Chemical: Drug
heroin

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for heroin

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1076563 NC_000011.10:g.113425187A>C, NC_000011.9:g.113295909A>C, NG_008841.1:g.55093T>G, NM_000795.3:c.-31-505T>G, NM_016574.3:c.-31-505T>G, XM_005271425.1:c.-31-505T>G, XM_005271426.1:c.-536T>G, rs61055566
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1176744 NC_000011.10:g.113932306A>C, NC_000011.9:g.113803028A>C, NG_011483.1:g.32440A>C, NM_006028.4:c.386A>C, NP_006019.1:p.Tyr129Ser, XM_011543063.1:c.353A>C, XM_011543064.1:c.185A>C, XM_011543065.1:c.179A>C, XM_011543066.1:c.353A>C, XP_011541365.1:p.Tyr118Ser, XP_011541366.1:p.Tyr62Ser, XP_011541367.1:p.Tyr60Ser, XP_011541368.1:p.Tyr118Ser, rs12789060, rs1672726, rs17116132, rs386521153, rs52824992, rs61541040
A > C
SNP
Y129S
No VIP available CA VA
rs13242038 NC_000007.13:g.86314420C>T, NC_000007.14:g.86685104C>T, NM_000840.2:c.-141+40232C>T, XM_005250287.1:c.84+40232C>T, XM_005250289.1:c.100+40232C>T, XM_011516088.1:c.-141+40232C>T, XM_011516089.1:c.-141+40232C>T, XM_011516090.1:c.-141+40232C>T
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs135757 NC_000022.10:g.38703653A>G, NC_000022.11:g.38307648A>G, NG_016707.1:g.15437T>C, NM_001289912.1:c.77-4400T>C, NM_001894.4:c.77-4400T>C, NM_152221.2:c.77-4400T>C, XM_005261343.1:c.77-4400T>C, XM_005261344.1:c.77-4400T>C, XM_005261345.1:c.77-4400T>C, XM_005261346.1:c.77-4400T>C, rs59671347
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1486009 NC_000003.11:g.113888532A>G, NC_000003.12:g.114169685A>G, NG_008842.2:g.34723T>C, NM_000796.5:c.270+2038T>C, NM_001282563.2:c.270+2038T>C, NM_001290809.1:c.270+2038T>C, NM_033663.5:c.270+2038T>C, XM_005247170.1:c.270+2038T>C, XM_005247171.1:c.270+2038T>C, XM_011512510.1:c.270+2038T>C, XM_011512511.1:c.270+2038T>C, XM_011512512.1:c.270+2038T>C, rs58868166
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1534891 NC_000022.10:g.38695099T>C, NC_000022.11:g.38299094T>C, NG_016707.1:g.23991A>G, NM_001289912.1:c.737-160A>G, NM_001894.4:c.737-160A>G, NM_152221.2:c.737-160A>G, XM_005261343.1:c.737-160A>G, XM_005261344.1:c.737-160A>G, XM_005261345.1:c.737-160A>G, XM_005261346.1:c.737-160A>G, rs56470422, rs56660139
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17160170 NC_000007.13:g.85432813C>T, NC_000007.14:g.85803497C>T, rs59013520
C > T
SNP
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs1799732 NC_000011.10:g.113475529_113475530insG, NC_000011.9:g.113346251_113346252insG, NG_008841.1:g.4750_4751insC, NM_000795.3:c.-486_-485insC, NM_016574.3:c.-486_-485insC, XM_005271425.1:c.-32+128_-32+129insC, XR_948023.1:n.528_529insC, rs143987432, rs144707848, rs72523179, rs72566141
- > G
indel
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799971 NC_000006.11:g.154360797A>G, NC_000006.12:g.154039662A>G, NG_021208.1:g.34162A>G, NM_000914.4:c.118A>G, NM_001008503.2:c.118A>G, NM_001008504.3:c.118A>G, NM_001008505.2:c.118A>G, NM_001145279.3:c.397A>G, NM_001145280.3:c.-11+28644A>G, NM_001145281.2:c.47+29103A>G, NM_001145282.2:c.118A>G, NM_001145283.2:c.118A>G, NM_001145284.3:c.118A>G, NM_001145285.2:c.118A>G, NM_001145286.2:c.118A>G, NM_001285522.1:c.118A>G, NM_001285523.1:c.118A>G, NM_001285524.1:c.397A>G, NP_000905.3:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001008503.2:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001008504.2:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001008505.2:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001138751.1:p.Asn133Asp, NP_001138754.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001138755.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001138756.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001138757.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001138758.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001272451.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001272452.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001272453.1:p.Asn133Asp, NR_104348.1:n.252A>G, NR_104349.1:n.252A>G, NR_104350.1:n.252A>G, NR_104351.1:n.252A>G, XM_005267002.1:c.304A>G, XM_006715497.2:c.304A>G, XM_011535849.1:c.397A>G, XP_005267059.1:p.Asn102Asp, XP_006715560.1:p.Asn102Asp, XP_011534151.1:p.Asn133Asp, XR_245534.1:n.304A>G, XR_245535.1:n.304A>G, XR_245536.1:n.304A>G, XR_245537.1:n.304A>G, rs17181017, rs52818856, rs61596185
A > G
SNP
N40D
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800497 NC_000011.10:g.113400106G>A, NC_000011.9:g.113270828G>A, NG_012976.1:g.17316G>A, NM_178510.1:c.2137G>A, NP_848605.1:p.Glu713Lys, XM_011542736.1:c.2170G>A, XM_011542737.1:c.2140G>A, XM_011542738.1:c.1948G>A, XP_011541038.1:p.Glu724Lys, XP_011541039.1:p.Glu714Lys, XP_011541040.1:p.Glu650Lys, rs117686243, rs4134623, rs4245144, rs59538675
G > A
SNP
E713K
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1989796 NC_000007.13:g.86474313T>C, NC_000007.14:g.86844997T>C, NM_000840.2:c.2391+5092T>C, XM_005250286.1:c.2391+5092T>C, XM_005250287.1:c.2007+5092T>C, XM_005250288.1:c.1325-5373T>C, XM_005250289.1:c.1167+5092T>C, XM_011516088.1:c.1325-5373T>C, rs10375213, rs2299229, rs59168320
T > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1990040 NC_000007.13:g.86313074A>G, NC_000007.14:g.86683758A>G, NM_000840.2:c.-141+38886A>G, XM_005250287.1:c.84+38886A>G, XM_005250289.1:c.100+38886A>G, XM_011516088.1:c.-141+38886A>G, XM_011516089.1:c.-141+38886A>G, XM_011516090.1:c.-141+38886A>G, rs17675465
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2189814 NC_000007.13:g.86331756T>C, NC_000007.14:g.86702440T>C, NM_000840.2:c.-141+57568T>C, XM_005250287.1:c.84+57568T>C, XM_005250289.1:c.100+57568T>C, XM_011516088.1:c.-141+57568T>C, XM_011516089.1:c.-141+57568T>C, XM_011516090.1:c.-141+57568T>C, rs17675632
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2237558 NC_000007.13:g.86393536G>A, NC_000007.14:g.86764220G>A, NM_000840.2:c.-140-786G>A, XM_005250286.1:c.-926G>A, XM_005250287.1:c.85-22041G>A, XM_005250288.1:c.-926G>A, XM_005250289.1:c.101-74619G>A, XM_005250290.1:c.-926G>A, XM_011516088.1:c.-140-786G>A, XM_011516089.1:c.-140-786G>A, XM_011516090.1:c.-140-786G>A, rs60644010, rs61406302
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2237562 NC_000007.13:g.86422232T>C, NC_000007.14:g.86792916T>C, NM_000840.2:c.1324+5800T>C, XM_005250286.1:c.1324+5800T>C, XM_005250287.1:c.940+5800T>C, XM_005250288.1:c.1324+5800T>C, XM_005250289.1:c.101-45923T>C, XM_005250290.1:c.1324+5800T>C, XM_011516088.1:c.1324+5800T>C, XM_011516089.1:c.1324+5800T>C, XM_011516090.1:c.1324+5800T>C, XR_927721.1:n.1425+271A>G, rs57635632
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2282966 NC_000007.13:g.86475667G>A, NC_000007.14:g.86846351G>A, NM_000840.2:c.2392-4019G>A, XM_005250286.1:c.2392-4019G>A, XM_005250287.1:c.2008-4019G>A, XM_005250288.1:c.1325-4019G>A, XM_005250289.1:c.1168-4019G>A, XM_011516088.1:c.1325-4019G>A, rs10365080, rs7804100
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2299225 NC_000007.13:g.86447580T>G, NC_000007.14:g.86818264T>G, NM_000840.2:c.1325-20575T>G, XM_005250286.1:c.1325-20575T>G, XM_005250287.1:c.941-20575T>G, XM_005250288.1:c.1324+31148T>G, XM_005250289.1:c.101-20575T>G, XM_005250290.1:c.1325-14758T>G, XM_011516088.1:c.1324+31148T>G, XM_011516090.1:c.1325-14758T>G, rs17765182, rs56919395
T > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2587548 NC_000011.10:g.113421490G>C, NC_000011.9:g.113292212G>C, NG_008841.1:g.58790C>G, NM_000795.3:c.285+2877C>G, NM_016574.3:c.285+2877C>G, XM_005271425.1:c.285+2877C>G, XM_005271426.1:c.289+2873C>G, rs17414405, rs57523198
G > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2654754 NC_000003.11:g.113855796G>A, NC_000003.12:g.114136949G>A, NG_008842.2:g.67459C>T, NM_000796.5:c.723+2551C>T, NM_001282563.2:c.723+2551C>T, NM_001290809.1:c.723+2551C>T, NM_033663.5:c.723+2551C>T, XM_005247170.1:c.723+2551C>T, XM_005247171.1:c.723+2551C>T, XM_011512510.1:c.723+2551C>T, XM_011512511.1:c.723+2551C>T, XM_011512512.1:c.723+2551C>T, rs56611118, rs56683063, rs58459708
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2734849 NC_000011.10:g.113399438A>G, NC_000011.9:g.113270160A>G, NG_012976.1:g.16648A>G, NM_178510.1:c.1469A>G, NP_848605.1:p.His490Arg, XM_011542736.1:c.1502A>G, XM_011542737.1:c.1472A>G, XM_011542738.1:c.1280A>G, XP_011541038.1:p.His501Arg, XP_011541039.1:p.His491Arg, XP_011541040.1:p.His427Arg, rs386572908, rs52793977, rs59959221
A > G
SNP
H490R
No VIP available CA VA
rs274618 NC_000007.13:g.86272016T>A, NC_000007.14:g.86642700T>A, NM_000840.2:c.-2313T>A, XM_005250287.1:c.-2089T>A, XM_005250289.1:c.-2073T>A, rs10330593, rs56649261
T > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs274622 NC_000007.13:g.86272940C>T, NC_000007.14:g.86643624C>T, NM_000840.2:c.-1389C>T, XM_005250287.1:c.-1165C>T, XM_005250289.1:c.-1149C>T, XM_011516088.1:c.-1389C>T, XM_011516089.1:c.-1389C>T, XM_011516090.1:c.-1389C>T, rs10358739
C > T
SNP
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs4680 NC_000022.10:g.19951271G>A, NC_000022.11:g.19963748G>A, NG_011526.1:g.27009G>A, NM_000754.3:c.472G>A, NM_001135161.1:c.472G>A, NM_001135162.1:c.472G>A, NM_007310.2:c.322G>A, NP_000745.1:p.Val158Met, NP_001128633.1:p.Val158Met, NP_001128634.1:p.Val158Met, NP_009294.1:p.Val108Met, NR_039918.1:n.-5G>A, XM_005261229.1:c.472G>A, XM_011529885.1:c.586G>A, XM_011529886.1:c.586G>A, XM_011529887.1:c.472G>A, XM_011529888.1:c.472G>A, XM_011529889.1:c.472G>A, XM_011529890.1:c.472G>A, XM_011529891.1:c.472G>A, XP_005261286.1:p.Val158Met, XP_011528187.1:p.Val196Met, XP_011528188.1:p.Val196Met, XP_011528189.1:p.Val158Met, XP_011528190.1:p.Val158Met, XP_011528191.1:p.Val158Met, XP_011528192.1:p.Val158Met, XP_011528193.1:p.Val158Met, rs1131157, rs11544671, rs165688, rs17295216, rs17349704, rs17818178, rs17849308, rs17850006, rs2070104, rs3177905, rs3190784, rs3747070, rs58002978
G > A
SNP
V158M
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6001093 NC_000022.10:g.38701393C>T, NC_000022.11:g.38305388C>T, NG_016707.1:g.17697G>A, NM_001289912.1:c.77-2140G>A, NM_001894.4:c.77-2140G>A, NM_152221.2:c.77-2140G>A, XM_005261343.1:c.77-2140G>A, XM_005261344.1:c.77-2140G>A, XM_005261345.1:c.77-2140G>A, XM_005261346.1:c.77-2140G>A, rs35870804, rs61246311
C > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs6265 NC_000011.10:g.27658369C>T, NC_000011.9:g.27679916C>T, NG_011794.1:g.68690G>A, NM_001143805.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143806.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143807.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143808.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143809.1:c.283G>A, NM_001143810.1:c.442G>A, NM_001143811.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143812.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143813.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143814.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143816.1:c.196G>A, NM_001709.4:c.196G>A, NM_170731.4:c.220G>A, NM_170732.4:c.196G>A, NM_170733.3:c.196G>A, NM_170734.3:c.241G>A, NM_170735.5:c.196G>A, NP_001137277.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137278.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137279.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137280.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137281.1:p.Val95Met, NP_001137282.1:p.Val148Met, NP_001137283.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137284.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137285.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137286.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137288.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001700.2:p.Val66Met, NP_733927.1:p.Val74Met, NP_733928.1:p.Val66Met, NP_733929.1:p.Val66Met, NP_733930.1:p.Val81Met, NP_733931.1:p.Val66Met, NR_002832.2:n.503C>T, NR_033312.1:n.434C>T, NR_033313.1:n.434C>T, NR_033314.1:n.503C>T, NR_033315.1:n.434C>T, XM_005253060.1:c.442G>A, XM_011520280.1:c.442G>A, XP_005253117.1:p.Val148Met, XP_011518582.1:p.Val148Met, XR_242807.1:n.355C>T, XR_242808.1:n.352C>T, XR_242809.1:n.224-802C>T, rs16917222, rs17855547, rs3829232, rs386602118, rs60760775
C > -
C > A
SNP
V66M
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6465088 NC_000007.13:g.86470554T>G, NC_000007.14:g.86841238T>G, NM_000840.2:c.2391+1333T>G, XM_005250286.1:c.2391+1333T>G, XM_005250287.1:c.2007+1333T>G, XM_005250288.1:c.1325-9132T>G, XM_005250289.1:c.1167+1333T>G, XM_011516088.1:c.1325-9132T>G, rs10487053, rs17161029, rs57316790
T > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs671 NC_000012.11:g.112241766G>A, NC_000012.12:g.111803962G>A, NG_012250.1:g.42421G>A, NM_000690.3:c.1510G>A, NM_001204889.1:c.1369G>A, NP_000681.2:p.Glu504Lys, NP_001191818.1:p.Glu457Lys, rs2230021, rs4134524, rs4986830, rs60823674
G > A
SNP
E504K
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6947784 NC_000007.13:g.86395556G>C, NC_000007.14:g.86766240G>C, NM_000840.2:c.468+627G>C, XM_005250286.1:c.468+627G>C, XM_005250287.1:c.85-20021G>C, XM_005250288.1:c.468+627G>C, XM_005250289.1:c.101-72599G>C, XM_005250290.1:c.468+627G>C, XM_011516088.1:c.468+627G>C, XM_011516089.1:c.468+627G>C, XM_011516090.1:c.468+627G>C, rs59159779
G > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs724226 NC_000007.13:g.86325374A>G, NC_000007.14:g.86696058A>G, NM_000840.2:c.-141+51186A>G, XM_005250287.1:c.84+51186A>G, XM_005250289.1:c.100+51186A>G, XM_011516088.1:c.-141+51186A>G, XM_011516089.1:c.-141+51186A>G, XM_011516090.1:c.-141+51186A>G, rs59914090, rs802476
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7789655 NC_000007.13:g.86481013T>G, NC_000007.14:g.86851697T>G, NM_000840.2:c.2566+1153T>G, XM_005250286.1:c.2566+1153T>G, XM_005250287.1:c.2182+1153T>G, XM_005250288.1:c.1499+1153T>G, XM_005250289.1:c.1342+1153T>G, XM_011516088.1:c.1499+1153T>G, rs10381422, rs12704292, rs59016638
T > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs917071 NC_000007.13:g.86353781C>T, NC_000007.14:g.86724465C>T, NM_000840.2:c.-140-40541C>T, XM_005250287.1:c.85-61796C>T, XM_005250289.1:c.100+79593C>T, XM_011516088.1:c.-140-40541C>T, XM_011516089.1:c.-140-40541C>T, XM_011516090.1:c.-140-40541C>T, rs10341047, rs58097802
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9288993 NC_000003.11:g.113859173A>G, NC_000003.12:g.114140326A>G, NG_008842.2:g.64082T>C, NM_000796.5:c.527-630T>C, NM_001282563.2:c.527-630T>C, NM_001290809.1:c.527-630T>C, NM_033663.5:c.527-630T>C, XM_005247170.1:c.527-630T>C, XM_005247171.1:c.527-630T>C, XM_011512510.1:c.527-630T>C, XM_011512511.1:c.527-630T>C, XM_011512512.1:c.527-630T>C, rs59618470
A > G
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Smack
  • diacetylmorphine
  • diamorphine
Trade Names
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA452619

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed) Internationally, heroin is controlled under Schedules I and IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, or sell heroin in the United States and the UK. However, under the name diamorphine, heroin is a legal prescription drug in the United Kingdom.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Used in the treatment of acute pain, myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary oedema, and chronic pain.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Heroin is a mu-opioid agonist. It acts on endogenous mu-opioid receptors that are spread in discrete packets throughout the brain, spinal cord and gut in almost all mammals. Heroin, along with other opioids, are agonists to four endogenous neurotransmitters. They are beta-endorphin, dynorphin, leu-enkephalin, and met-enkephalin. The body responds to heroin in the brain by reducing (and sometimes stopping) production of the endogenous opioids when heroin is present. Endorphins are regularly released in the brain and nerves, attenuating pain. Their other functions are still obscure, but are probably related to the effects produced by heroin besides analgesia (antitussin, anti-diarrheal).

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

The onset of heroin's effects is dependent on the method of administration. Taken orally, heroin is totally metabolized in vivo into morphine before crossing the blood-brain barrier; so the effects are the same as oral morphine. Take by injection, heroin crosses into the brain. Once in the brain, heroin is rapidly metabolized into morphine by removal of the acetyl groups, therefore, it is known as a prodrug. It is the morphine molecule that then binds with opioid receptors and produces the subjective effects of the heroin high.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid alcohol|To avoid constipation: increase your daily intake of fiber (beans, whole grains, vegetables).

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

0% (morphine metabolite 35%)

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Bioavailability is less than 35%.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

2-3 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

90% renal as glucuronides, rest biliary

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C21H23NO5

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC(=O)Oc1ccc2c3c1O[C@@H]4[C@]35CCN([C@](C2)[C@@H]5C=C[C@@]4OC(=O)C)C

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CN1CC[C@]23[C@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

369.411

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

369.157622851

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

[H][C@@]12OC3=C(OC(C)=O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]11CCN(C)[C@]([H])(C4)[C@]1([H])C=C[C@@H]2OC(C)=O

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C21H23NO5/c1-11(23)25-16-6-4-13-10-15-14-5-7-17(26-12(2)24)20-21(14,8-9-22(15)3)18(13)19(16)27-20/h4-7,14-15,17,20H,8-10H2,1-3H3/t14-,15+,17-,20-,21-/m0/s1

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
OPRD1 (source: Drug Bank)
OPRK1 (source: Drug Bank)
OPRM1 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
cimetidine - heroin Cimetidine increases the effect of the narcotic (source: Drug Bank)
cimetidine - heroin Cimetidine increases the effect of the narcotic (source: Drug Bank)
naltrexone - heroin Naltrexone may precipitate a withdrawal syndrome in opioid-dependent individuals (source: Drug Bank)
naltrexone - heroin Naltrexone may precipitate a withdrawal syndrome in opioid-dependent individuals (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Publications related to heroin: 32

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BDNF (Val66Met) genetic polymorphism is associated with vulnerability for methamphetamine dependence. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Iamjan Sri-Arun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epigenomic mapping and effect sizes of noncoding variants associated with psychotropic drug response. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Higgins Gerald A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Naltrexone vs Placebo for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA psychiatry. 2015. Oslin David W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
OPRM1 genotype and naltrexone response in depressed alcohol-dependent patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Foulds James A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Methadone dose in heroin-dependent patients: role of clinical factors, comedications, genetic polymorphisms and enzyme activity. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Mouly S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Dopaminergic pathway polymorphisms and heroin addiction: further support for association of CSNK1E variants. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Levran Orna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Susceptibility loci for heroin and cocaine addiction in the serotonergic and adrenergic pathways in populations of different ancestry. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Levran Orna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of OPRM1 A118G variant with risk of morphine-induced respiratory depression following spine fusion in adolescents. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Chidambaran V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Rescue morphine in mechanically ventilated newborns associated with combined OPRM1 and COMT genotype. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Matic Maja, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
BDNF rs6265 polymorphism and drug addiction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Haerian Batoul Sadat. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 is associated with heroin dependence but not depression or schizophrenia in a Chinese population. PloS one. 2014. Jia Wei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of OPRM1 and COMT single-nucleotide polymorphisms with hospital length of stay and treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2013. Wachman Elisha M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
OPRM1 rs1799971 polymorphism and opioid dependence: evidence from a meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Haerian Batoul Sadat, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Human mu-opioid receptor gene A118G polymorphism predicts the efficacy of tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets (ultracet) in oxaliplatin-induced painful neuropathy. Cancer. 2012. Liu Yu-Chang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional genetic variants that increase synaptic serotonin and 5-HT3 receptor sensitivity predict alcohol and drug dependence. Molecular psychiatry. 2011. Enoch M-A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of genetic polymorphisms in ABCB1, CYP2B6, OPRM1, ANKK1 and DRD2 genes on methadone therapy in Han Chinese patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene is associated with heroin dependence. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2011. Wang Tzu-Yun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lack of Association of OPRM1 and ABCB1 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Oxycodone Response in Postoperative Pain. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Zwisler Stine T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nerve growth factor beta polypeptide (NGFB) genetic variability: association with the methadone dose required for effective maintenance treatment. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Levran O, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion pharmacogenomics of drugs of abuse. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Meyer Markus R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Study of the OPRM1 A118G genetic polymorphism associated with postoperative nausea and vomiting induced by fentanyl intravenous analgesia. Minerva anestesiologica. 2011. Zhang W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of polymorphisms of the cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes with heroin addiction: impact of long repeats of CNR1. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Proudnikov D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association between OPRM1 gene polymorphisms and fentanyl sensitivity in patients undergoing painful cosmetic surgery. Pain. 2009. Fukuda Kenichi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mu-opioid receptor (A118G) single-nucleotide polymorphism affects alfentanil requirements for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study. British journal of anaesthesia. 2009. Ginosar Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variability of the mu-opioid receptor influences intrathecal fentanyl analgesia requirements in laboring women. Pain. 2008. Landau Ruth, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of ABCB1/MDR1 and OPRM1 gene polymorphisms with morphine pain relief. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Campa D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An evaluation of mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) as a predictor of naltrexone response in the treatment of alcohol dependence: results from the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) study. Archives of general psychiatry. 2008. Anton Raymond F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Exploring joint effects of genes and the clinical efficacy of morphine for cancer pain: OPRM1 and COMT gene. Pain. 2007. Reyes-Gibby Cielito C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB1 genetic variability and methadone dosage requirements in opioid-dependent individuals. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Coller Janet K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association analysis of polymorphisms in serotonin 1B receptor (HTR1B) gene with heroin addiction: a comparison of molecular and statistically estimated haplotypes. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2006. Proudnikov Dmitri, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Confirmation of an excess of the high enzyme activity COMT val allele in heroin addicts in a family-based haplotype relative risk study. American journal of medical genetics. 2000. Horowitz R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association between a delta opioid receptor gene polymorphism and heroin dependence in man. Neuroreport. 1997. Mayer P, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
DrugBank:
DB01452
ChEBI:
27808
KEGG Compound:
C06534
PubChem Compound:
5462328
PubChem Substance:
46506839
8764
ChemSpider:
4575379

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention heroin and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials loaded.

NURSA Datasets

provided by nursa.org

No NURSA datasets available.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.