Gene:
CYP2C19
cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19

Available Prescribing Info

Dosing Guidelines
  1. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  2. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  3. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  4. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for doxepin and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  5. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  6. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for sertraline and CYP2C19
  7. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for trimipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  8. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for voriconazole and CYP2C19
  9. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for citalopram,escitalopram and CYP2C19
  10. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for citalopram and CYP2C19
  11. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  12. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for escitalopram and CYP2C19
  13. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for esomeprazole and CYP2C19
  14. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19
  15. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for lansoprazole and CYP2C19
  16. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for moclobemide and CYP2C19
  17. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for omeprazole and CYP2C19
  18. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for pantoprazole and CYP2C19
  19. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for rabeprazole and CYP2C19
  20. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for sertraline and CYP2C19
  21. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for voriconazole and CYP2C19
last updated 03/15/2017

1. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers and CYP2C19 ultrarapid, rapid or poor metabolizers. If amitriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

2. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for clomipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including clomipramine. The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers and CYP2C19 ultrarapid, rapid or poor metabolizers. If amitriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

3. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline for clopidogrel recommends an alternative antiplatelet therapy (e.g., prasugrel, ticagrelor) for CYP2C19 poor or intermediate metabolizers if there is no contraindication.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

4. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for doxepin and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including doxepin. The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers and CYP2C19 ultrarapid, rapid or poor metabolizers. If amitriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

5. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including imipramine. The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers and CYP2C19 ultrarapid, rapid or poor metabolizers. If amitriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

6. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for sertraline and CYP2C19

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline for the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline recommends to consider a 50% reduction of recommended starting dose and titrate to response or select alternative drug not predominantly metabolized by CYP2C19 for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

7. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for trimipramine and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Summary

Tricyclic antidepressants have comparable pharmacokinetic properties, it may be reasonable to apply the CPIC Dosing Guideline for amitriptyline and CYP2C19, CYP2D6 to other tricyclics including trimipramine. The CPIC Dosing Guideline update for amitriptyline recommends an alternative drug for CYP2D6 ultrarapid or poor metabolizers and CYP2C19 ultrarapid, rapid or poor metabolizers. If amitriptyline is warranted, consider a 50% dose reduction in CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. For CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers, a 25% dose reduction should be considered.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

8. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for voriconazole and CYP2C19

Summary

The CPIC dosing guideline for voriconazole recommends selecting an alternative agent that is not dependent on CYP2C19 metabolism in adults who are CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers, rapid metabolizers or poor metabolizers. In pediatric patients, an alternative agent should be used in patients who are ultrarapid metabolizers or poor metabolizers. In pediatric rapid metabolizers, therapy should be initiated at recommended standard case dosing, then therapeutic dosing monitoring should be used to titrate dose to therapeutic trough concentrations.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

9. Annotation of CPIC Guideline for citalopram,escitalopram and CYP2C19

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guideline for the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors citalopram and escitalopram recommends an alternative drug not predominantly metabolized by CYP2C19 for CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers. For CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, consider a 50% reduction of recommended starting dose and titrate to response or select alternative drug not predominantly metabolized by CYP2C19.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 08/10/2011

10. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for citalopram and CYP2C19

Summary

For CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers, monitor citalopram plasma concentration and titrate dose to a maximum of 150% in response to efficacy and adverse drug event, or select an alternative drug.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.


last updated 08/10/2011

11. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for clopidogrel recommends to consider an alternative drug for CYP2C19 poor or intermediate metabolizers, because of increased risk for reduced response to clopidogrel. Prasugrel might be associated with an increased bleeding risk compared to clopidogrel.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.




last updated 08/10/2011

14. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for imipramine and CYP2C19

Summary

The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group Guideline for imipramine recommends to reduce the dose by 30% in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, and monitor the plasma concentration of imipramine and desipramine or select alternative drug. For CYP2C19 intermediate metabolizers, select an alternative drug.

There's more of this guideline. Read more.







last updated 08/10/2011

20. Annotation of DPWG Guideline for sertraline and CYP2C19

Summary

Reduce sertraline dose by 50% for patients with CYP2C19 poor metabolizer genotypes (PM), and be extra alert to adverse drug events in patients with CYP2C19 intermediate metabolizer genotypes (IM).

There's more of this guideline. Read more.




Annotated Labels

  1. Annotation of FDA Label for brivaracetam and CYP2C19
  2. Annotation of FDA Label for carisoprodol and CYP2C19
  3. Annotation of FDA Label for citalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  4. Annotation of FDA Label for clobazam and CYP2C19
  5. Annotation of FDA Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  6. Annotation of FDA Label for dexlansoprazole and CYP2C19
  7. Annotation of FDA Label for diazepam and CYP2C19
  8. Annotation of FDA Label for doxepin and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  9. Annotation of FDA Label for enzalutamide and CYP2C19,CYP2C8,CYP2C9,CYP3A4
  10. Annotation of FDA Label for escitalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  11. Annotation of FDA Label for esomeprazole and CYP2C19
  12. Annotation of FDA Label for flibanserin and CYP2C19,CYP2C9,CYP2D6
  13. Annotation of FDA Label for lacosamide and CYP2C19
  14. Annotation of FDA Label for lansoprazole and CYP2C19
  15. Annotation of FDA Label for nelfinavir and CYP2C19,CYP3A
  16. Annotation of FDA Label for omeprazole and CYP2C19
  17. Annotation of FDA Label for pantoprazole and CYP2C19
  18. Annotation of FDA Label for phenytoin and CYP2C19,CYP2C9,HLA-B
  19. Annotation of FDA Label for prasugrel and CYP2B6,CYP2C19,CYP2C9,CYP3A5
  20. Annotation of FDA Label for rabeprazole and CYP2C19
  21. Annotation of FDA Label for ticagrelor and CYP2C19
  22. Annotation of FDA Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19
  23. Annotation of FDA Label for drospirenone,ethinyl estradiol and CYP2C19
  24. Annotation of EMA Label for atazanavir and CYP2C19
  25. Annotation of EMA Label for axitinib and CYP2C19,UGT1A1
  26. Annotation of EMA Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  27. Annotation of EMA Label for esomeprazole and CYP2C19
  28. Annotation of EMA Label for prasugrel and CYP2C19
  29. Annotation of EMA Label for ticagrelor and CYP2C19
  30. Annotation of EMA Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19,CYP2C9,CYP3A4
  31. Annotation of PMDA Label for atazanavir and CYP2C19
  32. Annotation of PMDA Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  33. Annotation of PMDA Label for escitalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6
  34. Annotation of PMDA Label for omeprazole and CYP2C19
  35. Annotation of PMDA Label for rabeprazole and CYP2C19
  36. Annotation of PMDA Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19
  37. Annotation of HCSC Label for atazanavir and CYP2C19
  38. Annotation of HCSC Label for brivaracetam and CYP2C19
  39. Annotation of HCSC Label for citalopram and CYP2C19
  40. Annotation of HCSC Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19
  41. Annotation of HCSC Label for dexlansoprazole and CYP2C19
  42. Annotation of HCSC Label for esomeprazole and CYP2C19
  43. Annotation of HCSC Label for omeprazole and CYP2C19
  44. Annotation of HCSC Label for rabeprazole and CYP2C19
  45. Annotation of HCSC Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19


last updated 10/25/2013

2. Annotation of FDA Label for carisoprodol and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

Carisoprodol (SOMA) should be used with caution in patients with reduced CYP2C19 activity. Published studies indicate that patients who are poor CYP2C19 metabolizers have a 4-fold increase in exposure to carisoprodol and a 50% decreased exposure to meprobamate (a metabolite of carisoprodol) compared to normal CYP2C19 metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

3. Annotation of FDA Label for citalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label recommends a maximum dose of 20 mg/day of citalopram (Celexa) in patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, due to an increase in citalopram exposure. This increased exposure leads to a greater risk for QT prolongation, a potentially fatal abnormality in the heart's electrical activity.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

4. Annotation of FDA Label for clobazam and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

In patients known to be CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, the drug label states that the initial dose of clobazam (ONFI) should be 5 mg/day. Patients can be titrated initially to 10 - 20 mg/day, and then titrated further to a maximum daily dose of 40 mg, if tolerated. This is due to an increase in levels of N-desmethylclobazam, the active metabolite of clobazam.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/03/2016

5. Annotation of FDA Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for clopidogrel (Plavix) warns that patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers may have diminished effectiveness of the drug as compared to patients with normal CYP2C19 function. The drug label suggests that a different platelet P2Y12 inhibitor be used in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 10/25/2013

7. Annotation of FDA Label for diazepam and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for diazepam (Diastat) notes that the drug is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, and that inter-individual variation in clearance of the drug is likely attributable to CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 genetic variability.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

8. Annotation of FDA Label for doxepin and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

Doxepin is primarily metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. The drug label notes that CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of doxepin when given typical doses. Additionally, inhibitors of these CYP isozymes may increase the exposure of doxepin.

There's more of this label. Read more.



10. Annotation of FDA Label for escitalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for escitalopram (Lexapro) notes that escitalopram exposure under a supratherapeutic 30 mg dose is similar to the steady state concentrations expected in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers following a therapeutic dose of 20 mg. The label also comments on the relationship between CYP2D6 and escitalopram.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

11. Annotation of FDA Label for esomeprazole and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for esomeprazole (NEXIUM) notes that individuals who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers may have double the steady state area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of esomeprazole compared to extensive metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 03/15/2017

12. Annotation of FDA Label for flibanserin and CYP2C19,CYP2C9,CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for flibanserin (ADDYI) states that poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 had increased exposure to the drug as compared to extensive metabolizers. One subject who was a poor metabolizer experienced syncope. The label also notes the influence of CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 on flibanserin exposure.

There's more of this label. Read more.


13. Annotation of FDA Label for lacosamide and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for lacosamide states that plasma concentrations of the lacosamide O-desmethyl metabolite were reduced by approximately 70% in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (PMs) as compared to extensive metabolizers (EMs). However, it also states that there are no clinically relevant differences in lacosamide pharmacokinetics between PMs and EMs.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

14. Annotation of FDA Label for lansoprazole and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules are metabolized mainly by CYP3A and CYP2C19 isozymes. Concomitant administration of lansoprazole and tacrolimus may increase whole blood levels of tacrolimus, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

15. Annotation of FDA Label for nelfinavir and CYP2C19,CYP3A

Informative PGx

Summary

Coadministration of VIRACEPT with drugs primarily metabolized by CYP3A may result in increased plasma concentrations of the other drug that could prolong its therapeutic and adverse effects. Coadministration of VIRACEPT and drugs that induce CYP3A or CYP2C19 may decrease nelfinavir plasma concentrations and reduce its therapeutic effect. Coadministration of VIRACEPT and drugs that inhibit CYP3A or CYP2C19 may increase nelfinavir plasma concentrations.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 10/25/2013

17. Annotation of FDA Label for pantoprazole and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

Pantoprazole is metabolized mainly by CYP2C19 and to minor extents by CYPs 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. The FDA-approved drug label for pantoprazole (PROTONIX) states that pediatric patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers have greater than a 6-fold increase in AUC and 10-fold lower clearance as compared to extensive metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

18. Annotation of FDA Label for phenytoin and CYP2C19,CYP2C9,HLA-B

Actionable PGx

Summary

A strong association between the risk of developing SJS/TEN and the presence of HLA-B*1502, an inherited allelic variant of the HLA B gene, in patients using carbamazepine. Limited evidence suggests that HLAB*1502 may be a risk factor for the development of SJS/TEN in patients of Asian ancestry taking other antiepileptic drugs associated with SJS/TEN, including phenytoin. Consideration should be given to avoiding phenytoin as an alternative for carbamazepine in patients positive for HLA-B*1502.

There's more of this label. Read more.



last updated 10/25/2013

20. Annotation of FDA Label for rabeprazole and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

Rabeprazole is metabolized in the liver primarily by cytochromes P450 3A (CYP3A) and cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19). Patients with the CYP2C19 poor metabolizer genotypes may have slower rabeprazole metabolism and increased suppression of gastric acid as compared to more extensive metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 03/16/2017

21. Annotation of FDA Label for ticagrelor and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

Ticagrelor is a platelet inhibitor used to reduce the risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events for patients with acute coronary syndrome. The FDA-approved drug label notes that thrombotic cardiovascular events did not depend on CYP2C19 loss of function status.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

22. Annotation of FDA Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

Voriconazole is an antifungal used to treat serious infections of Aspergillus fumigatu, Candida, Scedosporium, Fusarium and other species. Voriconazole is metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. It also influences expression of metabolizing enzymes and interacts with several other drugs.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 07/14/2014

23. Annotation of FDA Label for drospirenone,ethinyl estradiol and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol (Yaz) notes that in vitro studies showed an inhibitory effect of drospirenone on the turnover of model substrates of CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. However, in vivo studies using omeprazole as a marker substrate showed that drospirenone has little propensity to interact to a significant extent with cytochrome P450 enzymes at a clinical dose level.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/16/2014

24. Annotation of EMA Label for atazanavir and CYP2C19

Testing recommended

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for atazanavir (Reyataz) contains pharmacogenetic information related to co-treatment with voriconazole and ritonavir: atazanavir exposure is expected to be decreased and voriconazole exposure is expected to be increased in patients who do not have a functional CYP2C19 allele. The EPAR states that at the time of voriconazole treatment, a test for CYP2C19 genotype should be performed if feasible, and provides therapeutic recommendations based on CYP2C19 genotype.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 09/12/2014

25. Annotation of EMA Label for axitinib and CYP2C19,UGT1A1

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for axitinib contains pharmacogenetic information related to there being no clinically relevant effects of UGT1A1 genotype or CYP2C19 genotype on axitinib pharmacokinetics.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/25/2013

26. Annotation of EMA Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) contains information regarding a diminished response to clopidogrel in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. It also precautions the use of concomitant drugs that are CYP2C19 inhibitors.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 05/08/2014

27. Annotation of EMA Label for esomeprazole and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for esomeprazole (Nexium Control) notes that CYP2C19 poor metabolizers have higher plasma concentrations of the drug compared to extensive metabolizers, but there are no implications for dosing.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 10/27/2013

28. Annotation of EMA Label for prasugrel and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for prasugrel (Efient) contains information regarding the lack of effect of genetic variants in the CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes on the pharmacokinetics of prasugrel or response.

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last updated 10/29/2013

29. Annotation of EMA Label for ticagrelor and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for ticagrelor (Brilique) contains information regarding a study in which CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genotyping was carried out (PLATO - platelet inhibition and patient outcomes). In patients with one or more CYP2C19 loss of function allele, non-coronary artery by-pass grafting (non-CABG) PLATO major bleeding was increased when treated with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel, but was similar in patients with no loss of function alleles.

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last updated 08/06/2014

30. Annotation of EMA Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19,CYP2C9,CYP3A4

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for voriconazole (VFEND) does not contain pharmacogenetic information. It contains warning information regarding the co-administration of drugs that are substrates, inhibitors or activators of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 due to drug-drug interactions.

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31. Annotation of PMDA Label for atazanavir and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for atazanavir (Reyataz) contains pharmacogenetic information related to co-treatment with voriconazole and ritonavir: atazanavir exposure is expected to be decreased and voriconazole exposure is expected to be increased in patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers.

There's more of this label. Read more.



33. Annotation of PMDA Label for escitalopram and CYP2C19,CYP2D6

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for escitalopram notes that the recommended maximum dose is 10 mg in patients with genetically absent CYP2C19 activity (poor metabolizers), due to an increased risk for developing QT prolongation and other side effects from the increased plasma concentrations.

There's more of this label. Read more.



35. Annotation of PMDA Label for rabeprazole and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for rabeprazole states that CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 are involved in the metabolism of the drug, and provides data showing that CYP2C19 poor metabolizers have increased Cmax, AUC and half-life time as compared to extensive metabolizers.

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36. Annotation of PMDA Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for voriconazole (VFEND) notes that it is metabolized by CYP2C19 (as well as CYP2C9 and CYP3A4) and provides tables showing the difference in pharmacokinetic metrics between extensive metabolizers (EM), intermediate metabolizers (also known as heterozygous extensive metabolizers (HEM)) and poor metabolizers (PM) in adults and pediatrics.

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37. Annotation of HCSC Label for atazanavir and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

The HCSC for atazanavir (Reyataz) contains pharmacogenetic information related to co-treatment with voriconazole and ritonavir: atazanavir exposure is expected to be decreased and voriconazole exposure is expected to be increased in patients who do not have a functional CYP2C19 allele.

There's more of this label. Read more.



39. Annotation of HCSC Label for citalopram and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for citalopram recommends that patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers receive an initial dose of 10 mg daily during the first two weeks of treatment, and should not receive a dose of greater than 20 mg/day. However, it makes no statements regarding genetic testing of CYP2C19 prior to treatment.

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40. Annotation of HCSC Label for clopidogrel and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for clopidogrel (PLAVIX) states that CYP2C19 poor metabolizers may be at increased risk for experiencing cardiovascular events when taking the drug at recommended doses as compared to normal CYP2C19 metabolizers, and that an alternative treatment or treatment strategies should be considered in these patients.

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42. Annotation of HCSC Label for esomeprazole and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

The product monograph for esomeprazole states that CYP2C19 poor metabolizers have increased concentrations of the drug as compared to the rest of the population, but that dosage adjustment based on CYP2C19 genotype is not necessary.

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43. Annotation of HCSC Label for omeprazole and CYP2C19

Informative PGx

Summary

The product monograph for omeprazole (LOSEC) states that CYP2C19 poor metabolizers have higher plasma concentrations of the drug as compared to extensive metabolizers. However, the monograph also notes that this has no implication on dosing of omeprazole.

There's more of this label. Read more.



45. Annotation of HCSC Label for voriconazole and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for voriconazole notes that CYP2C19 poor metabolizers have, on average, 4-fold higher exposure to the drug as compared to extensive metabolizers. However, the product monograph does not make any statements regarding genetic testing of CYP2C19 prior to treatment.

There's more of this label. Read more.


Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below. Please follow the link in the "Position" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Position" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the table.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page on the appropriate tab.

Links in the "Drugs" column lead to PharmGKB Drug Pages.

List of all variant annotations for CYP2C19

Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *1B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *1C N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2C N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *2D N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *3B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *5A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *5B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *10 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *11 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *12 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *13 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *14 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *15 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *16 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *17 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *18 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *19 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *22 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *23 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *24 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *25 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *26 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *27 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA *28 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *29 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *30 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *31 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *32 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA *33 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs11188072 NC_000010.10:g.96519061C>T, NC_000010.11:g.94759304C>T, NG_008384.2:g.1599C>T
C > T
SNP
rs12248560 NC_000010.10:g.96521657C>T, NC_000010.11:g.94761900C>T, NG_008384.2:g.4195C>T, NM_000769.2:c.-806C>T, rs117093607, rs17442305, rs17879736
C > A
C > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs12768009 NC_000010.10:g.96525865G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94766108G>A, NG_008384.2:g.8403G>A, NG_032466.1:g.8621C>T, NM_000769.1:c.168+3235G>A, NM_000769.2:c.168+3235G>A
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12769205 NC_000010.10:g.96535124A>G, NC_000010.11:g.94775367A>G, NG_008384.2:g.17662A>G, NM_000769.1:c.332-23A>G, NM_000769.2:c.332-23A>G, rs17882787, rs28969424
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs145119820 NC_000010.10:g.96535152G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94775395G>A, NG_008384.2:g.17690G>A, NM_000769.1:c.337G>A, NM_000769.2:c.337G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Val113Ile
G > A
SNP
V113I
No VIP available CA VA
rs28399504 NC_000010.10:g.96522463A>G, NC_000010.11:g.94762706A>G, NG_008384.2:g.5001A>G, NM_000769.1:c.1A>G, NM_000769.2:c.1A>G, NP_000760.1:p.Met1Val
A > G
SNP
M1L/V
No VIP available CA VA
rs3814637 NC_000010.10:g.96521045C>T, NC_000010.11:g.94761288C>T, NG_008384.2:g.3583C>T, NM_000769.2:c.-1418C>T, rs11565103, rs117910415, rs17878465, rs58858251
C > G
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs41291556 NC_000010.10:g.96535173T>C, NC_000010.11:g.94775416T>C, NG_008384.2:g.17711T>C, NM_000769.1:c.358T>C, NM_000769.2:c.358T>C, NP_000760.1:p.Trp120Arg
T > C
SNP
W120R
rs4244285 NC_000010.10:g.96541616G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94781859G>A, NG_008384.2:g.24154G>A, NM_000769.1:c.681G>A, NM_000769.2:c.681G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Pro227=, rs116940633, rs17879456, rs60361278
G > A
SNP
P227P
rs4986893 NC_000010.10:g.96540410G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94780653G>A, NG_008384.2:g.22948G>A, NM_000769.2:c.636G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Trp212Ter, rs52827375, rs57081121
G > A
SNP
W212*
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs55948420 NC_000010.10:g.96609704G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94849947G>A, NG_008384.2:g.92242G>A, NM_000769.1:c.1180G>A, NM_000769.2:c.1180G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Val394Met
G > A
SNP
V394M
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Alternate Names:  CYP2C
Alternate Symbols:  CPCJ; P450IIC19
PharmGKB Accession Id: PA124

Details

Cytogenetic Location: chr10 : q23.33 - q23.33
GP mRNA Boundary: chr10 : 96522463 - 96612671
GP Gene Boundary: chr10 : 96512463 - 96615671
Strand: plus

Visualization

UCSC has a Genome Browser that you can use to view PharmGKB annotations for this gene in context with many other sources of information.

View on UCSC Browser
The mRNA boundaries are calculated using the gene's default feature set from NCBI, mapped onto the UCSC Golden Path. PharmGKB sets gene boundaries by expanding the mRNA boundaries by no less than 10,000 bases upstream (5') and 3,000 bases downstream (3') to allow for potential regulatory regions.

Introduction
The cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19 (CYP2C19) gene is located within a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes (Centromere-CYP2C18-CYP2C19-CYP2C9-CYP2C8-Telomere) on chromosome 10q23.33. The CYP2C19 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of a large number of clinically relevant drugs and drug classes such as antidepressants [Article:15199661], benzodiazepines [Article:8148870], mephenytoin [Article:8195181], proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) [Article:15258107], and the antiplatelet prodrug clopidogrel [Article:16772608]. Like other CYP450 genes, inherited genetic variation in CYP2C19 and its variable hepatic expression contributes to interindividual phenotypic variability in CYP2C19-substrate metabolism. The CYP2C19 "poor metabolism" phenotype was initially discovered by studies on impaired mephenytoin metabolism and the major molecular defect responsible for the trait is the CYP2C19*2 (c.681G>A; rs4244285) loss-of-function allele [Article:8195181]. CYP2C19 genotype has since been shown to affect the metabolism of several drugs and clinical CYP2C19 genetic testing is currently available [Articles:21716271, 21412232].

Expression
CYP2C19 is predominantly expressed in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the small intestine [Article:10487415]. Constitutive expression of CYP2C19 is largely mediated by hepatic nuclear factors 4 alpha (HNF4alpha, HNF4A) and 3 gamma (HNF3gamma, FOXA3) [Articles:17827783, 17576804, 15130783], and transcriptional activation is mediated by the drug responsive nuclear receptors CAR (NR1I3), PXR (NR1I2), and GRalpha (NR3C1) [Articles:12869636, 11181490], suggesting regulation by endogenous hormones and by drugs such as rifampicin [Articles:2223426, 20086032]. In addition to rifampicin, human CYP2C19 can be induced by ritonavir, nelfinavir, hyperforin, St. John's wort, dexamethasone, and artemisinin [Article:19702536]. In vitro expression studies have recently shown that the GATA-4 (GATA4) transcription factor also upregulates CYP2C19 transcriptional activity by binding to two predicted GATA-specific promoter elements [Article:20206639]. Reduced CYP2C19 activity among women using steroid oral contraceptives results from transcriptional down-regulation of CYP2C19 expression through binding of ligand-activated estrogen receptor alpha to a specific ERE consensus half-site in the CYP2C19 promoter [Article:20675569].

Certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; e.g., fluoxetine, fluvoxamine) [Articles:18691982, 8880055] and PPIs (e.g. omeprazole, and lansoprazole) [Articles:11309556, 9433390, 9224780] have an inhibitory effect on CYP2C19, which may cause drug-drug interactions with co-administered CYP2C19-metabolized drugs. For example, early studies suggested that omeprazole (a common PPI) diminished the pharmacodynamic antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel and increased corresponding cardiovascular risks [Articles:19258584, 18206732]. However, it is currently not clear if identified changes in ex vivo platelet aggregation due to concomitant omeprazole and clopidogrel administration translates into clinically meaningful outcome differences (for review see [Article:21126648]).

Clinical CYP2C19 Pharmacogenetic Testing
Although a number of genotyping technologies can be used to interrogate variant CYP2C19 alleles in Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved laboratories, two genotyping platforms have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at the time of this writing: the AmpliChipÿ® CYP450 Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Pleasanton, CA) that interrogates CYP2C19*2 and *3 (plus CYP2D6 variant alleles) and the Infinitiÿ® CYP2C19 Assay (AutoGenomics, Inc., Vista, CA) that interrogates CYP2C19*2, *3, and *17. For test interpretation and clopidogrel dosing suggestions, see the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for CYP2C19 genotype and clopidogrel therapy [Article:21716271]. Additionally, a recent clinical pharmacogenetics practice review provides dosing guidelines for clopidogrel and other CYP2C19-metabolized drugs [Article:21412232] and CYP2C19/CYP2D6 genotype-based antidepressant dosing recommendations have been previously reported [Article:11531654].

Citation PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, Sangkuhl Katrin, Shuldiner Alan R, Hulot Jean-Sébastien, Thorn Caroline F, Altman Russ B, Klein Teri E. PubMed
History

Submitted by Jason Robarge, Rebecca Fletcher, Anne Nguyen (COBRA), Caroline F. Thorn

Updated by Scott SA, Sangkuhl K, Shuldiner AR, Hulot JS, Thorn CF

Key Publications
  1. Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2009. Shuldiner Alan R, O'Connell Jeffrey R, Bliden Kevin P, Gandhi Amish, Ryan Kathleen, Horenstein Richard B, Damcott Coleen M, Pakyz Ruth, Tantry Udaya S, Gibson Quince, Pollin Toni I, Post Wendy, Parsa Afshin, Mitchell Braxton D, Faraday Nauder, Herzog William, Gurbel Paul A. PubMed
  2. Cytochrome p-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Mega Jessica L, Close Sandra L, Wiviott Stephen D, Shen Lei, Hockett Richard D, Brandt John T, Walker Joseph R, Antman Elliott M, Macias William, Braunwald Eugene, Sabatine Marc S. PubMed
  3. Clinical significance of the cytochrome P450 2C19 genetic polymorphism. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2002. Desta Zeruesenay, Zhao Xiaojiong, Shin Jae-Gook, Flockhart David A. PubMed
  4. A new genetic defect in human CYP2C19: mutation of the initiation codon is responsible for poor metabolism of S-mephenytoin. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1998. Ferguson R J, De Morais S M, Benhamou S, Bouchardy C, Blaisdell J, Ibeanu G, Wilkinson G R, Sarich T C, Wright J M, Dayer P, Goldstein J A. PubMed
  5. The major genetic defect responsible for the polymorphism of S-mephenytoin metabolism in humans. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1994. de Morais S M, Wilkinson G R, Blaisdell J, Nakamura K, Meyer U A, Goldstein J A. PubMed
  6. Evidence that CYP2C19 is the major (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase in humans. Biochemistry. 1994. Goldstein J A, Faletto M B, Romkes-Sparks M, Sullivan T, Kitareewan S, Raucy J L, Lasker J M, Ghanayem B I. PubMed
  7. Interethnic differences in genetic polymorphism of debrisoquin and mephenytoin hydroxylation between Japanese and Caucasian populations. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1985. Nakamura K, Goto F, Ray W A, McAllister C B, Jacqz E, Wilkinson G R, Branch R A. PubMed
Variant Summaries rs12248560, rs4244285, rs4986893
Haplotype Summaries CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*17
Drugs
Pathways
Phenotypes Poor Metabolizer

Haplotype Overview

Haplotypes in the "CYP2C19 Cytochrome P450 Nomenclature DB Haplotype Set" are derived from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database. The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database states that nucleotide changes listed below are based on NCBI Reference Sequence NT_030059.13. Note that the nucleotide positions from the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database do not directly match the given NCBI reference sequence. For questions about nucleotide positions, please contact the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database directly, as they are the authoritative source on cytochrome P450 nomenclature.

PharmGKB has added some alleles below (e.g. the rows for *1 and *2), inserted for star alleles with subgroups (e.g. A, B etc). These rows reflect only the defining SNP for the star allele to accommodate how the star allele is referred to in the literature.

Haplotypes in the "CPIC CYP2C19 Haplotype Set" are from the CYP2C19 Allele definition table.

Last updated 10/26/16.

The Translational Pharmacogenetics Project (TPP) is a PGRN-led initiative with the goal to operationalize the work of CPIC by translating widely accepted actionable pharmacogenetics discoveries into real-world clinical practice. Download the TPP file for CYP2C19 here: CYP2C19 lookup table and CYP2C19 work flow document (updated 2 July 2014).

Source: PharmGKB

CYP2C19 Cytochrome P450 Nomenclature DB Haplotype Set

All alleles in the download file are on the positive chromosomal strand. PharmGKB considers the first haplotype listed in each table as the reference haplotype for that set.

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Atomoxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of atomoxetine.
  1. Atorvastatin/Lovastatin/Simvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Benzodiazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Diagrammatic representation of the metabolism of different benzodiazepine drugs by candidate genes.
  1. Carbamazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell depicting candidate genes involved in the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine.
  1. Citalopram Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Pharmacokinetics of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram.
  1. Clomipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of clomipramine metabolism in human liver.
  1. Clopidogrel Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of genes involved in metabolism of clopidogrel.
  1. Cyclophosphamide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Model human liver cell showing genes involved in the metabolism of cyclophosphamide.
  1. Doxepin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized liver cell showing candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic doxepin.
  1. Fluoxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of fluoxetine.
  1. Fluvastatin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Drug-specific representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance.
  1. Gefitinib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the transportation and metabolism of gefitinib.
  1. Glucocorticoid Pathway - Transcription Regulation, Pharmacodynamics
    Model displaying genes which may be involved in the nuclear complex formed that regulates transcription in response to glucocorticoids.
  1. Ibuprofen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram of metabolism and transport of ibuprofen in the liver and kidney.
  1. Imipramine/Desipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in the metabolism of the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and desipramine.
  1. Paroxetine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of paroxetine and in the mechanism of action.
  1. Pazopanib Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized representation of pazopanib transport and metabolism in the liver.
  1. Phenytoin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Genes involved in the metabolism of phenytoin in the human liver cell.
  1. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Effects of antiplatelet drugs on platelet aggregation pathway.
  1. Proton Pump Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Omeprazole metabolism in the liver.
  1. Statin Pathway - Generalized, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the superset of all genes involved in the transport, metabolism and clearance of statin class drugs.
  1. Tamoxifen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Diagram showing candidate genes for tamoxifen metabolism in the liver.
  1. Venlafaxine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized cells depicting the metabolism and mechanism of action of venlafaxine.
  1. Voriconazole Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Pathway describing the metabolism of voriconazole
  1. Warfarin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the candidate genes involved in transport, metabolism and clearance of warfarin.

Curated Information ?

Evidence Gene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HTR2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC6A4

Curated Information ?

Evidence Drug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
4-hydroxytamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
abiraterone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
acenocoumarol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ambrisentan
amitriptyline
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
amoxicillin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
arformoterol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
aspirin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
atazanavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
atorvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
axitinib
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
brivaracetam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
bupropion
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
busulfan
carbamazepine
carisoprodol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
carvedilol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
celecoxib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
chloramphenicol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
cilostazol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
cimetidine
citalopram
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
clarithromycin
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
clobazam
clomipramine
clopidogrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
clozapine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
crizotinib
cyclophosphamide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dabrafenib
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dasatinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
desipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
desmethyl clomipramine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dexlansoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
dextromethorphan
diazepam
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
donepezil
doxepin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
doxorubicin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
drospirenone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
duloxetine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
efavirenz
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
eltrombopag
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
endoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
enzalutamide
escitalopram
esomeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ethambutol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ethinyl estradiol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
etravirine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
famotidine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
felbamate
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
flibanserin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
fluconazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
flunitrazepam
fluoxetine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
fluvastatin
fluvoxamine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
gefitinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ginkgo biloba extract
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
hexobarbital
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ibuprofen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
icotinib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
imatinib
imipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
indomethacin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
isoniazid
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ivacaftor / lumacaftor
ketoconazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
labetalol
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lacosamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
lafutidine
lansoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
leflunomide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
letrozole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
lomitapide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
lovastatin
mephenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
methadone
methylphenobarbital
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
metoprolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
mirtazapine
moclobemide
modafinil
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
n-desmethyltamoxifen
nelfinavir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
nevirapine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nilutamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
norethindrone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
nortriptyline
omeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
oxazepam
oxcarbazepine
pantoprazole
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
paroxetine
phenobarbital
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
phenprocoumon
phenytoin
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
prasugrel
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
prednisone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
primidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
probenecid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
progesterone
proguanil
propranolol
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
pyrazinamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
quetiapine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
quinidine
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
quinine
rabeprazole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
regorafenib
rifampin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
rilpivirine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
risperidone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
rosuvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
rucaparib
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
selumetinib
DG No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
sertraline
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
simeprevir
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
simvastatin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
tacrolimus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
tamoxifen
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
temazepam
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
teniposide
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ticagrelor
ticlopidine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tolbutamide
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tolperisone
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
tolterodine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
topiramate
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tranylcypromine
DG No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
trimipramine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
troglitazone
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
valproic acid
venlafaxine
voriconazole
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
vortioxetine
warfarin

Curated Information ?

Evidence Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Acute coronary syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
adverse cardiovascular events
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
adverse events
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
aggression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Angina Pectoris
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Anxiety Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Asthma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Atrial Fibrillation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Autistic Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Bipolar Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Breast Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Carotid Artery Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cerebrovascular Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
composite endpoints (stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death)
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
composite endpoints (transient ischemic attack (tia), stroke, myocardial infarction, or death)
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Constriction, Pathologic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Coronary Artery Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Coronary Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Coronary Restenosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cystic Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Death
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Depression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Depressive Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Depressive Disorder, Major
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Elderly Adult
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
electrocardiogram qt prolonged
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Esophagitis, Peptic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
event-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gastritis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gastroesophageal Reflux
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
gastrointestinal toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Granulomatous Disease, Chronic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
heart valve replacement
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Helicobacter Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hematologic Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
hemopoietic stem cell transplant
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hemorrhage
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hepatitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hepatitis C
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HIV
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
HIV Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hypercholesterolemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperprolactinemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Infection
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Inflammation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
intragastric ph
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Ischemic Attack, Transient
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Kidney Transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Leukopenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
lung transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Lupus erythematosus
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Lupus Nephritis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Maculopapular Exanthema
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
major adverse cardiac events (mace)
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Mental Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Mycoses
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myocardial Infarction
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myocardial Ischemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neurologic Manifestations
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Opioid-Related Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
over-anticoagulation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
overall survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pancreatic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Peptic Ulcer
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharyngitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
platelet aggregation inhibition
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
platelet reactivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pregnancy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Psychotic Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Recurrence
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Recurrence free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Respiratory Tract Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Schizophrenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
secondary composite endpoints (transient ischemic attack (tia), stroke, or death)
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Seizures
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
serum anticholinergic activity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Shock, Septic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Stroke
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thrombosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Tobacco Use Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Toxic liver disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
treatment failure
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Tuberculosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Ulcer
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Vasculitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Wegener Granulomatosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Weight gain

Publications related to CYP2C19: 805

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genomewide Association Study Identifies Novel Genetic Loci That Modify Antiplatelet Effects and Pharmacokinetics of Clopidogrel. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2017. Zhong W-P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical and educational impact of pharmacogenomics testing: a case series from the INGENIOUS trial. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Pierson Rebecca C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP450 genotype and aggressive behavior on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Ekhart Corine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Serum clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine levels in a CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Brown Jacob T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Should a routine genotyping of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms be recommended to predict venlafaxine efficacy in depressed patients treated in psychiatric settings?. Pharmacogenomics. 2017. Taranu Adela, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The Impact of CYP2C19 Loss-of-Function Polymorphisms, Clinical, and Demographic Variables on Platelet Response to Clopidogrel Evaluated Using Impedance Aggregometry. Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2017. Mărginean Alina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics-Based Point-of-Care Clinical Decision Support Significantly Alters Drug Prescribing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2017. O'Donnell Peter H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Response to "Pharmacogenetics of Voriconazole: CYP2C19 but Also CYP3A4 Need to Be Genotyped" - The Role of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 Polymorphisms in Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2017. Walsh T J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of genetic and non-genetic factors on phenytoin-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2017. Yampayon Kittika, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Auto-inhibitory properties of the parent but not of the N-oxide metabolite contribute to infusion rate-dependent voriconazole pharmacokinetics. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2017. Hohmann Nicolas, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A Study on CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 Polymorphic Effects on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Amitriptyline in Healthy Koreans. Clinical and translational science. 2017. Ryu S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the MEK1/2 inhibitor, selumetinib, in Asian and Western healthy subjects: a pooled analysis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2017. Dymond Angela W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dapsone-induced agranulocytosis - possible involvement of low activity N-acetyltransferase 2. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. 2017. Potočnjak Ines, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gene variants in responsiveness to clopidogrel have no impact on clinical outcomes in Chinese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention - A multicenter study. International journal of cardiology. 2017. Li Chenze, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
A prospective study to assess the association between genotype, phenotype and Prakriti in individuals on phenytoin monotherapy. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2017. Thaker Saket J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of the CYP2C19 genotype on voriconazole exposure in adults with invasive fungal infections. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2017. Hamadeh Issam S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Impact of Pharmacogenetic-Guided Treatment for Patients Exhibiting Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The primary care companion for CNS disorders. 2017. Olson Marilyn C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of Genetic Polymorphisms of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and MDR1 Transporter on Pantoprazole Metabolism and Helicobacter pylori Eradication. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2017. Karaca R Ozgur, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of voriconazole: CYP2C19 but also CYP3A4 need to be genotyped. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2017. Gautier-Veyret Elodie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of CYP2C19*2/*17 genotype on adverse drug reactions of voriconazole in patients after allo-HSCT: a four-case report. Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology. 2017. Beata Sienkiewicz, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic Polymorphisms and Clopidogrel Efficacy for Acute Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Circulation. 2017. Pan Yuesong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of ecstasy: CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 polymorphisms moderate pharmacokinetics of MDMA in healthy subjects. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017. Vizeli Patrick, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic Determinants of P2Y12 Inhibitors and Clinical Implications. Interventional cardiology clinics. 2017. Cavallari Larisa H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genotyping, Platelet Activation, and Cardiovascular Outcome in Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Two Pieces of the Puzzle of Clopidogrel Resistance. Cardiology. 2017. Siasos Gerasimos, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC®) Guideline for CYP2C19 and Voriconazole Therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2016. Moriyama Brad, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline (CPIC®) for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Tricyclic Antidepressants: 2016 Update. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2016. Kevin Hicks J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Characterization of ADME gene variation in 21 populations by exome sequencing. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2016. Hovelson Daniel H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of Cytochrome P450 3A4 and non-genetic factors on initial Voriconazole serum trough concentrations in Hematological Patients with different Cytochrome P450 2C19 genotypes. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2016. Shao Beibei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics-guided analgesics in major abdominal surgery: Further benefits within an enhanced recovery protocol. American journal of surgery. 2016. Senagore Anthony J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Improving Therapeutic Odyssey: Preemptive Pharmacogenomics Utility in Patient Care. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2016. Lazaridis Konstantinos N. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
To Genotype or Phenotype for Personalized Medicine? CYP450 Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Genotype-Phenotype Concordance and Discordance in the Ecuadorian Population. Omics : a journal of integrative biology. 2016. De Andrés Fernando, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics analysis of Rilpivirine in HIV-1 infected individuals. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2016. Aouri Manel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of genetic polymorphisms related to clopidogrel or acetylsalicylic acid pharmacology on clinical outcome in Chinese patients with symptomatic extracranial or intracranial stenosis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Zhao Zhigang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The combination of pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic analyses to optimize clomipramine dosing in major depression: a case report. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2016. Antoniazzi Stefania, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *3 on clinical outcome in ischemic stroke patients treated with clopidogrel. Journal of the neurological sciences. 2016. Wang Yingting, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Economic analysis of pharmacogenomic-guided clopidogrel treatment in Serbian patients with myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Mitropoulou Christina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Landscape of warfarin and clopidogrel pharmacogenetic variants in Qatari population from whole exome datasets. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Sivadas Ambily, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clopidogrel Pharmacogenetics: Beyond Candidate Genes and Genome-Wide Association Studies. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2016. Lewis Joshua P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of age, gender and CYP2C9/2C19 genotypes on dose-adjusted steady-state serum concentrations of valproic acid-a large-scale study based on naturalistic therapeutic drug monitoring data. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Smith R L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Rapid and ultra-rapid metabolizers with CYP2C19*17 polymorphism do not respond to standard therapy with proton pump inhibitors. Meta gene. 2016. Deshpande Neha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
In Vitro Functional Characterisation of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 Allelic Variants CYP2C19*23 and CYP2C19*24. Biochemical genetics. 2016. Lau Pui Shen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its pharmacologically active metabolites in pregnancy. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2016. Fokina Valentina M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 but not CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1, PON1 or P2Y12 genetic polymorphism impacts antiplatelet response after clopidogrel in Koreans. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2016. Zhang Hong-Zhe, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on the clinical outcomes of voriconazole: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Li Xiaofei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The role of cytochrome P450 pharmacogenomics in chronic non-cancer pain patients. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2016. Tverdohleb Tatiana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association Between CYP2C19 Loss-of-Function Allele Status and Efficacy of Clopidogrel for Risk Reduction Among Patients With Minor Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. JAMA. 2016. Wang Yilong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 Genotype-Dependent Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Between Voriconazole and Ritonavir-Boosted Atazanavir in Healthy Subjects. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Zhu Li, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms influence on the response to clopidogrel in peripheral artery disease patients following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Díaz-Villamarín Xando, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotypes in pacific peoples. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Helsby N A. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison of genome sequencing and clinical genotyping for pharmacogenes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2016. Yang Wenjian, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 gene polymorphism on warfarin maintenance doses in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Gene. 2016. Zhang Hongshen, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles are not associated with clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in patients treated with newer-generation drug-eluting stents. Medicine. 2016. Choi Ik Jun, et al. PubMed
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Risk Factors for Voriconazole-Associated Hepatotoxicity in Patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Pharmacotherapy. 2016. Wang Yan, et al. PubMed
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Interaction of CYP2C19, P2Y12, and GPIIIa Variants Associates With Efficacy of Clopidogrel and Adverse Events on Patients With Ischemic Stroke. Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2016. Yi Xingyang, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 variants on methadone metabolism in vitro. Drug testing and analysis. 2016. Lan Tian, et al. PubMed
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Cost-effectiveness analysis of personalized antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Jiang Minghuan, et al. PubMed
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Invasive Aspergillus infection requiring lobectomy in a CYP2C19 rapid metabolizer with subtherapeutic voriconazole concentrations. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Hicks J Kevin, et al. PubMed
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Role of CYP2C19 gene polymorphism in acute alcohol withdrawal treatment with loading dose of diazepam in a South Indian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Jose Manu, et al. PubMed
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Navigating pleiotropy in precision medicine: pharmacogenes from trauma to behavioral health. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Oberg Vicki, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms and valproic acid-induced weight gain. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. 2016. Noai M, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in Li nationality of southern China. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 2016. Ding Yipeng, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2C19 *17/*17 Genotype With the Risk of Voriconazole-Associated Squamous Cell Carcinoma. JAMA dermatology. 2016. Williams Kiyanna, et al. PubMed
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Association of Cytochrome P450 Genetic Variants with Clopidogrel Resistance and Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2016. Yi Xingyang, et al. PubMed
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Genome-Wide Pharmacogenomic Study on Methadone Maintenance Treatment Identifies SNP rs17180299 and Multiple Haplotypes on CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L Associated with Plasma Concentrations of Methadone R- and S-enantiomers in Heroin-Dependent Patients. PLoS genetics. 2016. Yang Hsin-Chou, et al. PubMed
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Preemptive Pharmacogenomic Testing for Precision Medicine: A Comprehensive Analysis of Five Actionable Pharmacogenomic Genes Using Next-Generation DNA Sequencing and a Customized CYP2D6 Genotyping Cascade. The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD. 2016. Ji Yuan, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic or -epigenomic biomarkers in drug treatment - two sides of the same medal?. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2016. Ingelman-Sundberg Magnus, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19 Polymorphisms on the Platelet Response to Clopidogrel and Influence on the Effect of High Versus Standard Dose Clopidogrel in Carotid Artery Stenting. European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery. 2016. González A, et al. PubMed
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Is toxicity of PMMA (paramethoxymethamphetamine) associated with cytochrome P450 pharmacogenetics?. Forensic science international. 2016. Vevelstad Merete, et al. PubMed
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Invasive aspergillosis in a paediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipient owing to a susceptible Aspergillus fumigatus: Treatment failure with high doses of voriconazole and influence of CYP2C19 polymorphisms. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2016. Cendejas-Bueno Emilio, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in American Indian and Caucasian Children Admitted to a Psychiatric Hospital. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. 2016. McGrane Ian R, et al. PubMed
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Cyclophosphamide treatment-induced leukopenia rates in ANCA-associated vasculitis are influenced by variant CYP450 2C9 genotypes. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Schirmer Jan Henrik, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 drug-drug and drug-gene interactions in ED patients. The American journal of emergency medicine. 2016. Flaten Hanna K, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P-450 gene and drug interaction analysis in patients referred for pharmacogenetic testing. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 2016. Hocum Brian Thomas, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2C19*2 and Associated Haplotypes with Lower Norendoxifen Levels in Tamoxifen-treated Asian Breast Cancer Patients. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Lim Joanne Siok Liu, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and Nongenetic Factors Affecting Clopidogrel Response in the Egyptian Population. Clinical and translational science. 2016. Khalil B M, et al. PubMed
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A prospective observational study of CYP2C19 polymorphisms and voriconazole plasma level in adult Thai patients with invasive aspergillosis. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2016. Sumonrat Chuwongwattana, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms on sertraline metabolism in major depression patients. International journal of clinical pharmacy. 2016. Yuce-Artun Nazan, et al. PubMed
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CYP450 genotype and pharmacogenetic association studies: a critical appraisal. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Shah Rashmi R, et al. PubMed
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Physician response to implementation of genotype-tailored antiplatelet therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2015. Peterson Josh F, et al. PubMed
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Interindividual Variability in Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2015. Tracy Timothy S, et al. PubMed
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Impact of Cytochrome P450 2C19*2 and *3 on Clopidogrel Loading Dose in Saudi Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Drug metabolism letters. 2016. Khalaf Hassan, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the incremental prognostic value of the combination of CYP2C19 poor metabolizer status and ABCB1 3435 TT polymorphism over conventional risk factors for cardiovascular events after drug-eluting stent implantation in East Asians. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2015. Park Mahn-Won, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on voriconazole dosing and exposure in adult patients with invasive fungal infections. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2015. Lamoureux Fabien, et al. PubMed
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Relationship between clopidogrel-related polymorphisms and variable platelet reactivity at 1 year: A cohort study from Han Chinese. Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2016. Wang Xiaodong, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics driving personalized medicine: analysis of genetic polymorphisms related to breast cancer medications in Italian isolated populations. Journal of translational medicine. 2016. Cocca Massimiliano, et al. PubMed
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Clinically relevant genetic variants of drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter genes detected in Thai children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2016. Medhasi Sadeep, et al. PubMed
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Long-term administration of escitalopram in patients with social anxiety disorder in Japan. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2016. Asakura Satoshi, et al. PubMed
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Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature. PloS one. 2016. Berm Elizabeth J J, et al. PubMed
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First-line eradication for Helicobacter pylori-positive gastritis by esomeprazole-based triple therapy is influenced by CYP2C19 genotype. World journal of gastroenterology. 2015. Saito Yoshimasa, et al. PubMed
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Genotype - Directed Dosing Leads to Optimized Voriconazole Levels in Pediatric Patients Receiving Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2015. Teusink A, et al. PubMed
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Integrated Patient and Tumor Genetic Testing for Individualized Cancer Therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2015. Hertz Daniel L, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 and CES1 polymorphisms and efficacy of clopidogrel and aspirin dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Journal of neurosurgery. 2015. Hoh Brian L, et al. PubMed
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Switching from prasugrel to clopidogrel based on Cytochrome P450 2C19 genotyping in East Asian patients stabilized after acute myocardial infarction. Platelets. 2015. Lee Ji Hyun, et al. PubMed
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Genetic markers in CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 for prediction of cyclophosphamide's 4-hydroxylation, efficacy and side effects in Chinese systemic lupus erythematosus patients. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Shu Wenying, et al. PubMed
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The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of clopidogrel and cilostazol in relation to CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genotypes. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
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The GSTA1 polymorphism and cyclophosphamide therapy outcomes in lupus nephritis patients. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.). 2015. Wang Hong-Na, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Studies with Enzalutamide. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2015. Gibbons Jacqueline A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic Allele Nomenclature: International Workgroup Recommendations for Test Result Reporting. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2015. Kalman Lisa V, et al. PubMed
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In Vitro Kinetic Characterization of Axitinib Metabolism. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2015. Zientek Michael A, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacodynamic comparison of a personalized strategy for anti-platelet therapy versus ticagrelor in achieving a therapeutic window. International journal of cardiology. 2015. Malhotra Nikita, et al. PubMed
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Is your love in vain? On associations between genotypes, drug concentrations and clinical outcomes in pharmacogenomic research. International journal of clinical pharmacy. 2015. Damkier Per. PubMed
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Comparison of genetic variation in drug ADME-related genes in Thais with Caucasian, African and Asian HapMap populations. Journal of human genetics. 2015. Jittikoon Jiraphun, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Utility of Combinatorial Pharmacogenomics-Guided Antidepressant Therapy: Evidence from Three Clinical Studies. Molecular neuropsychiatry. 2015. Altar C Anthony, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 genotypes are not associated with refractoriness to antipsychotic treatment. Schizophrenia research. 2015. van de Bilt M T, et al. PubMed
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Omeprazole, pantoprazole, and CYP2C19 effects on clopidogrel pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in stable coronary artery disease patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Simon Nicolas, et al. PubMed
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The impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on citalopram metabolism in patients with major depressive disorder. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2015. Uckun Z, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype plus platelet reactivity-guided antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome patients: a decision analysis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Jiang Minghuan, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variation in the human cytochrome P450 supergene family. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Fujikura Kohei, et al. PubMed
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Interindividual variability of CYP2C19-catalyzed drug metabolism due to differences in gene diplotypes and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase content. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. Shirasaka Y, et al. PubMed
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C3435T polymorphism of the ABCB1 gene is associated with poor clopidogrel responsiveness in a Mexican population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Thrombosis research. 2015. Calderón-Cruz Beatriz, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and platelet function testing of antiplatelet therapy for percutaneous coronary intervention: the ARCTIC-GENE study. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Collet Jean-Philippe, et al. PubMed
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Gain-of-function single nucleotide variants of the CYP2C19 gene (CYP2C19*17) can identify subtherapeutic voriconazole concentrations in critically ill patients: a case series. Intensive care medicine. 2015. Weigel Joachim D, et al. PubMed
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Impact of Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus when coadministered with voriconazole. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Imamura Chiyo K, et al. PubMed
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Escitalopram pharmacogenetics: CYP2C19 relationships with dosing and clinical outcomes in autism spectrum disorder. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Bishop Jeffrey R, et al. PubMed
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Atomoxetine pharmacogenetics: associations with pharmacokinetics, treatment response and tolerability. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Brown Jacob T, et al. PubMed
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High metabolic N-oxidation of voriconazole in a patient with refractory aspergillosis and CYP2C19*17/*17 genotype. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Bennis Youssef, et al. PubMed
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Development of population pharmacokinetics model of icotinib with non-linear absorption characters in healthy Chinese volunteers to assess the CYP2C19 polymorphism and food-intake effect. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Hu Pei, et al. PubMed
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Lansoprazole Is Associated with Worsening Asthma Control in Children with the CYP2C19 Poor Metabolizer Phenotype. Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2015. Lang Jason E, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of tolperisone in healthy volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Pawlowska M, et al. PubMed
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The effect of induction of CYP3A4 by St John's wort on ambrisentan plasma pharmacokinetics in volunteers of known CYP2C19 genotype. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2015. Markert Christoph, et al. PubMed
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Impact of visceral leishmaniasis and curative chemotherapy on cytochrome P450 activity in Brazilian patients. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Lanchote Vera Lucia, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2015. Hicks J Kevin, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*17 genetic polymorphism-an uncommon cause of voriconazole treatment failure. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease. 2015. Abidi Maheen Z, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C19 Intron 2 Branch Point SNP is the Ancestral Polymorphism Contributing to the Poor Metabolizer Phenotype in Livers with CYP2C19*35 and CYP2C19*2 Alleles. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2015. Chaudhry Amarjit S, et al. PubMed
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Correlation of CYP2C19 genotype with plasma voriconazole levels: a preliminary retrospective study in Indians. International journal of clinical pharmacy. 2015. Chawla Prerna K, et al. PubMed
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Correlation Between SNPs in Candidate Genes and VerifyNow-Detected Platelet Responsiveness to Aspirin and Clopidogrel Treatment. Cardiovascular drugs and therapy / sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. 2015. Cui Hanbin, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 LOF alleles confer no risk for HTPR but higher risk for recurrent ischemic events in clopidogrel treated elderly ACS patients. International journal of cardiology. 2015. Yang Jie, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphism and clinical outcomes among patients of different races treated with clopidogrel: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban. 2015. Niu Xuan, et al. PubMed
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Patients with both CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele and peripheral endothelial dysfunction are significantly correlated with adverse cardiovascular events following coronary stent implantation. Journal of cardiology. 2015. Tabata Noriaki, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic assessment of Mexican and Peruvian populations. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Marsh Sharon, et al. PubMed
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Putting CYP2C19 genotyping to the test: utility of pharmacogenomic evaluation in a voriconazole-treated haematology cohort. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2015. Trubiano J A, et al. PubMed
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A prospective randomized evaluation of a pharmacogenomic approach to antiplatelet therapy among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the RAPID STEMI study. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. So D Y F, et al. PubMed
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Individualized phenytoin therapy for Japanese pediatric patients with epilepsy based on CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genotypes. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2015. Yamamoto Yoshiaki, et al. PubMed
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Intrinsic platelet reactivity before start with clopidogrel as predictor for on-clopidogrel platelet function and long-term clinical outcome. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2015. Hochholzer W, et al. PubMed
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Impact of esomeprazole on platelet reactivity and clinical outcome according to CYP2C19 genotype in coronary heart disease patients during dual antiplatelet therapy. Thrombosis research. 2015. Hokimoto Seiji, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir in pancreatic cancer patients. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Kattel Krishna, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of quetiapine in healthy volunteers: association with pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and adverse effects. International clinical psychopharmacology. 2015. Cabaleiro Teresa, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*2 genotype influence in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing serial clopidogrel dose tailoring based on platelet function testing: Analysis from randomized controlled trial NCT02096419. International journal of cardiology. 2015. Samardzic Jure, et al. PubMed
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Effect of clinical factors and gene polymorphism of CYP2C19*2, *17 and CYP4F2*3 on early stent thrombosis. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Kupstyte Nora, et al. PubMed
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Exploring the role of drug-metabolising enzymes in antidepressant side effects. Psychopharmacology. 2015. Hodgson Karen, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole intravenous-to-oral switch regimens in immunocompromised Japanese pediatric patients. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2015. Mori Masaaki, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*17 affects R-warfarin plasma clearance and warfarin INR/dose ratio in patients on stable warfarin maintenance therapy. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Chang Ming, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype and early ischemic lesion recurrence in stroke patients treated with clopidogrel. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. 2015. Jeong Tae-Dong, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of low-dose clobazam therapy in Japanese patients with epilepsy. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Hashi Sachiyo, et al. PubMed
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Clinical applications of CYP genotyping in psychiatry. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 2015. Spina Edoardo, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 and P2Y12 Gene Polymorphisms on Clinical Results of Patients Using Clopidogrel after Acute Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease. Balkan journal of medical genetics : BJMG. 2014. Sen H M, et al. PubMed
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Methadone dose in heroin-dependent patients: role of clinical factors, comedications, genetic polymorphisms and enzyme activity. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Mouly S, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 Polymorphism on Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness and Inflammation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Under Clopidogrel Treatment. Current pharmaceutical design. 2015. Siasos Gerasimos, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacokinetic comparison of two voriconazole formulations and the effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism on their pharmacokinetic profiles. Drug design, development and therapy. 2015. Chung Hyewon, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19*2 and ABCB1 C3435T affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to clopidogrel in 401 patients with acute coronary syndrome. Gene. 2014. Wang Xia-Qin, et al. PubMed
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Diversity of platelet function and genetic polymorphism in clopidogrel-treated Chinese patients. Genetics and molecular research : GMR. 2015. Sun B, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in the lhoba population of southwest China. International journal of clinical and experimental pathology. 2015. He Yongjun, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 Metabolizer Status and Clopidogrel Efficacy in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) Study. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2015. McDonough Caitrin W, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: ibuprofen pathways. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Mazaleuskaya Liudmila L, et al. PubMed
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Impact of tailored anti-P2Y12 therapies in acute coronary syndromes. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Stimpfle Fabian, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics and cardiology: improving treatment with existing drugs. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Sorrentino Matthew J, et al. PubMed
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Point-of-care molecular diagnostic devices: an overview. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Vu Chi Lan Nguyen, et al. PubMed
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Population pharmacogenetics of Ibero-Latinoamerican populations (MESTIFAR 2014). Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Sosa-Macias Martha, et al. PubMed
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Serotonin pathway polymorphisms and the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Helton Sarah G, et al. PubMed
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Implementation of Cell Samples as Controls in National Proficiency Testing for Clopidogrel Therapy-Related CYP2C19 Genotyping in China: A Novel Approach. PloS one. 2015. Lin Guigao, et al. PubMed
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Optimizing clopidogrel dose response: a new clinical algorithm comprising CYP2C19 pharmacogenetics and drug interactions. Therapeutics and clinical risk management. 2015. Saab Yolande B, et al. PubMed
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In vitro functional analysis of 24 novel CYP2C19 variants recently found in the Chinese Han population. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2015. Dai Da-Peng, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19*17 increases clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition but does not alter the pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of clopidogrel. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2014. Pedersen Rasmus Steen, et al. PubMed
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Efficacy and safety of voriconazole and CYP2C19 polymorphism for optimised dosage regimens in patients with invasive fungal infections. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2014. Wang Taotao, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of antimicrobial agents. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Aung Ar Kar, et al. PubMed
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Genetic and non-genetic factors responsible for antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in Japanese patients undergoing coronary stent implantation: an algorithm to predict on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity. Thrombosis research. 2014. Miura Go, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 Genotype Has a Greater Effect on Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes Following PCI and in Asian Populations Treated with Clopidogrel: A Meta-Analysis. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2014. Sorich Michael J, et al. PubMed
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Impact of Cytochrome P450 2C19 Polymorphisms on Citalopram/Escitalopram Exposure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2014. Chang Ming, et al. PubMed
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Gene Variants in CYP2C19 are Associated with Altered In Vivo Bupropion Pharmacokinetics but not Bupropion Assisted Smoking Cessation Outcomes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2014. Zhu Andy Z X, et al. PubMed
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Comparison of acid inhibition with standard dosages of proton pump inhibitors in relation to CYP2C19 genotype in Japanese. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Sugimoto Mitsushige, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of felodipine as a potential perpetrator of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Snyder Ben D, et al. PubMed
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Gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2C19*2 and clopidogrel resistance reflected by platelet function assays: a meta-analysis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Hou Xiaowen, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel 5-mg, prasugrel 10-mg and clopidogrel 75-mg in patients with coronary artery disease. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2014. Gurbel P A, et al. PubMed
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Impact of age on serum concentrations of venlafaxine and escitalopram in different CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotype subgroups. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Waade Ragnhild Birkeland, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 variation, not citalopram dose nor serum level, is associated with QTc prolongation. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2014. Kumar Yingying, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms affect efficacy and adverse drug reactions of DMARDs in rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Zhang Ling Ling, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic insights into migraine treatment in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Gentile Giovanna, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic testing: the case for CYP2C19 proton pump inhibitor gene-drug pairs. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lima John J, et al. PubMed
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Role of phenotypic and genetic testing in managing clopidogrel therapy. Blood. 2014. Chan Noel C, et al. PubMed
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Effect of polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of risperidone in healthy volunteers. Human psychopharmacology. 2014. Cabaleiro Teresa, et al. PubMed
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Voriconazole and atazanavir: a CYP2C19-dependent manageable drug-drug interaction. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Calcagno Andrea, et al. PubMed
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Functional characterization of 21 CYP2C19 allelic variants for clopidogrel 2-oxidation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Takahashi M, et al. PubMed
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The role of clinical parameters and of CYP2C19 G681 and CYP4F2 G1347A polymorphisms on platelet reactivity during dual antiplatelet therapy. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2014. Tatarunas Vacis, et al. PubMed
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Impact of variable CYP genotypes on breast cancer relapse in patients undergoing adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2014. Mwinyi Jessica, et al. PubMed
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The influence of the CYP2C19*10 allele on clopidogrel activation and CYP2C19*2 genotyping. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Langaee Taimour Y, et al. PubMed
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Analysis of compound heterozygous CYP2C19 genotypes to determine cis and trans configurations. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Skierka Jennifer M, et al. PubMed
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Development of a broad-based ADME panel for use in pharmacogenomic studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Brown Andrew Mk, et al. PubMed
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Personalized pharmacogenomics profiling using whole-genome sequencing. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Mizzi Clint, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an update and implications for clinicians. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Zai Gwyneth, et al. PubMed
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Resolution of a clinical AmpliChip CYP450 Test™ no call: discovery and characterization of novel CYP2D6*1 haplotypes. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Gaedigk Andrea, et al. PubMed
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Voriconazole plasma concentrations in immunocompromised pediatric patients vary by CYP2C19 diplotypes. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Hicks J Kevin, et al. PubMed
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Voriconazole metabolism, toxicity, and the effect of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2014. Zonios Dimitrios, et al. PubMed
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Effects of CYP2C19 and P450 oxidoreductase polymorphisms on the population pharmacokinetics of clobazam and N-desmethylclobazam in japanese patients with epilepsy. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2014. Saruwatari Junji, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic-guided psychiatric intervention associated with increased adherence and cost savings. The American journal of managed care. 2014. Fagerness Jesen, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel metaboliser status based on point-of-care CYP2C19 genetic testing in patients with coronary artery disease. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2014. Erlinge David, et al. PubMed
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Impact of point-of-care testing for CYP2C19 on platelet inhibition in patients with acute coronary syndrome and early dual antiplatelet therapy in the emergency setting. Thrombosis research. 2014. Stimpfle Fabian, et al. PubMed
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Genetics of platelet inhibitor treatment. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Trenk Dietmar, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 Gene Variants, Race, and Mortality Among Clopidogrel Treated Patients Following Acute Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2014. Cresci Sharon, et al. PubMed
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Prioritizing genomic applications for action by level of evidence: a horizon-scanning method. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Dotson W D, et al. PubMed
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Lack of association between peri-procedural myocardial damage and CYP2C19 gene variant in elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Heart and vessels. 2014. Yoshimura Hiromi, et al. PubMed
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Effectiveness of clopidogrel dose escalation to normalize active metabolite exposure and antiplatelet effects in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Horenstein Richard B, et al. PubMed
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The Influence of Genetic Polymorphism of Cyp2c19 Isoenzyme on the Pharmacokinetics of Clopidogrel and Its Metabolites in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Karaźniewicz-Łada Marta, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism and proton pump inhibitors on platelet reactivity to clopidogrel and clinical outcomes following stent implantation. Thrombosis research. 2014. Hokimoto Seiji, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on clinical outcome following coronary stenting is more important in non-diabetic than diabetic patients. Thrombosis research. 2014. Mizobe Michio, et al. PubMed
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Prevalence of CYP2C19 variant alleles and pharmacodynamic variability of aspirin and clopidogrel in Native Americans. American heart journal. 2014. Oestreich Julie H, et al. PubMed
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Adoption of a clinical pharmacogenomics implementation program during outpatient care-initial results of the University of Chicago "1,200 Patients Project". American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2014. O'Donnell Peter H, et al. PubMed
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Implementation of pharmacogenetics: The University of Maryland personalized anti-platelet pharmacogenetics program. American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2014. Shuldiner Alan R, et al. PubMed
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PG4KDS: A model for the clinical implementation of pre-emptive pharmacogenetics. American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2014. Hoffman James M, et al. PubMed
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Expansion of a PBPK model to predict disposition in pregnant women of drugs cleared via multiple CYP enzymes, including CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Ke Alice Ban, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphisms and coronary heart disease risk factors synergistically impact clopidogrel response variety after percutaneous coronary intervention. Coronary artery disease. 2014. Liu Tao, et al. PubMed
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Implementation of a pharmacogenomics service in a community pharmacy. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA. 2014. Ferreri Stefanie P, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of oral antiplatelet drugs. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Yasmina Alfi, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacoepidemiologic and in Vitro Evaluation of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions of Sulfonylureas with Fibrates and Statins. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Schelleman H, et al. PubMed
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CES1A -816C as a genetic marker to predict greater platelet clopidogrel response in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2014. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Positive Clinical Response to Clopidogrel is Independent of Paraoxonase 1 Q192R and CYP2C19 Genetic Variants. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Martínez-Quintana Efrén, et al. PubMed
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The effects of CES1A2 A(-816)C and CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphisms on clopidogrel response variability among Chinese patients with coronary heart disease. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Xie Cheng, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 Polymorphisms and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Voriconazole: Are We Ready for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics?. Pharmacotherapy. 2014. Owusu Obeng Aniwaa, et al. PubMed
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Understanding variability with voriconazole using a population pharmacokinetic approach: implications for optimal dosing. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2014. Dolton Michael J, et al. PubMed
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Association between inherited CYP2D6/2C19 phenotypes and anticholinergic measures in elderly patients using anticholinergic drugs. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2014. Kersten Hege, et al. PubMed
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Incorporation of Pharmacogenomics into Routine Clinical Practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline Development Process. Current drug metabolism. 2014. Caudle Kelly E, et al. PubMed
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Multiple cytochrome P450 isoforms are involved in the generation of a pharmacologically active thiol metabolite, whereas paraoxonase 1 and carboxylesterase 1 catalyze the formation of a thiol metabolite isomer from ticlopidine. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2014. Kim Min-Jung, et al. PubMed
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Therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole: a case report of multiple drug interactions in a patient with an increased CYP2C19 activity. AIDS research and therapy. 2014. Bouatou Yassine, et al. PubMed
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Brivaracetam single and multiple rising oral dose study in healthy Japanese participants: influence of CYP2C19 genotype. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2014. Stockis Armel, et al. PubMed
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Association of genetic polymorphisms with warfarin dose requirements in Chinese patients. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers. 2013. Liang Yundan, et al. PubMed
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CYP 450 2C19 polymorphisms in Indian patients with coronary artery disease. Indian heart journal. 2014. Shetkar Sudhir S, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Impact of Cytochrome P450 2C19 Genotype on the Treatment of Invasive Aspergillosis under Routine Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Voriconazole in a Korean Population. Infection & chemotherapy. 2013. Kim Si-Hyun, et al. PubMed
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Relationship between statin type and responsiveness to clopidogrel in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a subgroup analysis of the CILON-T trial. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2014. Suh Jung-Won, et al. PubMed
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Role of genetic factors on the effect of additional loading doses and two maintenance doses used to overcome clopidogrel hyporesponsiveness. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2014. Latkovskis Gustavs, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of the relationship between polymorphisms in CYP2C19 and the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Román Manuel, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacogenetics-based warfarin maintenance dosing algorithm from northern chinese patients. PloS one. 2014. Chen Jinxing, et al. PubMed
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Effects of Cytochrome P450 2C19 and Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphisms on Antiplatelet Response to Clopidogrel Therapy in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. PloS one. 2014. Tresukosol Damrus, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the Superoxide Dismutase 2 Val16Ala Polymorphism on the Relationship between Valproic Acid Exposure and Elevation of gamma-Glutamyltransferase in Patients with Epilepsy: A Population Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analysis. PloS one. 2014. Ogusu Naoki, et al. PubMed
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Thrombin-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength: Relation to high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity, genotype, and post-percutaneous coronary intervention outcomes. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2013. Jeong Y-H, et al. PubMed
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Clinically actionable genotypes among 10,000 patients with preemptive pharmacogenomic testing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Van Driest Sara L, et al. PubMed
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Routine assessment of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and gene polymorphisms in predicting clinical outcome following drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with stable coronary artery disease. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2013. Viviani Anselmi Chiara, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP2C19 genotype on the time course of platelet aggregation inhibition after clopidogrel administration. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
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Genetic differences in cytochrome P450 enzymes and antidepressant treatment response. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2013. Hodgson Karen, et al. PubMed
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Effect of genetic variants GSTA1 and CYP39A1 and age on busulfan clearance in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Ten Brink Marloes H, et al. PubMed
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Pregnancy and pharmacogenomics in the context of drug metabolism and response. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Helldén Anders, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome CYP2C19 polymorphism and risk of adverse clinical events in clopidogrel-treated patients: a meta-analysis based on 23,035 subjects. Archives of cardiovascular diseases. 2013. Mao Liu, et al. PubMed
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Personalized antiplatelet therapy according to CYP2C19 genotype after percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized control trial. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Xie Xiang, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C19 Polymorphism on Platelet Function Tests and Coagulation and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2013. Kaikita Koichi, et al. PubMed
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Sex differences in the effect of cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on the risk of diabetic retinopathy: a retrospective longitudinal study in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Kajiwara Ayami, et al. PubMed
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Utility of integrated pharmacogenomic testing to support the treatment of major depressive disorder in a psychiatric outpatient setting. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Hall-Flavin Daniel K, et al. PubMed
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The association of cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms with sulfolane formation and the efficacy of a busulfan-based conditioning regimen in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Uppugunduri C R S, et al. PubMed
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PON1 Q192R genotype influences clopidogrel responsiveness by relative platelet inhibition instead of on-treatment platelet reactivity. Thrombosis research. 2013. Li Xiaoqi, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 Poor Metabolizer Is Associated with Clinical Outcome of Clopidogrel Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction but Not Stable Angina. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 2013. Kim Ho-Sook, et al. PubMed
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Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by the e- and z-isomers of norendoxifen. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2013. Liu Jinzhong, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms and response to escitalopram and venlafaxine over 8 weeks in major depression. Human psychopharmacology. 2013. Ng Chee, et al. PubMed
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The impact of CYP2C19 genotype on cardiovascular events and platelet reactivity in patients with coronary artery disease receiving clopidogrel. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Tousoulis Dimitris, et al. PubMed
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Novel CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 variants identified in a patient with adverse reactions towards venlafaxine monotherapy and dual therapy with nortriptyline and fluoxetine. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Chua Eng Wee, et al. PubMed
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Racial disparity with on-treatment platelet reactivity in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. American heart journal. 2013. Pendyala Lakshmana K, et al. PubMed
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Estimation of CYP2D6*10 genotypes on citalopram disposition in Chinese subjects by population pharmacokinetic assay. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2013. Chen B, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the CYP2C19*17 polymorphism on the clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in Asian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Park Mahn-Won, et al. PubMed
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Effects of polymorphisms in ABCG2, SLCO1B1, SLC10A1 and CYP2C9/19 on plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin and lipid response in Chinese patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Lee Hon-Kit, et al. PubMed
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CYP2D6 genotype in relation to tamoxifen efficacy in a Dutch cohort of the tamoxifen exemestane adjuvant multinational (TEAM) trial. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2013. Dezentjé V O, et al. PubMed
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Correlation of CYP2C19 Phenotype With Voriconazole Plasma Concentration in Children. Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 2013. Narita Atsushi, et al. PubMed
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Genetic determinants of high on-treatment platelet reactivity in clopidogrel treated Chinese patients. Thrombosis research. 2013. Zhang Lanning, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19*2 and *3 loss-of-function alleles on the pharmacodynamic effects of standard- and high-dose clopidogrel in East Asians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the results of the ACCEL-DOUBLE-2N3 study. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2013. Jeong Y-H, et al. PubMed
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The CYP2C19*17 Variant is not Independently Associated with Clopidogrel Response. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2013. Lewis Jp, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphisms and antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in acute ischemic stroke in China. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2013. Jia Dong-mei, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19 polymorphism and concomitant antiepileptic drugs on serum clobazam and N-desmethyl clobazam concentrations in patients with epilepsy. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2013. Yamamoto Yoshiaki, et al. PubMed
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Impact of ABCC3/MRP3 -211C/T polymorphism on clopidogrel responsiveness in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2013. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenetics: More than One Gene at a Time. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Johnson J A, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for cytochrome P450-2C19 (CYP2C19) genotype and clopidogrel therapy: 2013 Update. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic model incorporating mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2D6 can explain both non-linear kinetics and drug interactions of paroxetine. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Mikami Akiko, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of anti-platelet therapy: how much evidence is enough for clinical implementation?. Journal of human genetics. 2013. Perry Christina G, et al. PubMed
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Phenobarbital-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions are associated with CYP2C19*2 in Thai children. Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2013. Manuyakorn Wiparat, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the vulnerability to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions during acenocoumarol treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Gschwind Liliane, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 genotype has a major influence on labetalol pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Chan Sze Wa, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2C19 loss-of-function variants on the antiplatelet effects and cardiovascular events in clopidogrel-treated Chinese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Zou Jian-Jun, et al. PubMed
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Anti-Parkinson's disease drugs and pharmacogenetic considerations. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2013. Agúndez José A G, et al. PubMed
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Besides CYP2C19, PON1 genetic variant influences post-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in Chinese patients. International journal of cardiology. 2013. Wu Hongyi, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *17 genetic variants on platelet response to clopidogrel and prasugrel maintenance dose and relation to bleeding complications. The American journal of cardiology. 2013. Grosdidier Charlotte, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP2C19 Polymorphisms and Lansoprazole-Associated Respiratory Adverse Effects in Children. The Journal of pediatrics. 2013. Lima John J, et al. PubMed
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Efavirenz-mediated induction of omeprazole metabolism is CYP2C19 genotype dependent. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Michaud V, et al. PubMed
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Influence of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene variants on antidepressant response in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Brandl E J, et al. PubMed
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Effects of coexisting polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and P2Y12 on clopidogrel responsiveness and clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing stent-based coronary intervention. Chinese medical journal. 2013. Tang Xiao-Fang, et al. PubMed
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Relationship Between CYP2C19 Loss-of-Function Polymorphism and Platelet Reactivities With Clopidogrel Treatment in Japanese Patients Undergoing Coronary Stent Implantation. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2013. Nakata Tomoyuki, et al. PubMed
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Relationship Between CYP2C19 Loss-of-Function Polymorphism and Platelet Reactivities With Clopidogrel Treatment in Japanese Patients Undergoing Coronary Stent Implantation. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 2013. Nakata Tomoyuki, et al. PubMed
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Clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetic tests: what is the evidence for use in clinical practice?. Current opinion in cardiology. 2013. Shahin Mohamed H A, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C19 polymorphism and antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in Chinese stroke patients. Die Pharmazie. 2013. Yang Jie, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 influences the response to clopidogrel in ischemic heart disease patients in the South Indian Tamilian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Subraja K, et al. PubMed <