Chemical: Drug
vitamin e

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PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

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The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for vitamin e

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
rs2108622 NC_000019.10:g.15879621C>T, NC_000019.9:g.15990431C>T, NG_007971.2:g.23454G>A, NM_001082.4:c.1297G>A, NP_001073.3:p.Val433Met, rs116975254, rs52819608, rs57319528
C > T
SNP
V433M
No VIP available CA VA
rs3093105 NC_000019.10:g.15897578A>C, NC_000019.9:g.16008388A>C, NG_007971.2:g.5497T>G, NM_001082.4:c.34T>G, NP_001073.3:p.Trp12Gly, rs117322022
A > C
SNP
W12G
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Tocopherol
  • alpha-Tocopherol
Trade Names
  • Amino-Opti-E
  • Aquasol E
  • Daltose
  • E-200 I.U. Softgels
  • E-Complex-600
  • E-Ferol
  • E-Vitamin succinate
  • Gordo-Vite E
  • Vitamin Plus E Softgells
  • Vitec
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA451900

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A generic descriptor for all tocopherols and tocotrienols that exhibit alpha-tocopherol activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of isoprenoids.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Vitamin E, known for its antioxidant activities, is protective against cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer and has also demonstrated immune-enhancing effects. It may be of limited benefit in some with asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. It may be helpful in some neurological diseases including Alzheimer's, some eye disorders including cataracts, and diabetes and premenstrual syndrome. It may also help protect skin from ultraviolet irradiation although claims that it reverses skin aging, enhances male fertility and exercise performance are poorly supported. It may help relieve some muscle cramps.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Although all forms of Vitamin E exhibit antioxidant activity, it is known that the antioxidant activity of vitamin E is not sufficient to explain the vitamin's biological activity. <br/>Vitamin E's anti-atherogenic activity involves the inhibition of the oxidation of LDL and the accumulation of oxLDL in the arterial wall. It also appears to reduce oxLDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells. Oxidation of LDL is a key early step in atherogenesis as it triggers a number of events which lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. In addition, vitamin E inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) activity. PKC plays a role in smooth muscle cell proliferation, and, thus, the inhibition of PKC results in inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation, which is involved in atherogenesis. <br/>Vitamin E's antithrombotic and anticoagulant activities involves the downregulation of the expression of intracellular cell adhesion molecule(ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule(VCAM)-1 which lowers the adhesion of blood components to the endothelium. In addition, vitamin E upregulates the expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 which in turn enhances the release of prostacyclin. Prostacyclin is a vasodilating factor and inhibitor of platelet aggregation and platelet release. It is also known that platelet aggregation is mediated by a mechanism involving the binding of fibrinogen to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) complex of platelets. GPIIb/IIIa is the major membrane receptor protein that is key to the role of the platelet aggregation response. GPIIb is the alpha-subunit of this platelet membrane protein. Alpha-tocopherol downregulates GPIIb promoter activity which results in reduction of GPIIb protein expression and decreased platelet aggregation. Vitamin E has also been found in culture to decrease plasma production of thrombin, a protein which binds to platelets and induces aggregation. A metabolite of vitamin E called vitamin E quinone or alpha-tocopheryl quinone (TQ) is a potent anticoagulant. This metabolite inhibits vitamin K-dependent carboxylase, which is a major enzyme in the coagulation cascade.<br/>The neuroprotective effects of vitamin E are explained by its antioxidant effects. Many disorders of the nervous system are caused by oxidative stress. Vitamin E protects against this stress, thereby protecting the nervouse system. <br/>The immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin E have been demonstrated in vitro, where alpha-tocopherol increases mitogenic response of T lymphocytes from aged mice. The mechanism of this response by vitamin E is not well understood, however it has been suggested that vitamin E itself may have mitogenic activity independent of its antioxidant activity. <br/>Lastly, the mechanism of action of vitamin E's antiviral effects (primarily against HIV-1) involves its antioxidant activity. Vitamin E reduces oxidative stress, which is thought to contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis, as well as to the pathogenesis of other viral infections. Vitamin E also affects membrane integrity and fluidity and, since HIV-1 is a membraned virus, altering membrane fluidity of HIV-1 may interfere with its ability to bind to cell-receptor sites, thus decreasing its infectivity.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Vitamin E has antioxidant activity. It may also have anti-atherogenic, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, neuroprotective, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cell membrane-stabilizing and antiproliferative actions. Vitamin E is a collective term used to describe eight separate forms, the best-known form being alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and is an important antioxidant. It acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Vitamin E is often used in skin creams and lotions because it is believed to play a role in encouraging skin healing and reducing scarring after injuries such as burns. There are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur. It is seen in persons who cannot absorb dietary fat, has been found in premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3½ pounds), and is seen in individuals with rare disorders of fat metabolism. A vitamin E deficiency is usually characterized by neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction. Symptoms may include infertility, neuromuscular impairment, menstrual problems, miscarriage and uterine degradation. Preliminary research has led to a widely held belief that vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease. Antioxidants such as vitamin E help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. It also protects other fat-soluble vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen. Low levels of vitamin E have been linked to increased incidence of breast and colon cancer.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Bound to beta-lipoproteins in blood.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

50 to 80% absorbed from gastrointestinal tract.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C29H50O2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

Cc1c(c2c(c(c1O)C)CC[C@@](O2)(C)CCC[C@H](C)CCC[C@H](C)CCCC(C)C)C

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CC(C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

430.7061

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

430.381080844

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

CC(C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@]1(C)CCC2=C(O1)C(C)=C(C)C(O)=C2C

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C29H50O2/c1-20(2)12-9-13-21(3)14-10-15-22(4)16-11-18-29(8)19-17-26-25(7)27(30)23(5)24(6)28(26)31-29/h20-22,30H,9-19H2,1-8H3/t21-,22-,29-/m1/s1

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ALOX5 (source: Drug Bank )
DGKA (source: Drug Bank )
NR1I2 (source: Drug Bank )
PPP2CA (source: Drug Bank )
PPP2CB (source: Drug Bank )
PRKCA (source: Drug Bank )
PRKCB (source: Drug Bank )
SEC14L2 (source: Drug Bank )
SEC14L3 (source: Drug Bank )
SEC14L4 (source: Drug Bank )
TTPA (source: Drug Bank )

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
amprenavir - vitamin e Increased serum levels of vitamin E (source: Drug Bank )
vitamin e - orlistat Orlistat may impair the absorption of vitamin E, a fat soluble vitamin. Oral vitamin E should be administered 2 hours prior to or post orlistat administration. (source: Drug Bank )

Curated Information ?

Publications related to vitamin e: 10

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP4F2. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Alvarellos Maria L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic Polymorphism of Cytochrome P450 4F2, Vitamin E Level and Histological Response in Adults and Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Who Participated in PIVENS and TONIC Clinical Trials. PloS one. 2014. Athinarayanan Shaminie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450-dependent catabolism of vitamin K: ω-hydroxylation catalyzed by human CYP4F2 and CYP4F11. Biochemistry. 2013. Edson Katheryne Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Common variants of cytochrome P450 4F2 exhibit altered vitamin E-{omega}-hydroxylase specific activity. The Journal of nutrition. 2010. Bardowell Sabrina A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Vitamin E reduces cardiovascular disease in individuals with diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Blum Shany, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 omega hydroxylase (CYP4) function in fatty acid metabolism and metabolic diseases. Biochemical pharmacology. 2008. Hardwick James P. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional polymorphism in human CYP4F2 decreases 20-HETE production. Physiological genomics. 2007. Stec David E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
100 years and counting: prospects for defeating Alzheimer's disease. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2006. Roberson Erik D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Discovery, characterization, and significance of the cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase pathway of vitamin E catabolism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2004. Parker Robert S, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
DrugBank:
DB00163
PDB:
VIT
ChEBI:
18145
KEGG Compound:
C02477
PubChem Compound:
14985
PubChem Substance:
46506524
5492
ChemSpider:
14265
HET:
VIT

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention vitamin e and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials loaded.

NURSA Datasets

provided by nursa.org

No NURSA datasets available.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.