Drug/Small Molecule:
interferon beta-1b

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this drug/small molecule. To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB annotates drug labels containing pharmacogenetic information approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan (PMDA). PharmGKB annotations provide a brief summary of the PGx in the label, an excerpt from the label and a downloadable highlighted label PDF file. A list of genes and phenotypes found within the label is mapped to label section headers and listed at the end of each annotation. PharmGKB also attempts to interpret the level of action implied in each label with the "PGx Level" tag.

Sources:

  • FDA Information is gathered from the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" and from FDA-approved labels brought to our attention. Please note that drugs may be removed from or added to the FDA's Table without our knowledge. We periodically check the Table for changes and update PharmGKB accordingly. Drugs listed on the Table to our knowledge are tagged with the Biomarker icon. A drug label that has been removed from the Table will not have the Biomarker icon but will continue to have an annotation on PharmGKB stating the label has been removed from the FDA's Table. We acquire label PDF files from DailyMed.
  • EMA European Public Assessment Reports (EPARs) that contain PGx information were identified from [Article:24433361] and also by searching for drugs for which we have PGx-containing FDA drug labels.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA, PMDA or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all interferon beta-1b variant annotations

Gene ? Variant?
(142)
Alternate Names ? Drugs ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4961252 142104944A>G, 55378493A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs9272105 32341820A>A, 32539999G>A, 32599999G>A, 3836834A>A, 3881721G>A, 3938863G>A, 4033445G>A, 4050375A>A, 4056154G>A
G > A
Not Available
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 142
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
  • Fibroblast interferon
  • IFN-beta
  • Interferon beta precursor
Trade Names
  • Betaseron
  • Betaseron (Chiron Corp)
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id:
PA450039

Description

Human interferon beta (165 residues), cysteine 17 is substituted with serine. Produced in E. coli, no carbohydrates, MW=18.5kD

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Interferon beta-1b is a drug used for the treatment of relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. It has been shown to slow the advance of the disease as well as to decrease the frequency of attacks.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Interferon beta binds to type I interferon receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2c) which activate two Jak (Janus kinase) tyrosine kinases (Jak1 and Tyk2). These transphosphorylate themselves and phosphorylate the receptors. The phosphorylated INFAR receptors then bind to Stat1 and Stat2 (signal transducers and activators of transcription)which dimerize and activate multiple (~100) immunomodulatory and antiviral proteins. Interferon beta binds more stably to type I interferon receptors than interferon alpha.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Interferon beta upregulates the expression of MHC I proteins, allowing for increased presentation of peptides derived from viral antigens. This enhances the activation of CD8+ T cells that are the precursors for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and makes the macrophage a better target for CTL-mediated killing. Type I interferons also induce the synthesis of several key antiviral mediators including 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5' A synthetase), beta-2 microglobulin, neopterin and protein kinase R.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Clearance

Volume of Distribution

  • 0.25 to 2,88 L/kg

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C908H1408N246O253S6

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

Not Available

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

20011.0000

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-DQA1

Drug Targets

Gene Description
IFNAR1 (source: Drug Bank)
IFNAR2 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
zidovudine The interferon increases the effect and toxicity of zidovudine (source: Drug Bank)
zidovudine The interferon increases the effect and toxicity of zidovudine (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to interferon beta-1b: 7

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic update on multiple sclerosis: a focus on actual and new therapeutic strategies. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Foti Cuzzola V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Interferon-beta-1b-induced short- and long-term signatures of treatment activity in multiple sclerosis. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Croze E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HLA- and non-HLA genes associated with the development of antibodies to interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis patients. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Weber F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Long-term genome-wide blood RNA expression profiles yield novel molecular response candidates for IFN-beta-1b treatment in relapsing remitting MS. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Goertsches Robert H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Multiple sclerosis pharmacogenomics: maximizing efficacy of therapy. Neurology. 2010. Pappas Derek J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms, their allele combinations and IFN-beta treatment response in Irish multiple sclerosis patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. O'Doherty Catherine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide pharmacogenomic analysis of the response to interferon beta therapy in multiple sclerosis. Archives of neurology. 2008. Byun Esther, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

GenBank:
V00534
Web Resource:
Wikipedia
UniProtKB:
IFNB_HUMAN (P01574)
National Drug Code Directory:
50419-523-35
DrugBank:
DB00068
KEGG Compound:
C07901
KEGG Drug:
D00746
PubChem Substance:
10103
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2169649
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP001283
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
261fde67-efb2-4bd7-947e-4f68a56e76ff

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention interferon beta-1b and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.