.-498C>A, XM_005278354.1:c.-2051C>A, XM_005278354.3:c.-2051C>A, XM_011529966.1:c.-498C>A, XM_011529967.1:c.-498C>A, XM_011529968.1:c.-498C>A, XM_011529969.1:c.37+8C>A, XM_011529970.1:c.-498C>A, XM_011529971.1:c.37+8C>A, XM_011529972.1:c.-498C>A, XM_011547541.1:c.-2051C>A, XM_011547750.1:c.37+8C>A, XM_011547751.1:c.-1711C>A, XM_011547756.1:c.42+1066G>T, XM_011548819.1:c.-2051C>A, XR_430455.2:n.328+601G>T, XR_952536.1:n.-1154G>T, XR_952537.1:n.-1154G>T, XR_952538.1:n.-1154G>T, XR_952539.1:n.-865G>T, XR_952745.1:n.660C>A
G > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs750996195 NC_000022.10:g.42523598C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42127596C>T, NG_008376.3:g.7396G>A, NM_000106.5:c.1024G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.871G>A, NP_000097.3:p.Val342Met, NP_001020332.2:p.Val291Met, NT_187682.1:g.49937C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.49923C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.13162C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.880G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.724G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.724G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.1024G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.1024G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.1024G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.880G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.871G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.880G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.*9G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.*130G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.880G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.808G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.*130G>A, XP_005278410.1:p.Val294Met, XP_005278411.1:p.Val242Met, XP_011528268.1:p.Val342Met, XP_011528269.1:p.Val342Met, XP_011528270.1:p.Val342Met, XP_011528271.1:p.Val294Met, XP_011528272.1:p.Val291Met, XP_011528273.1:p.Val294Met, XP_011546052.1:p.Val294Met, XP_011546053.1:p.Val270Met, XR_952745.1:n.2039G>A
C > T
SNP
V342M
No VIP available CA VA
rs76088846 NC_000022.10:g.42523591C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42127589C>T, NG_008376.3:g.7403G>A, NM_000106.5:c.1031G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.878G>A, NP_000097.3:p.Arg344Gln, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg293Gln, NT_187682.1:g.49930C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.49916C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.13155C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.887G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.731G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.731G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.1031G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.1031G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.1031G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.887G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.878G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.887G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.*16G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.*137G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.887G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.815G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.*137G>A, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg296Gln, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg244Gln, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg344Gln, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg344Gln, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg344Gln, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg296Gln, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg293Gln, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg296Gln, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg296Gln, XP_011546053.1:p.Arg272Gln, XR_952745.1:n.2046G>A
C > T
SNP
R344Q
No VIP available CA VA
rs777560972 NC_000022.10:g.42522752G>A, NC_000022.11:g.42126750G>A, NG_008376.3:g.8242C>T, NM_000106.5:c.1318C>T, NM_001025161.2:c.1165C>T, NP_000097.3:p.Arg440Cys, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg389Cys, NT_187682.1:g.49091G>A, NW_004504305.1:g.49077G>A, NW_009646208.1:g.12316G>A, XM_005278353.1:c.1174C>T, XM_005278354.1:c.1018C>T, XM_005278354.3:c.1018C>T, XM_011529966.1:c.1318C>T, XM_011529967.1:c.1318C>T, XM_011529968.1:c.1318C>T, XM_011529969.1:c.1174C>T, XM_011529970.1:c.1165C>T, XM_011529971.1:c.1174C>T, XM_011547750.1:c.1174C>T, XM_011547751.1:c.1102C>T, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg392Cys, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg340Cys, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg440Cys, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg440Cys, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg440Cys, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg392Cys, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg389Cys, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg392Cys, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg392Cys, XP_011546053.1:p.Arg368Cys, XR_952745.1:n.2333C>T
G > A
SNP
R440C
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Alternate Names:  CYP2D7AP; CYP2D7BP; CYP2D7P2; CYP2D8P2; CYP2DL1
Alternate Symbols:  CPD6; CYP2D; P450-DB1; P450C2D
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA128

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr22 : q13.1 - q13.2
GP mRNA Boundary: chr22 : 42522501 - 42526883
GP Gene Boundary: chr22 : 42519501 - 42536883
Strand: minus

Visualization

UCSC has a Genome Browser that you can use to view PharmGKB annotations for this gene in context with many other sources of information.

View on UCSC Browser
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Introduction
The cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme of great historical importance for pharmacogenetics and is now thought to be involved in the metabolism of up to 25% of the drugs that are in common use in the clinic [Article:18001838]. Several years before the gene was cloned, researchers observed that Caucasian subjects responded in a bimodal pattern to certain drugs such as debrisoquine and sparteine [Articles:71400, 499318], with most patients exhibiting "normal" pharmacokinetics, whereas others seemed to have great difficulty in metabolizing debrisoquine or sparteine. Debrisoquine and sparteine became examples of so-called probe drugs, and were used to phenotype patients [Article:6644761]. This finding led researchers to conclude that there were common polymorphisms in an as yet unidentified metabolic gene that contributed to the variable pharmacokinetics of these drugs. The protein responsible for the altered metabolism was later purified from human liver microsomes by Distlerath et al. [Article:4019462]. The gene encoding this protein was initially localized to chromosome 22 by Eichelbaum et al. [Article:3472585]. The cDNA was cloned by Gonzalez et al. [Articles:3123997, 3410476] from human liver cDNA libraries using an antibody against the rat ortholog. The deduced human protein revealed 73% sequence similarity with the rat protein and by use of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids the gene was localized to human chromosome 22 [Article:3410476], confirming the earlier study [Article:3472585]. This gene came to be called CYP2D6, and is part of the cytochrome P450 gene family - a group of enzymes that is responsible for Phase I metabolism and elimination of numerous endogenous substrates and a diverse array of drugs. Among the drug-metabolizing CYPs, CYP2D6 is the only non-inducible enzyme, which results in a large contribution of genetic variation to the interindividual variation in enzyme activity [Article:18001838]. CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic, with over 90 known allelic variants [Article:8807658]. A selection of these variants and haplotypes is described in this summary, and the full list of all named alleles can be found at: http://www.cypalleles.ki.se/cyp2d6.htm.

CYP2D6 metabolizer classes
CYP2D6 became an object of intense research following its identification as the gene responsible for the altered activity observed with debrisoquine and other drugs. It soon became apparent that there were many different polymorphisms in all parts of the world that impacted CYP2D6 activity [Article:17301689]. There were alleles that led to a complete loss of CYP2D6 activity, which were common in the initially studied Caucasian populations [Article:12959412]; however, studies in populations of other ethnic origins revealed reduced function and even hyperfunctional CYP2D6 alleles [Articles:7903454, 3410476]. A system of assigned patients into four categories based on their ability to metabolize CYP2D6 substrates began to emerge. They are, listed in order of highest functioning to lowest: ultrarapid metabolizers (UM), extensive metabolizers (EM), intermediate metabolizers (IM), and poor metabolizers (PM) [Articles:16968950, 14618296]. An individual's highest functioning CYP2D6 allele predicts his/her phenotypic activity [Articles:16968950, 14618296] (e.g. EM allele and PM allele results in an EM phenotype, UM allele and EM allele results in UM phenotype, IM allele and PM allele results in IM phenotype, etc.). EMs possess at least one fully functional CYP2D6 allele, and are thought of as phenotypically normal. IMs (two reduced function or one reduced and one non-functional allele) and PMs (two non-functional alleles) are not able to metabolize CYP2D6 substrates as well as their EM counterparts, and may be at increased risk for adverse effects resulting from higher plasma levels of the parent drug, or lack of efficacy resulting from an inability to form an active metabolite [Article:16968950]. UMs, or ultrarapid metabolizers, possess multiple functional copies of a single CYP2D6 gene [Article:12571261]. The CYP2D6 copy number has been found to be from 2-13 [Article:12571261]. Each functional copy of CYP2D6 that is present increases the rate of metabolism of CYP2D6 substrates significantly [Article:12571261]. CYP2D6 allele distributions exhibit significant interethnic differences. According to a review by Ingelman-Sundberg et al. [Article:18001838], PMs are mainly found in Europe, and UMs are mainly found in North Africa and Oceania. Due to the high Asian prevalence of the CYP2D6*10 allele, IMs are located to a great extent in Asia [Articles:18001838, 15492763].

CYP2D6 substrates and therapeutic implications
CYP2D6 polymorphisms have implications across many different therapeutic areas, as a diverse array of clinically used drugs are metabolized by CYP2D6 [Article:16968950] (see Drugs/Substrates section for references).  Examples of CYP2D6 substrates can be found in antidepressants (amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, desipramine, doxepin, fluvoxamine, imipramine, maprotiline, mianserin, nortriptyline, fluoxetine, paroxetine),  antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, clozapine, haloperidol, perphenazine, risperidone, thioridazine, zuclopenthixol), antiarrhythmics (flecainide, mexiletine, propafenone), beta-blockers (carvedilol, metoprolol, yohimbine, timolol), opioid analgesics (codeine, dihydrocodeine, morphine, tramadol), anticancer agents (debrisoquine, gefitinib, sparteine, tamoxifen), and assorted other drugs (atomoxetine, dextromethorphan, perhexilline, tolterodine).  The impact that a CYP2D6 polymorphism has on therapy with any of the aforementioned drugs is related to the resulting metabolizer status that the polymorphism(s) cause in the individual receiving therapy, as well as whether the parent drug is active or if it requires CYP2D6 to metabolize it into an active metabolite.  If the parent drug is active, then UMs may suffer from a lack of efficacy whereas IMs and PMs may suffer from complications resulting from higher than desired plasma concentrations of the drug [Article:12571261]. If the parent drug must be converted to an active metabolite in order to relieve symptoms, then IMs and PMs may be deficient in the formation of the metabolite, and therefore not receive symptomatic relief [Article:12571261].

Phenocopying and Autophenocopying
Therapy with CYP2D6 substrates can be complex, not only due to genetic variation, but also due to drug-drug interactions.  Many drugs are CYP2D6 inhibitors (such as the statins [Article:8737761]), and taking an inhibitory drug along with a CYP2D6 substrate can alter the apparent phenotype of the patient. This phenomenon is known as phenocopying [Articles:16968950, 12870705].  When this situation occurs, an EM can appear to be a IM or a PM because most of the available enzyme is being inhibited by a confounding drug.  A related phenotype that can occur with chronic dosing of a CYP2D6 drug is called autophenocopying, in which a CYP2D6 substrate can inhibit its own metabolism over time as the concentration of the drug approaches steady state [Article:16968950]. The pharmacokinetic profile of a single dose and of repeated dosing for drugs that exhibit phenocopying can therefore differ markedly [Article:16968950].

CYP2D6 SNPs and Haplotypes
Traditionally, allele frequency is reported with respect to an individual SNP, and haplotypes are constructed from a collection of those polymorphic sites.  However, in the CYP2D6 literature, allele frequencies are usually reported in terms of haplotypes.  We have therefore included the CYP2D6 allele frequency table in the haplotype section of this summary.  CYP2D6 genotyping has traditionally been done according to an algorithm that appears in Gaedigk et al. [Article:10634130] in which several SNPs are tested for, and if none are found, then the algorithm defaults to either CYP2D6*1 or CYP2D6*2. We have classified the SNPs that are used to differentiate the haplotypes that we have summarized, and indicated whether that SNP has any role in the altered function when possible. Since most of the CYP2D6 literature is focused on determining an individual's metabolic status, we have chosen the haplotypes that most commonly result in altered CYP2D6 function, although many more exist.  The CYP2D6 variant page should therefore serve mainly as a guide to determining the CYP2D6 haplotype, which should in turn serve as a guide to determining the metabolizer status and allele frequency.

CYP2D6 Ultrarapid Metabolizer (UM) phenotype
For the purposes of this summary, we are using CYP2D6UM as a generic term to indicate multiple CYP2D6 copies (which can range from 2-13) [Article:12571261] that cause the ultrarapid metabolizer phenotype. Gene duplications have been seen to occur with many different CYP2D6 haplotypes, including CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, and CYP2D6*41 [Article:17301689]. For the purposes of this summary, we are only referring to CYP2D6*1xN and CYP2D6*2xN. These gene copies can cause a lack of efficacy by quickly metabolizing a parent drug [Article:15492763]. The speed of metabolism is well correlated with number of functional CYP2D6 copies that the patient possesses [Article:12571261]. Even though it is somewhat counterintuitive, UMs can suffer from similar problems as PMs, despite having opposite phenotypes. For instance, both can experience a lack of efficacy, but in the case of UMs it would be from quickly metabolizing a parent drug, whereas in the case of PMs it would be the inability to form an active metabolite PMID; 15492763. Similarly, both can experience toxicities, but the UMs would experience toxicities resulting from a high level of metabolite, whereas the PMs would experience toxicities resulting from a high level of parent drug [Article:16968950]. In the allele frequency table at the CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2 haplotype page descriptions, we have listed the combined allele frequency of multiple copies of CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 under the generic heading of CYP2D6UM.

Note: The CYP2D6 gene is found on the minus chromosomal strand. Please note that for standardization, the PharmGKB presents all allele base pairs on the positive chromosomal strand, therefore the alleles within our variant annotations will differ (in a complementary manner) from those in this VIP summary that are given on the minus strand as reported in the literature.

Citation Cytochrome P450 2D6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Owen Ryan P, Sangkuhl Katrin, Klein Teri E, Altman Russ B. PubMed
History

Submitted by Ryan Owen, Katrin Sangkuhl

Key Publications
  1. CYP2D6 worldwide genetic variation shows high frequency of altered activity variants and no continental structure. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Sistonen Johanna, Sajantila Antti, Lao Oscar, Corander Jukka, Barbujani Guido, Fuselli Silvia. PubMed
  2. Pharmacogenetics, drug-metabolizing enzymes, and clinical practice. Pharmacological reviews. 2006. Gardiner Sharon J, Begg Evan J. PubMed
  3. CYP2D6 genetic variation in healthy adults and psychiatric African-American subjects: implications for clinical practice and genetic testing. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Cai W-M, Nikoloff D M, Pan R-M, de Leon J, Fanti P, Fairchild M, Koch W H, Wedlund P J. PubMed
  4. CYP2D6 genotype and phenotype determination in a Mexican Mestizo population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2005. López Marisol, Guerrero Jorge, Jung-Cook Helgi, Alonso María Elisa. PubMed
  5. Human CYP2D6 and mouse CYP2Ds: organ distribution in a humanized mouse model. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2005. Miksys Sharon L, Cheung Connie, Gonzalez Frank J, Tyndale Rachel F. PubMed
  6. Cytochrome P450 2D6: overview and update on pharmacology, genetics, biochemistry. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology. 2004. Zanger Ulrich M, Raimundo Sebastian, Eichelbaum Michel. PubMed
  7. Paroxetine-induced conversion of cytochrome P450 2D6 phenotype and occurence of adverse effects. General physiology and biophysics. 2003. Zourková A, Hadasová E. PubMed
  8. Inheritance and drug response. The New England journal of medicine. 2003. Weinshilboum Richard. PubMed
  9. PM frequencies of major CYPs in Asians and Caucasians. Drug metabolism reviews. 2003. Mizutani Takaharu. PubMed
  10. CYP2D6 allele frequency in European Caucasians, Asians, Africans and their descendants. Pharmacogenomics. 2002. Bradford L DiAnne. PubMed
  11. Optimization of cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) phenotype assignment using a genotyping algorithm based on allele frequency data. Pharmacogenetics. 1999. Gaedigk A, Gotschall R R, Forbes N S, Simon S D, Kearns G L, Leeder J S. PubMed
  12. In vitro comparative inhibition profiles of major human drug metabolising cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 1996. Transon C, Leemann T, Dayer P. PubMed
  13. The human debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D) locus: sequence and identification of the polymorphic CYP2D6 gene, a related gene, and a pseudogene. American journal of human genetics. 1989. Kimura S, Umeno M, Skoda R C, Meyer U A, Gonzalez F J. PubMed
  14. Human debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (P450IID1): cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence and assignment of the CYP2D locus to chromosome 22. Genomics. 1988. Gonzalez F J, Vilbois F, Hardwick J P, McBride O W, Nebert D W, Gelboin H V, Meyer U A. PubMed
  15. Purification and characterization of the human liver cytochromes P-450 involved in debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation and phenacetin O-deethylation, two prototypes for genetic polymorphism in oxidative drug metabolism. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1985. Distlerath L M, Reilly P E, Martin M V, Davis G G, Wilkinson G R, Guengerich F P. PubMed
  16. The genetic control of sparteine and debrisoquine metabolism in man with new methods of analysing bimodal distributions. Journal of medical genetics. 1983. Evans D A, Harmer D, Downham D Y, Whibley E J, Idle J R, Ritchie J, Smith R L. PubMed
  17. Genetically determined oxidation capacity and the disposition of debrisoquine. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1983. Sloan T P, Lancaster R, Shah R R, Idle J R, Smith R L. PubMed
  18. Ethnic differences in drug metabolism. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 1982. Kalow W. PubMed
Variant Summaries rs1065852, rs16947, rs28371706, rs28371725, rs35742686, rs3892097, rs5030655, rs5030656, rs59421388, rs61736512
Haplotype Summaries CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*3, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*5 CYP2D6*6, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*17, CYP2D6*41, CYP2D6*9, CYP2D6*29
Drugs
Pathways

Haplotype Overview

The Translational Pharmacogenetics Project (TPP) is a PGRN-led initiative with the goal to operationalize the work of CPIC by translating widely accepted actionable pharmacogenetics discoveries into real-world clinical practice. The group has published on integrating pharmacogenomics into the electronic medical record: A Clinician-Driven Automated System for Integration of Pharmacogenetic Interpretations Into an Electronic Medical Record. Download the TPP file for CYP2D6 here: CYP2D6 lookup table

Haplotypes are derived from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database. The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database states that nucleotide changes listed below are based on NCBI Reference Sequence M33388.1. Note that the nucleotide positions from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database do not directly match the given NCBI reference sequence. For questions about nucleotide positions, please contact the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database directly, as they are the authoritative source on cytochrome P450 nomenclature.

PharmGKB has added some alleles below (e.g. the rows for *1 and *2), inserted for star alleles with subgroups (e.g. A, B etc). These rows reflect SNPs mostly present for all subgroups for a given star allele.

Source: PharmGKB

CYP2D6 Cytochrome P450 Nomenclature DB Haplotype Set

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Acetaminophen Pathway (therapeutic doses), Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram showing acetaminophen metabolism and transport in the liver.
  1. Acetaminophen Pathway (toxic doses), Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram showing acetaminophen metabolism at higher acetaminophen doses (toxic doses) in the liver
  1. Atomoxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of atomoxetine.
  1. Atorvastatin/Lovastatin/Simvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Benzodiazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Diagrammatic representation of the metabolism of different benzodiazepine drugs by candidate genes.
  1. Celecoxib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of celecoxib metabolism in human liver cell.
  1. Citalopram Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Pharmacokinetics of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram.
  1. Clomipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of clomipramine metabolism in human liver.
  1. Codeine and Morphine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in metabolism of codeine and morphine.
  1. Doxepin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell showing candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic doxepin.
  1. Fluoxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of fluoxetine.
  1. Fluvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Gefitinib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the transportation and metabolism of gefitinib.
  1. Imipramine/Desipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and desipramine.
  1. Nevirapine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of candidate genes involved in biotransformation of nevirapine and its mechanism of action in an infected liver cell.
  1. Paroxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of paroxetine and in the mechanism of action.
  1. Pazopanib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized representation of pazopanib transport and metabolism in the liver.
  1. Phenytoin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of phenytoin in the human liver cell.
  1. Statin Pathway - Generalized, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the superset of all genes involved in the transport, metabolism and clearance of statin class drugs.
  1. Tamoxifen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Diagram showing candidate genes for tamoxifen metabolism in the liver.
  1. Tramadol Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of tramadol metabolism in human liver cell.
  1. Venlafaxine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized cells depicting the metabolism and mechanism of action of venlafaxine.

Curated Information ?

Evidence Gene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HTR2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC6A4

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
4-hydroxytamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
abiraterone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
acebutolol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
acetaminophen
amitriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
arformoterol
aripiprazole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
aripiprazole lauroxil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
aspirin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
atenolol
atomoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
atorvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
bepridil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
berberine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
bevantolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
bisoprolol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
brexpiprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
bromazepam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
bufuralol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
buspirone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
carbamazepine
carvedilol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
celecoxib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Celiprolol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cevimeline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
chlorpheniramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
chlorpromazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ciprofloxacin
citalopram
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
clobazam
clomipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
clopidogrel
clozapine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cobimetinib
codeine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
colchicine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
coptisine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
crizotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
dapoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
darifenacin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dasatinib
debrisoquine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
deferasirox
desipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
desmethyl clomipramine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dexlansoprazole
dextromethorphan
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
diazepam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
dolasetron
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
donepezil
doxepin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dronedarone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
drospirenone
DG DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
duloxetine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
efavirenz
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
eliglustat
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
endoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
erlotinib
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
escitalopram
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
esomeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ethambutol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ethanol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ethinyl estradiol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
everolimus
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
fesoterodine
flecainide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
flibanserin
fluoxetine
DG No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
flupenthixol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
fluvastatin
fluvoxamine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
fosamprenavir
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
galantamine
gefitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
granisetron
haloperidol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
hydrocodone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
hydromorphone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
hydroxyamitriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ibrutinib
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
iloperidone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
imatinib
imipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
isoniazid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ketorolac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
labetalol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
lamotrigine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
leuprolide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
levomepromazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
lovastatin
maprotiline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
methadone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
methylphenidate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
metoclopramide
metoprolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
mexiletine
mianserin
DG No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
mirtazapine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
modafinil
morphine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
n-desmethyltamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nebivolol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nefazodone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
nevirapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nicotine
nortriptyline
olanzapine
ondansetron
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
opipramol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
oxprenolol
DG No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
oxycodone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
oxymorphone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
paliperidone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
palonosetron
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
paramethoxymethamphetamine
paroxetine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
pazopanib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
penbutolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
perhexiline
perphenazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
phenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
pimozide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pindolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pioglitazone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ponatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pridopidine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
primaquine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
primidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
promethazine
propafenone
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
propranolol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
protriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pyrazinamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
quetiapine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
quinidine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
quinine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
raloxifene
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ranolazine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
rifampin
risperidone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ritonavir
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rucaparib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
sertraline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
simvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
sotalol
sparteine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tafenoquine
tamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tamsulosin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
technivie
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
terbinafine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tetrabenazine
thioridazine
timolol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tiotropium
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tipranavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
tolperisone
tolterodine
tramadol
trimipramine
DG No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tropisetron
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
valproic acid
venlafaxine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Viekira Pak
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
vortioxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
yohimbine
zuclopenthixol

Curated Information ?

Evidence Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Acute coronary syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Adenocarcinoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
adverse events
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
aggression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
agitation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Agoraphobia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Alzheimer Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Anemia, Sickle Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Angina Pectoris
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Anxiety Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Autistic Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Back Pain
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
beta-Thalassemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Bipolar Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Bradycardia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Breast Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
breast tenderness
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
cardiotoxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Constipation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cystic Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Death
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dementia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Depression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Depressive Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Depressive Disorder, Major
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Diabetic Neuropathies
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Diarrhea
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
discontinuation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dizziness
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
dry mouth
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dystonia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Elderly Adult
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
electrocardiogram qt prolonged
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Erectile Dysfunction
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
event-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Exanthema
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Familial Mediterranean Fever
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Fatigue
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Glaucoma, Open-Angle
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Failure
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hepatitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HIV
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hot Flashes
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperhidrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperprolactinemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hypotension, Orthostatic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
insomnia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Kidney Failure, Chronic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Mental Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Mood Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nausea
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
overall survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pain
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pain, Postoperative
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Parkinson Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Parkinsonian Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Poisoning
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pregnancy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
progression-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Psychotic Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Recurrence
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Recurrence free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Respiratory Insufficiency
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
schizoaffective disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Schizophrenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
sedation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Serotonin Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
serum anticholinergic activity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Substance-Related Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
suicide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Tachycardia, Supraventricular
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tardive dyskinesia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Toxic liver disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Tuberculosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Urinary Retention
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
vaginal dryness
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Vision Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Vomiting
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Weight gain

Publications related to CYP2D6: 1015

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Availability of CYP2D6 genotyping results in general practitioner and community pharmacy medical records. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Simoons Mirjam, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical and educational impact of pharmacogenomics testing: a case series from the INGENIOUS trial. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Pierson Rebecca C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Don't think twice it's all right: tamoxifen and CYP2D6 genotyping in the treatment of breast cancer patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Damkier Per. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Should CYP2D6 be genotyped when treating with tamoxifen?. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Del Re Marzia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP450 genotype and aggressive behavior on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Ekhart Corine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sequencing the CYP2D6 gene: from variant allele discovery to clinical pharmacogenetic testing. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Yang Yao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Serum clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine levels in a CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Brown Jacob T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Should a routine genotyping of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms be recommended to predict venlafaxine efficacy in depressed patients treated in psychiatric settings?. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Taranu Adela, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of CYP2D6 genotype on amitriptyline efficacy for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a pilot study. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Chaudhry Mamoonah, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A Study on CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 Polymorphic Effects on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Amitriptyline in Healthy Koreans. Clinical and translational science. 2017. Ryu S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 pharmacogenetic and oxycodone pharmacokinetic association study in pediatric surgical patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Balyan Rajiv, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
In vivo characterization of CYP2D6*12, *29 and *84 using dextromethorphan as a probe drug: a case report. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Gaedigk Andrea, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Impact of Pharmacogenetic-Guided Treatment for Patients Exhibiting Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The primary care companion for CNS disorders. 2017. Olson Marilyn C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of 22 CYP2D6 variants found in the Chinese population on tolterodine metabolism in vitro. Chemico-biological interactions. 2017. Wang Hao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of genetic variants of CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 on antiepileptic drug metabolism in pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2017. López-García Miguel A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for CYP2D6 Genotype and Use of Ondansetron and Tropisetron. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2016. Bell Gillian C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline (CPIC®) for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Tricyclic Antidepressants: 2016 Update. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2016. Kevin Hicks J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional characterization of wild-type and 24 CYP2D6 allelic variants on gefitinib metabolism in vitro. Drug design, development and therapy. 2017. Fang Ping, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 Phenotyping Using Urine, Plasma, and Saliva Metabolic Ratios to Assess the Impact of CYP2D6(∗)10 on Interindividual Variation in a Chinese Population. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017. Chen Rui, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Characterization of ADME gene variation in 21 populations by exome sequencing. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2016. Hovelson Daniel H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Increased risk of hospitalization for ultrarapid metabolizers of cytochrome P450 2D6. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. 2017. Takahashi Paul Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics-guided analgesics in major abdominal surgery: Further benefits within an enhanced recovery protocol. American journal of surgery. 2016. Senagore Anthony J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
To Genotype or Phenotype for Personalized Medicine? CYP450 Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Genotype-Phenotype Concordance and Discordance in the Ecuadorian Population. Omics : a journal of integrative biology. 2016. De Andrés Fernando, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Are you sure the patient is a CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizer?. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Gregg Keqin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Should CYP2D6 be genotyped when treating with tamoxifen?. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Re Marzia Del, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The combination of pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic analyses to optimize clomipramine dosing in major depression: a case report. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2016. Antoniazzi Stefania, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A pooled analysis of CYP2D6 genotype in breast cancer prevention trials of low-dose tamoxifen. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2016. Johansson Harriet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 *6/*6 genotype and drug interactions as cause of haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Šimić Iveta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotype not associated with attempted suicide in a large sample of psychiatric inpatients. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Stephens Dustin B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics to prevent maniac affective switching with treatment for bipolar disorder: CYP2D6. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Sánchez-Martín Almudena, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dose Escalation of Tamoxifen in Patients with Low Endoxifen Level: Evidence for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring-The TADE Study. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2016. Fox Peter, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The Use of In vitro Data and Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Predict Drug Metabolite Exposure: Desipramine Exposure in Cytochrome P4502D6 Extensive and Poor Metabolizers Following Administration of Imipramine. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2016. Nguyen Hoa Q, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The role of cytochrome P450 pharmacogenomics in chronic non-cancer pain patients. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2016. Tverdohleb Tatiana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Exploring Variation in Known Pharmacogenetic Variants and its Association with Drug Response in Different Mexican Populations. Pharmaceutical research. 2016. Gonzalez-Covarrubias Vanessa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotypes in pacific peoples. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Helsby N A. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison of genome sequencing and clinical genotyping for pharmacogenes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2016. Yang Wenjian, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Donepezil plasma concentrations, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 phenotypes, and cognitive outcome in Alzheimer's disease. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Coin A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of the Chinese herbal formula "Zuojin Pill" on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan in healthy Chinese volunteers with CYP2D6*10 genotype. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Qiu Furong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The CYP4502D6 *4 and *6 alleles are the molecular genetic markers for drug response: implications in colchicine non-responder FMF patients. European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2016. Yalcıntepe Sinem, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gene polymorphisms and contents of cytochrome P450s have only limited effects on metabolic activities in human liver microsomes. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016. Na Gao, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics for Safe Codeine Use in Sickle Cell Disease. Pediatrics. 2016. Gammal Roseann S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional characterization of 22 novel CYP2D6 variants for the metabolism of Tamoxifen. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 2016. Hu Xiao-Xia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Deferasirox AUC efficacy cutoff and role of pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Allegra S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6 function moderates the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine in a controlled study in healthy individuals. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2016. Schmid Yasmin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of the cytochrome P450 2D6 *10/*10 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder: a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2016. Nishimura Miki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Tamoxifen Dose Escalation in Patients With Diminished CYP2D6 Activity Normalizes Endoxifen Concentrations Without Increasing Toxicity. The oncologist. 2016. Hertz Daniel L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2D6 variants on venlafaxine metabolism in vitro. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2016. Zhan Yun-Yun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Detection of CYP2D6 polymorphism using Luminex xTAG technology in autism spectrum disorder: CYP2D6 activity score and its association with risperidone levels. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2016. Vanwong Natchaya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism on the metabolism of citalopram in vitro. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2016. Hu Xiao-Xia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of 24 cytochrome P450 2D6 variants found in the Chinese population on the N-demethylation of amitriptyline in vitro. Pharmaceutical biology. 2016. Weng Qinghua, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Evaluating the impact of missenses mutations in CYP2D6*7 and CYP2D6*14A: does it compromise tamoxifen metabolism?. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Borba Maria Acsm, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Navigating pleiotropy in precision medicine: pharmacogenes from trauma to behavioral health. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Oberg Vicki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Possible biomarkers modulating haloperidol efficacy and/or tolerability. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Porcelli Stefano, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of pharmacogenetics on deferasirox AUC and efficacy. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Cusato Jessica, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Codeine in paediatrics: pharmacology, prescribing and controversies. Archives of disease in childhood. Education and practice edition. 2016. Andrzejowski Paul, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
In vitro assessment of 24 CYP2D6 allelic isoforms on the metabolism of methadone. Drug testing and analysis. 2016. Su Ying, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in Li nationality of southern China. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 2016. Ding Yipeng, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Individual differences in in vitro and in vivo metabolic clearances of the antipsychotic drug olanzapine from non-smoking and smoking Japanese subjects genotyped for cytochrome P4502D6 and flavincontaining monooxygenase 3. Human psychopharmacology. 2016. Okubo Maho, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics with safety and efficacy of gefitinib in patients with EGFR mutation positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2016. Hirose Takashi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Primaquine pharmacology in the context of CYP 2D6 pharmacogenomics: Current state of the art. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2016. Marcsisin Sean R, et al. PubMed
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Preemptive Pharmacogenomic Testing for Precision Medicine: A Comprehensive Analysis of Five Actionable Pharmacogenomic Genes Using Next-Generation DNA Sequencing and a Customized CYP2D6 Genoty