Chemical: Drug
cyanocobalamin

PharmGKB contains no prescribing info for this . Contact us to report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for cyanocobalamin

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801131 NC_000001.10:g.11854476T>G, NC_000001.11:g.11794419T>G, NG_013351.1:g.16685A>C, NM_005957.4:c.1286A>C, NP_005948.3:p.Glu429Ala, XM_005263458.1:c.1409A>C, XM_005263458.2:c.1409A>C, XM_005263459.1:c.1355A>C, XM_005263460.1:c.1286A>C, XM_005263460.3:c.1286A>C, XM_005263461.1:c.1286A>C, XM_005263461.3:c.1286A>C, XM_005263462.1:c.1286A>C, XM_005263462.3:c.1286A>C, XM_005263463.1:c.1040A>C, XM_005263463.2:c.1040A>C, XM_011541495.1:c.1406A>C, XM_011541496.1:c.1409A>C, XP_005263515.1:p.Glu470Ala, XP_005263516.1:p.Glu452Ala, XP_005263517.1:p.Glu429Ala, XP_005263518.1:p.Glu429Ala, XP_005263519.1:p.Glu429Ala, XP_005263520.1:p.Glu347Ala, XP_011539797.1:p.Glu469Ala, XP_011539798.1:p.Glu470Ala, rs17367365, rs17857426, rs4134712
T > G
SNP
E429A
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Cyanocob(III)alamin
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin B12 complex
  • vitamine b12
Trade Names
  • Anacobin
  • Bedoz
  • Berocca PN
  • Berubigen
  • Betalin 12
  • Cernevit-12
  • Cobavite
  • Cobex
  • Cobolin-M
  • Crystamine
  • Crysti-12
  • Cyanocobalamin Co 57 Schilling Test Kit
  • Cyanoject
  • Cyomin
  • Depinar
  • Dicopac
  • Dicopac Kit
  • Infuvite Pediatric
  • M.V.I. Pediatric
  • Nascobal
  • Neuroforte-R
  • Primabalt
  • Redisol
  • Rubivite
  • Rubramin PC
  • Rubratope-57 Kit
  • Rubratope-60 Kit
  • Ruvite
  • Shovite
  • Vi-Twel
  • Vibal
  • Vibisone
  • Vitabee 12
  • Vitaped
Brand Mixture Names
  • Liver-Stomach Concentrate with Intrinsic Factor (Special Liver-Stomach Concentrate + Vitamin B 12 + Iron + Ascorbic Acid + Folic Acid)

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA451892

Type(s):

Drug

Description

Cyanocobalamin (commonly known as Vitamin B12) is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. Cyanocobalamin's structure is based on a corrin ring, which, although similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome, has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. The central metal ion is Co (cobalt). Cyanocobalamin cannot be made by plants or by animals, as the only type of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin are bacteria and archaea. Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. Cyanocobalamin is naturally found in foods including meat (especially liver and shellfish), eggs, and milk products. [HMDB]

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For treatment of pernicious anemia (due to lack of or inhibition of intrinsic factor) and for prevention and treatment of vitamin B 12 deficiency.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Vitamin B12 is used in the body in two forms: Methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin. The enzyme methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor. This enzyme is involved in the conversion of the amino acid homocysteine into methionine. Methionine in turn is required for DNA methylation. 5-Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin is a cofactor needed by the enzyme that converts L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. This conversion is an important step in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. Furthermore, succinyl CoA is necessary for the production of hemoglobin, the substances that carries oxygen in red blood cells.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) is a water-soluble organometallic compound with a trivalent cobalt ion bound inside a corrin ring. It is needed for nerve cells and red blood cells, and to make DNA. Vitamin B12 deficiency is the cause of several forms of anemia.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Very high (to specific plasma proteins called transcobalamins); binding of hydroxocobalamin is slightly higher than cyanocobalamin.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Readily absorbed in the lower half of the ileum.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Approximately 6 days (400 days in the liver).

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Anaphylactic reaction (skin rash, itching, wheezing)-after parenteral administration. ORL-MUS LD ~50~ > 8000 mg/kg

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C63H89CoN14O14P

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

[C@@H]1([C@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

1356.3731

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

1355.575230332

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

OC[C@H]1O[C@@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1OP(O)(=O)O[C@]([H])(C)CNC(=O)CC[C@]1(C)[C@@H](CC(=O)N)[C@@]2([H])N([Co]C#N)\C1=C(C)/C1=N/C(=C\C3=N\C(=C(C)/C4=N[C@]2(C)[C@@](C)(CC(=O)N)[C@@H]4CCC(=O)N)\[C@@](C)(CC(=O)N)[C@@H]3CCC(=O)N)/C(C)(C)[C@@H]1CCC(=O)N)N1C=NC2=CC(C)=C(C)C=C12

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C62H90N13O14P.CN.Co/c1-29-20-39-40(21-30(29)2)75(28-70-39)57-52(84)53(41(27-76)87-57)89-90(85,86)88-31(3)26-69-49(83)18-19-59(8)37(22-46(66)80)56-62(11)61(10,25-48(68)82)36(14-17-45(65)79)51(74-62)33(5)55-60(9,24-47(67)81)34(12-15-43(63)77)38(71-55)23-42-58(6,7)35(13-16-44(64)78)50(72-42)32(4)54(59)73-56;1-2;/h20-21,23,28,31,34-37,41,52-53,56-57,76,84H,12-19,22,24-27H2,1-11H3,(H15,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,71,72,73,74,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,85,86);;/q;;+1/p-1/t31-,34-,35-,36-,37+,41-,52-,53-,56-,57+,59-,60+,61+,62+;;/m1../s1

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
AMN (source: Drug Bank )
CUBN (source: Drug Bank )
MMAA (source: Drug Bank )
MMAB (source: Drug Bank )
MMACHC (source: Drug Bank )
MTR (source: Drug Bank )
MTRR (source: Drug Bank )
MUT (source: Drug Bank )
TCN1 (source: Drug Bank )
TCN2 (source: Drug Bank )
No related drugs are available.

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to cyanocobalamin: 38

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Phase II trial of pemetrexed and bevacizumab in patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2011. Argiris Athanassios, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A phase I/II and pharmacogenomic study of pemetrexed and cisplatin in patients with unresectable, advanced gastric carcinoma. Anti-cancer drugs. 2010. Chen Jen-Shi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Influx and efflux transport as determinants of melphalan cytotoxicity: Resistance to melphalan in MDR1 overexpressing tumor cell lines. Biochemical pharmacology. 2009. Kühne Annett, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce a very broad, pleiotropic anticancer drug resistance phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia cells by modulation of multiple ABC transporter genes. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009. Hauswald Stefanie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events. The New England journal of medicine. 2009. Simon Tabassome, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Randomized phase II and pharmacogenetic study of pemetrexed compared with pemetrexed plus carboplatin in pretreated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2009. Smit Egbert F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Cost-effectiveness of 99mTc-sestamibi in predicting response to chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2009. Mohan Hosahalli K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Induction of multiple drug transporters by efavirenz. Journal of pharmacological sciences. 2009. Weiss Johanna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Redox regulation of multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. Antioxidants & redox signaling. 2009. Kuo Macus Tien. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Several major antiepileptic drugs are substrates for human P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2008. Luna-Tortós Carlos, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Common variants of FUT2 are associated with plasma vitamin B12 levels. Nature genetics. 2008. Hazra Aditi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Polymorphisms in the drug transporter gene ABCB1 predict antidepressant treatment response in depression. Neuron. 2008. Uhr Manfred, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Citalopram enantiomers in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of ABCB1 genotyped depressive patients and clinical response: a pilot study. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2008. Nikisch Georg, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Tariquidar (XR9576): a P-glycoprotein drug efflux pump inhibitor. Expert review of anticancer therapy. 2007. Fox Elizabeth, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Cobalamin potentiates vinblastine cytotoxicity through downregulation of mdr-1 gene expression in HepG2 cells. Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. 2007. Marguerite Véronique, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Mechanism of inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux by vitamin E TPGS: influence on ATPase activity and membrane fluidity. Molecular pharmaceutics. 2007. Collnot Eva-Maria, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Gefitinib modulates the function of multiple ATP-binding cassette transporters in vivo. Cancer research. 2006. Leggas Markos, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Impact of P-glycoprotein on clopidogrel absorption. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Taubert Dirk, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in human P-glycoprotein: its impact on drug delivery and disposition. Expert opinion on drug delivery. 2006. Dey Surajit. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Transcobalamin 776C->G polymorphism negatively affects vitamin B-12 metabolism. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005. von Castel-Dunwoody Kristina M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Influence of lipid lowering fibrates on P-glycoprotein activity in vitro. Biochemical pharmacology. 2004. Ehrhardt Manuela, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Interactions of human P-glycoprotein with simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and atorvastatin. Pharmaceutical research. 2004. Hochman Jerome H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Methionine synthase D919G polymorphism, folate metabolism, and colorectal adenoma risk. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2004. Goode Ellen L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Polymorphisms in human MDR1 (P-glycoprotein): recent advances and clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Marzolini Catia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The role of genetic factors in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC. 2003. Geisel Jürgen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of the human MDR1 drug transporter. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Schwab Matthias, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Interaction of omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole with P-glycoprotein. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology. 2001. Pauli-Magnus C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The role of folic acid and Vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells. Mutation research. 2001. Fenech M. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
The role of intestinal P-glycoprotein in the interaction of digoxin and rifampin. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1999. Greiner B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Anti-psychotic drugs reverse multidrug resistance of tumor cell lines and human AML cells ex-vivo. Cancer letters. 1999. Szabó D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Biochemical, cellular, and pharmacological aspects of the multidrug transporter. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 1999. Ambudkar S V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Increased systemic toxicity of sarcoma chemotherapy due to combination with the P-glycoprotein inhibitor cyclosporin. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1998. Theis J G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Competitive, non-competitive and cooperative interactions between substrates of P-glycoprotein as measured by its ATPase activity. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1997. Litman T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
MDR1 P-glycoprotein is a lipid translocase of broad specificity, while MDR3 P-glycoprotein specifically translocates phosphatidylcholine. Cell. 1996. van Helvoort A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Synergistic reversal of multidrug-resistance phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia cells by cyclosporin A and cremophor EL. Blood. 1994. Ross D D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
P-glycoprotein structure and evolutionary homologies. Cytotechnology. 1993. Croop J M. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0270-0519-16
DrugBank:
DB00115
PDB:
CNC
ChEBI:
17439
KEGG Compound:
C02823
KEGG Drug:
D00166
PubChem Compound:
44176380
PubChem Substance:
46509031
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
274186
ChemSpider:
4575342
HET:
CNC
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
1925eb50-747f-46de-828d-49bdb038fe83

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention cyanocobalamin and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials loaded.

NURSA Datasets

provided by nursa.org

No NURSA datasets available.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.