Chemical: Drug
valproic acid

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.


Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for valproic acid and ABL2,ASL,ASS1,CPS1,NAGS,OTC,POLG
  2. PMDA Label for valproic acid and CPS1,OTC
  3. HCSC Label for valproic acid and OTC,POLG

last updated 03/21/2016

1. FDA Label for valproic acid and ABL2,ASL,ASS1,CPS1,NAGS,OTC,POLG

Actionable PGx

Summary

Valproic acid is used to treat patients with various types of seizures. The FDA-approved drug label for valproic acid notes that it is contraindicated in patients with known urea cycle disorders (UCDs), a group of uncommon genetic abnormalities, since these patients can sometimes experience fatal hyperammonemic encephalopathy following initiation of treatment. It is also contraindicated in patients with POLG mutations. However, the label does not explicitly mention testing for genetic mutations leading to UCDs or POLG mutations prior to valproic acid treatment.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 01/26/2015

2. PMDA Label for valproic acid and CPS1,OTC

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for valproic acid states that it is contraindicated in patients with known urea cycle disorders (UCDs), due to a risk for severe hyperammonemia. UCDs result from mutations in one of several genes, including ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) deficiency.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 06/08/2015

3. HCSC Label for valproic acid and OTC,POLG

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for valproic acid states that it is contraindicated in patients with mitochondrial disorders caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG) or in patients with known urea cycle disorders, particularly ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency.

There's more of this label. Read more.


PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for valproic acid

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2A6 *4A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA GSTM1 non-null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA GSTM1 null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA GSTT1 non-null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA GSTT1 null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-B *15:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA UGT1A6 *1a N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA UGT1A6 *2a N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA UGT1A6 *3a N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA UGT1A6 *4a N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA UGT1A6 *8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10068980 NC_000005.10:g.161860841G>A, NC_000005.9:g.161287847G>A, NG_011548.1:g.18651G>A, NM_000806.5:c.188-4880G>A, NM_001127643.1:c.188-4880G>A, NM_001127644.1:c.188-4880G>A, NM_001127645.1:c.188-4880G>A, NM_001127648.1:c.188-4880G>A, rs61304955
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1019385 NC_000012.11:g.14134843C>A, NC_000012.12:g.13981909C>A, NG_031854.1:g.3180G>T, NM_000834.3:c.-2000G>T, XM_011520628.1:c.-1015G>T, XM_011520629.1:c.-683+7G>T, XM_011520630.1:c.-1632G>T, rs3764029
C > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1045642 NC_000007.13:g.87138645A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87509329A>G, NG_011513.1:g.208920T>C, NM_000927.4:c.3435T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Ile1145=, rs10239679, rs11568726, rs117328163, rs17210003, rs2229108, rs386513066, rs60023214, rs9690664
A > G
SNP
I1145I
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1047891 NC_000002.11:g.211540507C>A, NC_000002.12:g.210675783C>A, NG_008285.1:g.203099C>A, NM_001122633.2:c.4235C>A, NM_001122634.3:c.2864C>A, NM_001875.4:c.4217C>A, NP_001116105.1:p.Thr1412Asn, NP_001116106.1:p.Thr955Asn, NP_001866.2:p.Thr1406Asn, XM_005246322.1:c.4250C>A, XM_011510640.1:c.4250C>A, XM_011510641.1:c.4217C>A, XM_011510642.1:c.4217C>A, XM_011510643.1:c.4217C>A, XM_011510644.1:c.4217C>A, XP_005246379.1:p.Thr1417Asn, XP_011508942.1:p.Thr1417Asn, XP_011508943.1:p.Thr1406Asn, XP_011508944.1:p.Thr1406Asn, XP_011508945.1:p.Thr1406Asn, XP_011508946.1:p.Thr1406Asn, rs2229587, rs3187890, rs52831019, rs7422339
C > A
SNP
T1412N
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1057910 NC_000010.10:g.96741053A=, NC_000010.10:g.96741053A>C, NC_000010.11:g.94981296A=, NC_000010.11:g.94981296A>C, NG_008385.1:g.47639A=, NG_008385.1:g.47639A>C, NM_000771.3:c.1075A=, NM_000771.3:c.1075A>C, NP_000762.2:p.Ile359=, NP_000762.2:p.Ile359Leu, XM_005269575.1:c.1075A=, XM_005269575.1:c.1075A>C, XP_005269632.1:p.Ile359=, XP_005269632.1:p.Ile359Leu, rs17847042, rs3198471, rs61212474
A > C
SNP
I359L
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10789038 NC_000001.10:g.57117117A>G, NC_000001.11:g.56651444A>G, NM_006252.3:c.94+5963A>G
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1105879 NC_000002.11:g.234602202A>C, NC_000002.12:g.233693556A>C, NG_002601.2:g.108813A>C, NM_001072.3:c.552A>C, NM_019075.2:c.855+56179A>C, NM_019076.4:c.856-73478A>C, NM_019077.2:c.855+10764A>C, NM_021027.2:c.855+20767A>C, NM_205862.1:c.-7-243A>C, NP_001063.2:p.Arg184Ser, XR_241240.1:n.713A>C, XR_241241.1:n.941+20767A>C, rs17684024, rs386516515, rs4365457, rs61226878
A > C
SNP
R184S
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1112122 NC_000023.10:g.151606004G>T, NC_000023.11:g.152437532G>T, NG_007102.1:g.18827C>A, NM_000808.3:c.-27+13614C>A, XM_005274659.1:c.-27+13614C>A, XM_005274660.1:c.-27+13614C>A, XM_006724811.1:c.-27+13614C>A, XM_011531133.1:c.-27+13614C>A, XM_011531134.1:c.-27+13614C>A, rs60180048
G > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1128503 NC_000007.13:g.87179601A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87550285A>G, NG_011513.1:g.167964T>C, NM_000927.4:c.1236T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Gly412=, rs116989428, rs17276907, rs2032587, rs2229105, rs28365046, rs386518005, rs58257317
A > G
SNP
G412G
No VIP available CA VA
rs1137101 NC_000001.10:g.66058513A>G, NC_000001.11:g.65592830A>G, NG_015831.2:g.177266A>G, NM_001003679.3:c.668A>G, NM_001003680.3:c.668A>G, NM_001198687.1:c.668A>G, NM_001198688.1:c.668A>G, NM_001198689.1:c.668A>G, NM_002303.5:c.668A>G, NP_001003679.1:p.Gln223Arg, NP_001003680.1:p.Gln223Arg, NP_001185616.1:p.Gln223Arg, NP_001185617.1:p.Gln223Arg, NP_001185618.1:p.Gln223Arg, NP_002294.2:p.Gln223Arg, XM_005270950.1:c.668A>G, XM_005270951.1:c.668A>G, XM_005270952.1:c.668A>G, XP_005271007.1:p.Gln223Arg, XP_005271008.1:p.Gln223Arg, XP_005271009.1:p.Gln223Arg, rs12131454, rs17356624, rs1805093, rs2229418, rs3200842, rs52820808, rs59347832, rs9282885
A > G
SNP
Q223R
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1157122 NC_000005.10:g.161892308T>C, NC_000005.9:g.161319314T>C, NG_011548.1:g.50118T>C, NM_000806.5:c.856+1258T>C, NM_001127643.1:c.856+1258T>C, NM_001127644.1:c.856+1258T>C, NM_001127645.1:c.856+1258T>C, NM_001127648.1:c.856+1258T>C, rs57694082
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1565445 NC_000009.11:g.87617071G>A, NC_000009.12:g.85002156G>A, NG_012201.2:g.338606G>A, NM_001018064.2:c.2125-18050G>A, NM_006180.4:c.2173-18050G>A, XM_005252001.1:c.2173-18050G>A, XM_005252002.1:c.2173-18050G>A, XM_005252003.1:c.2173-18050G>A, XM_005252004.1:c.2173-18050G>A, XM_005252005.1:c.2125-18050G>A, XM_011518718.1:c.2125-18050G>A, XM_011518719.1:c.2125-18050G>A, rs57679670
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs17183814 NC_000002.11:g.166152389G>A, NC_000002.12:g.165295879G>A, NG_008143.1:g.61478G>A, NM_001040142.1:c.56G>A, NM_001040143.1:c.56G>A, NM_021007.2:c.56G>A, NP_001035232.1:p.Arg19Lys, NP_001035233.1:p.Arg19Lys, NP_066287.2:p.Arg19Lys, XM_005246750.1:c.56G>A, XM_005246750.2:c.56G>A, XM_005246751.1:c.56G>A, XM_005246752.1:c.56G>A, XM_005246753.1:c.56G>A, XM_005246753.2:c.56G>A, XM_005246754.1:c.27-1G>A, XM_005246754.3:c.27-1G>A, XM_011511608.1:c.56G>A, XM_011511609.1:c.56G>A, XP_005246807.1:p.Arg19Lys, XP_005246808.1:p.Arg19Lys, XP_005246809.1:p.Arg19Lys, XP_005246810.1:p.Arg19Lys, XP_011509910.1:p.Arg19Lys, XP_011509911.1:p.Arg19Lys, rs52803852
G > A
SNP
R19K
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799853 NC_000010.10:g.96702047C=, NC_000010.10:g.96702047C>T, NC_000010.11:g.94942290C=, NC_000010.11:g.94942290C>T, NG_008385.1:g.8633C=, NG_008385.1:g.8633C>T, NM_000771.3:c.430C=, NM_000771.3:c.430C>T, NP_000762.2:p.Arg144=, NP_000762.2:p.Arg144Cys, XM_005269575.1:c.430C=, XM_005269575.1:c.430C>T, XP_005269632.1:p.Arg144=, XP_005269632.1:p.Arg144Cys, rs17110268, rs28371674, rs33968134, rs60690363
C > T
SNP
R144C
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799883 NC_000004.11:g.120241902T>C, NC_000004.12:g.119320747T>C, NG_011444.1:g.6415A>G, NM_000134.3:c.163A>G, NP_000125.2:p.Thr55Ala, rs117220903, rs17694079, rs52836284
T > C
SNP
T55A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800012 NC_000017.10:g.48277749C=, NC_000017.10:g.48277749C>A, NC_000017.11:g.50200388C=, NC_000017.11:g.50200388C>A, NG_007400.1:g.6252G=, NG_007400.1:g.6252G>T, NM_000088.3:c.104-441G=, NM_000088.3:c.104-441G>T, XM_005257058.1:c.104-441G=, XM_005257058.1:c.104-441G>T, XM_005257058.3:c.104-441G=, XM_005257058.3:c.104-441G>T, XM_005257059.1:c.104-441G=, XM_005257059.1:c.104-441G>T, XM_005257059.3:c.104-441G=, XM_005257059.3:c.104-441G>T, XM_011524341.1:c.104-441G=, XM_011524341.1:c.104-441G>T, rs58312232, rs8179177
C > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800497 NC_000011.10:g.113400106G>A, NC_000011.9:g.113270828G>A, NG_012976.1:g.17316G>A, NM_178510.1:c.2137G>A, NP_848605.1:p.Glu713Lys, XM_011542736.1:c.2170G>A, XM_011542737.1:c.2140G>A, XM_011542738.1:c.1948G>A, XP_011541038.1:p.Glu724Lys, XP_011541039.1:p.Glu714Lys, XP_011541040.1:p.Glu650Lys, rs117686243, rs4134623, rs4245144, rs59538675
G > A
SNP
E713K
No VIP available CA VA
rs2032582 NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>C, NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>T, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>C, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>T, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>A, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>G, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>A, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>G, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Ala, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Thr, rs10228331, rs2229106, rs386553610, rs57135550, rs9641018
A > C
SNP
S893A
No VIP available CA VA
rs2070959 NC_000002.11:g.234602191A>G, NC_000002.12:g.233693545A>G, NG_002601.2:g.108802A>G, NM_001072.3:c.541A>G, NM_019075.2:c.855+56168A>G, NM_019076.4:c.856-73489A>G, NM_019077.2:c.855+10753A>G, NM_021027.2:c.855+20756A>G, NM_205862.1:c.-7-254A>G, NP_001063.2:p.Thr181Ala, XR_241240.1:n.702A>G, XR_241241.1:n.941+20756A>G, rs17683988, rs386556316, rs3903007, rs61246460
A > G
SNP
T181A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs211037 NC_000005.10:g.162101274C>T, NC_000005.9:g.161528280C>T, NG_009290.1:g.38633C>T, NM_000816.3:c.588C>T, NM_198903.2:c.588C>T, NM_198904.2:c.588C>T, NP_000807.2:p.Asn196=, NP_944493.2:p.Asn196=, NP_944494.1:p.Asn196=, XM_005265870.1:c.588C>T, XP_005265927.1:p.Asn196=, rs3765200, rs61071827
C > T
SNP
N196N
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2229944 NC_000005.10:g.161294312G>A, NC_000005.9:g.160721319G>A, NM_000813.2:c.1194C>T, NM_021911.2:c.1308C>T, NP_000804.1:p.Ala398=, NP_068711.1:p.Ala436=, XM_005265867.1:c.1308C>T, XM_005265868.1:c.1194C>T, XM_005265869.1:c.1200C>T, XM_011534501.1:c.558C>T, XP_005265924.1:p.Ala436=, XP_005265925.1:p.Ala398=, XP_005265926.1:p.Ala400=, XP_011532803.1:p.Ala186=, rs118051818, rs386561760
G > A
SNP
A398A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2269577 NC_000022.10:g.29196757G>C, NC_000022.11:g.28800769G>C, NG_012266.1:g.4804C>G, NM_001079539.1:c.-245C>G, NM_005080.3:c.-245C>G, XM_011530435.1:c.-194+32G>C, XM_011530436.1:c.-262+32G>C, rs61323997
G > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2279020 NC_000005.10:g.161895883G>A, NC_000005.9:g.161322889G>A, NG_011548.1:g.53693G>A, NM_000806.5:c.1059+15G>A, NM_001127643.1:c.1059+15G>A, NM_001127644.1:c.1059+15G>A, NM_001127645.1:c.1059+15G>A, NM_001127648.1:c.1059+15G>A
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2298771 AB093548.1:c.3199A=, AB093548.1:c.3199A>G, BAC21101.1:p.Thr1067=, BAC21101.1:p.Thr1067Ala, NC_000002.11:g.166892788C>T, NC_000002.12:g.166036278C>T, NG_011906.1:g.42362G>A, NM_001165963.1:c.3199G>A, NM_001165964.1:c.3115G>A, NM_001202435.1:c.3199G>A, NM_006920.4:c.3166G>A, NP_001159435.1:p.Ala1067Thr, NP_001159436.1:p.Ala1039Thr, NP_001189364.1:p.Ala1067Thr, NP_008851.3:p.Ala1056Thr, NR_110598.1:n.618C>T, XM_011511598.1:c.3199G>A, XM_011511599.1:c.3199G>A, XM_011511600.1:c.3199G>A, XM_011511601.1:c.3199G>A, XM_011511602.1:c.3199G>A, XM_011511603.1:c.3196G>A, XM_011511604.1:c.3166G>A, XM_011511605.1:c.3163G>A, XM_011511606.1:c.3115G>A, XM_011511607.1:c.3199G>A, XP_011509900.1:p.Ala1067Thr, XP_011509901.1:p.Ala1067Thr, XP_011509902.1:p.Ala1067Thr, XP_011509903.1:p.Ala1067Thr, XP_011509904.1:p.Ala1067Thr, XP_011509905.1:p.Ala1066Thr, XP_011509906.1:p.Ala1056Thr, XP_011509907.1:p.Ala1055Thr, XP_011509908.1:p.Ala1039Thr, XP_011509909.1:p.Ala1067Thr, XR_922981.1:n.3383G>A, rs17736325, rs52795097, rs57078271
C > -
C > A
SNP
A1067T
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2307441 NC_000015.10:g.89318595T>C, NC_000015.9:g.89861826T>C, NG_008218.1:g.21201A>G, NG_011736.1:g.79633T>C, NM_001126131.1:c.3428A>G, NM_002693.2:c.3428A>G, NP_001119603.1:p.Glu1143Gly, NP_002684.1:p.Glu1143Gly, rs17804944, rs3176226
T > C
SNP
E1143G
No VIP available CA VA
rs2606345 NC_000015.10:g.74724835C>A, NC_000015.9:g.75017176C>A, NG_008431.1:g.7294C>A, NM_000499.3:c.-27+606G>T, NM_000499.4:c.-27+606G>T, NM_001319216.1:c.-30+606G>T, NM_001319217.1:c.-30+606G>T, XM_005254185.1:c.-30+606G>T, XM_005254186.1:c.-30+330G>T, XM_005254187.1:c.-30+606G>T, XM_005254188.1:c.-30+606G>T, XM_005254189.1:c.-221+606G>T, rs17861098
C > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2741049 NC_000002.11:g.234581834T>C, NC_000002.12:g.233673188T>C, NG_002601.2:g.88445T>C, NM_019075.2:c.855+35811T>C, NM_019076.4:c.855+54626T>C, NM_021027.2:c.855+399T>C, XR_241241.1:n.941+399T>C, rs17863541, rs58960856
T > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2769605 NC_000009.11:g.87912671C>T, NC_000009.12:g.85297756C>T, rs60079633, rs61163227
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs28365062 NC_000004.11:g.69964271A>G, NC_000004.12:g.69098553A>G, NM_001074.2:c.735A>G, NP_001065.2:p.Thr245=, XM_005265702.1:c.-13A>G, XM_005265702.2:c.-13A>G, XM_011532229.1:c.735A>G, XM_011532230.1:c.735A>G, XM_011532231.1:c.-13A>G, XP_011530531.1:p.Thr245=, XP_011530532.1:p.Thr245=, rs58136729
A > G
SNP
T245T
No VIP available CA VA
rs3087374 NC_000015.10:g.89316763C>A, NC_000015.9:g.89859994C>A, NG_008218.1:g.23033G>T, NG_011736.1:g.77801C>A, NM_001113378.1:c.*304C>A, NM_001126131.1:c.3708G>T, NM_002693.2:c.3708G>T, NM_018193.2:c.*304C>A, NP_001119603.1:p.Gln1236His, NP_002684.1:p.Gln1236His, XM_005254946.1:c.*304C>A, XM_005254947.1:c.*304C>A, XM_005254948.1:c.*304C>A, XM_005254949.1:c.*304C>A, XM_005254950.1:c.*304C>A, XM_005254951.1:c.*304C>A, XM_005254952.1:c.*304C>A, XM_005254953.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521756.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521757.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521758.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521759.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521760.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521761.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521762.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521763.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521764.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521765.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521766.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521767.1:c.*304C>A, XM_011521769.1:c.*304C>A, XR_243211.1:n.4144C>A, XR_243212.1:n.3964C>A, rs17804776, rs3176244, rs386579081, rs61472028
C > A
C > T
SNP
Q1236H
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3219151 NC_000005.10:g.161701908C>T, NC_000005.9:g.161128914C>T, NM_000811.2:c.*135C>T, rs17059674, rs57122315
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3812718 AB093548.1:c.603-91G>A, NC_000002.11:g.166909544C>T, NC_000002.12:g.166053034C>T, NG_011906.1:g.25606G>A, NM_001165963.1:c.603-91G>A, NM_001165964.1:c.603-91G>A, NM_001202435.1:c.603-91G>A, NM_006920.4:c.603-91G>A, XM_011511598.1:c.603-91G>A, XM_011511599.1:c.603-91G>A, XM_011511600.1:c.603-91G>A, XM_011511601.1:c.603-91G>A, XM_011511602.1:c.603-91G>A, XM_011511603.1:c.603-91G>A, XM_011511604.1:c.603-91G>A, XM_011511605.1:c.603-91G>A, XM_011511606.1:c.603-91G>A, XM_011511607.1:c.603-91G>A, XR_922981.1:n.787-91G>A, rs57229005
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4244285 NC_000010.10:g.96541616G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94781859G>A, NG_008384.2:g.24154G>A, NM_000769.1:c.681G>A, NM_000769.2:c.681G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Pro227=, rs116940633, rs17879456, rs60361278
G > A
SNP
P227P
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs4680 NC_000022.10:g.19951271G>A, NC_000022.11:g.19963748G>A, NG_011526.1:g.27009G>A, NM_000754.3:c.472G>A, NM_001135161.1:c.472G>A, NM_001135162.1:c.472G>A, NM_007310.2:c.322G>A, NP_000745.1:p.Val158Met, NP_001128633.1:p.Val158Met, NP_001128634.1:p.Val158Met, NP_009294.1:p.Val108Met, NR_039918.1:n.-5G>A, XM_005261229.1:c.472G>A, XM_011529885.1:c.586G>A, XM_011529886.1:c.586G>A, XM_011529887.1:c.472G>A, XM_011529888.1:c.472G>A, XM_011529889.1:c.472G>A, XM_011529890.1:c.472G>A, XM_011529891.1:c.472G>A, XP_005261286.1:p.Val158Met, XP_011528187.1:p.Val196Met, XP_011528188.1:p.Val196Met, XP_011528189.1:p.Val158Met, XP_011528190.1:p.Val158Met, XP_011528191.1:p.Val158Met, XP_011528192.1:p.Val158Met, XP_011528193.1:p.Val158Met, rs1131157, rs11544671, rs165688, rs17295216, rs17349704, rs17818178, rs17849308, rs17850006, rs2070104, rs3177905, rs3190784, rs3747070, rs58002978
G > A
SNP
V158M
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4828696 NC_000023.10:g.151581996T>C, NC_000023.11:g.152413524T>C, NG_007102.1:g.42835A>G, NM_000808.3:c.-27+37622A>G, XM_005274659.1:c.-27+37622A>G, XM_005274660.1:c.-27+37622A>G, XM_006724811.1:c.-27+37622A>G, XM_011531133.1:c.-27+37622A>G, XM_011531134.1:c.-27+37622A>G, rs56568387, rs60127194
T > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs4880 NC_000006.11:g.160113872A>G, NC_000006.12:g.159692840A>G, NG_008729.1:g.5482T>C, NM_000636.2:c.47T>C, NM_001024465.1:c.47T>C, NM_001024466.1:c.47T>C, NP_000627.2:p.Val16Ala, NP_001019636.1:p.Val16Ala, NP_001019637.1:p.Val16Ala, rs1141717, rs11551083, rs116851270, rs17362379, rs17405198, rs17856520, rs1799725, rs3205539, rs386596107
A > G
SNP
V16A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs511310 NC_000004.11:g.46240004A>G, NC_000004.12:g.46237987A>G, rs59093609
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6731242 NC_000002.11:g.234578693T>G, NC_000002.12:g.233670047T>G, NG_002601.2:g.85304T>G, NM_019075.2:c.855+32670T>G, NM_019076.4:c.855+51485T>G, NM_021027.2:c.-1888T>G, XR_241241.1:n.-1802T>G
T > A
T > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs6759892 NC_000002.11:g.234601669T>G, NC_000002.12:g.233693023T>G, NG_002601.2:g.108280T>G, NM_001072.3:c.19T>G, NM_019075.2:c.855+55646T>G, NM_019076.4:c.856-74011T>G, NM_019077.2:c.855+10231T>G, NM_021027.2:c.855+20234T>G, NM_205862.1:c.-7-776T>G, NP_001063.2:p.Ser7Ala, XR_241240.1:n.180T>G, XR_241241.1:n.941+20234T>G, rs17670302, rs60624335
T > G
SNP
S7A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6883877 NC_000005.10:g.161851332C>T, NC_000005.9:g.161278338C>T, NG_011548.1:g.9142C>T, NM_000806.5:c.74+448C>T, NM_001127643.1:c.74+448C>T, NM_001127644.1:c.74+448C>T, NM_001127645.1:c.74+448C>T, NM_001127648.1:c.74+448C>T, rs56705003
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6892782 NC_000005.10:g.161842777T>C, NC_000005.9:g.161269783T>C, NG_011548.1:g.587T>C, rs56770940
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7438284 NC_000004.11:g.69964337A>T, NC_000004.12:g.69098619A>T, NM_001074.2:c.801A>T, NP_001065.2:p.Pro267=, XM_005265702.1:c.54A>T, XM_005265702.2:c.54A>T, XM_011532229.1:c.801A>T, XM_011532230.1:c.801A>T, XM_011532231.1:c.54A>T, XP_005265759.1:p.Pro18=, XP_011530531.1:p.Pro267=, XP_011530532.1:p.Pro267=, XP_011530533.1:p.Pro18=, rs58290492
A > T
SNP
P267P
No VIP available CA VA
rs7439366 NC_000004.11:g.69964338T>C, NC_000004.12:g.69098620T>C, NM_001074.2:c.802T>C, NP_001065.2:p.Tyr268His, XM_005265702.1:c.55T>C, XM_005265702.2:c.55T>C, XM_011532229.1:c.802T>C, XM_011532230.1:c.802T>C, XM_011532231.1:c.55T>C, XP_005265759.1:p.Tyr19His, XP_011530531.1:p.Tyr268His, XP_011530532.1:p.Tyr268His, XP_011530533.1:p.Tyr19His, rs34924067, rs57980137
T > C
SNP
Y268H
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7668258 NC_000004.11:g.69962078T>C, NC_000004.12:g.69096360T>C, NM_001074.2:c.-161T>C, XM_005265702.1:c.-26-2180T>C, XM_005265702.2:c.-26-2180T>C, XM_011532229.1:c.-161T>C, XM_011532230.1:c.-161T>C, XM_011532231.1:c.-26-2180T>C, rs17551675, rs60174701
T > C
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • 2-propylvaleric acid
  • DPA
  • Di-n-propylacetic acid
  • Di-n-propylessigsaure
  • Dipropylacetic acid
  • Kyselina 2-propylvalerova
  • Myproic Acid
  • Propylvaleric acid
  • Sodium hydrogen divalproate
  • VPA
  • Valproate semisodique [French]
  • Valproate semisodium
  • Valproato semisodico [Spanish]
  • Valproatum seminatricum [Latin]
  • n-DPA
  • n-Dipropylacetic acid
  • valproate
  • valproic acid
Trade Names
  • Alti-Valproic
  • Avugane
  • Baceca
  • Convulex
  • Delepsine
  • Depacon
  • Depakene
  • Depakine
  • Depakote
  • Deproic
  • Dom-Valproic
  • Epilex
  • Epilim
  • Epival
  • Ergenyl
  • Med Valproic
  • Mylproin
  • Novo-Valproic
  • Nu-Valproic
  • PMS-Valproic Acid
  • Penta-Valproic
  • Sprinkle
  • Stavzor
  • Valcote
  • Valparin
  • Valproic acid USP
  • Valproic acid USP24
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA451846

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels. Typically supplied in the sodium salt form (76584-70-8). Valproic Acid is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For treatment and management of seizure disorders, mania, and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Valproic Acid binds to and inhibits GABA transaminase. The drug's anticonvulsant activity may be related to increased brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, by inhibiting enzymes that catabolize GABA or block the reuptake of GABA into glia and nerve endings. Valproic Acid may also work by suppressing repetitive neuronal firing through inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. It is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Valproic Acid is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and schizophrenia. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Valproic Acid is believed to affect the function of the neurotransmitter GABA (as a GABA transaminase inhibitor) in the human brain. Valproic Acid dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract. Valproic acid has also been shown to be an inhibitor of an enzyme called histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is needed for HIV to remain in infected cells. A study published in August 2005 revealed that patients treated with valproic acid in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed a 75% reduction in latent HIV infection.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid alcohol.|Do not take with milk.|Take with food.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Valproic Acid is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. In adult patients on monotherapy, 30-50% of an administered dose appears in urine as a glucuronide conjugate. Mitochondrial beta-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose. Usually, less than 15-20% of the dose is eliminated by other oxidative mechanisms. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Concentration-dependent, from 90% at 40 µg/mL to 81.5% at 130 µg/mL.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Rapid absorption from gastrointestinal tract.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

9-16 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD 50 = 1098 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD 50 = 670 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose may include coma, extreme drowsiness, and heart problems.

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Valproate is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine. Mitochondrial ß-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C8H16O2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CCCC(CCC)C(=O)O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CCCC(CCC)C(O)=O

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

144.2114

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

144.115029756

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

CCCC(CCC)C(O)=O

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C8H16O2/c1-3-5-7(6-4-2)8(9)10/h7H,3-6H2,1-2H3,(H,9,10)

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Valproic Acid Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Graphic representation of the candidate genes involved in valproic acid pharmacodynamics.
  1. Valproic Acid Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Graphic representation of the candidate genes involved in valproic acid pharmacokinetics.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ABAT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCG2
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABL2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ACADSB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ACE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ACSM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ACSM2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ACSM2B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ACSM3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ACSM4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ACSM5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ADAR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ADNP
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
AK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
AKT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ALDH1A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ALDH5A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ALDH6A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ANKK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APAF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APOE
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ASL
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ASS1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ATF4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ATP1A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BCL2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BCR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BDNF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BHMT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BOK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRAF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CACNA1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
CACNA1C
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
CACNA1D
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
CACNA1F
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CACNB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CALM2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CASP6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CCNB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CD33
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CD52
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDK5R1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDKN1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDKN1B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDKN1C
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDKN2C
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CFTR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CKB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CNKSR2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CNR1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
COL1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
COMT
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CPS1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CRYAB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CXCR4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1A2
CYP2A6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
CYP2B6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available PW
CYP2C9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2E1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP4A11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP4F3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DAD1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DHFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DNMT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DPYD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DRD2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EGFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EGR1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EPHX1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ERBB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ERCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ERCC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ETFB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EZR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
FABP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FGF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FMR1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FOXO1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
G6PD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GABRA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GABRA3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GABRA6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GABRB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GABRG2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GNB3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GPT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GRIN2B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GRM3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSK3B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSTP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GTF2I
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
H1F0
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
H3F3B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
HDAC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
HDAC11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HDAC3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
HDAC9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIST1H1C
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HMGCL
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HSPA1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HSPA5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HTR1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HTR1B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HTR2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HTRA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL1B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IMPA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
INSIG2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KCNH2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KCNQ2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KRAS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LDLR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
LEPR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LIN7B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LITAF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LUM
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LYPLA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MAOA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MARCKS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MAT2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MGMT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTHFD1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTHFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTOR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTRR
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NAGS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NIFK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
NR1I2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NRP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
NTRK2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
OGDH
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
OPRM1
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
OTC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PDGFA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PGR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PLAGL1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PML
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
POLG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PPARGC1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PRAM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
PRKAA2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PROC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PTEN
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PTGS1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PTGS2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PTMS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PTPRK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RAB29
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RCL1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RGS4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RNASE4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RPA2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RRM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SCN1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SCN1B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SCN2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC19A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC3A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC6A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SMN2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SOD2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SRD5A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SSR3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
STAT3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SULT1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SV2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SYN1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TCF19
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TCN2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TGFB1I1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TM4SF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TNF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TOP2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TPBG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TPH1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TPM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TPMT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TRPV1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TYMS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
UGT1A10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
UGT1A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
UGT1A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
UGT1A6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
UGT1A8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
UGT1A9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
UGT2B15
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
UGT2B7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
VKORC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
XBP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
XRCC1

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ABAT (source: Drug Bank)
ACADSB (source: Drug Bank)
HDAC9 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
aspirin - valproic acid The salicylate increases the effect of valproic acid (source: Drug Bank)
carbamazepine - valproic acid Decreases the effect of valproic acid (source: Drug Bank)
nimodipine - valproic acid Valproic acid increases the effect of nimodipine (source: Drug Bank)
valproic acid - clarithromycin The macrolide antibiotic, Erythromycin, may increase the serum concentratin of Valproic acid. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Valproic acid therapeutic and adverse effects if Clarithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
valproic acid - erythromycin The macrolide antibiotic, Erythromycin, may increase the serum concentratin of Valproic acid. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Valproic acid therapeutic and adverse effects if Erythromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
valproic acid - felbamate Felbamate, a CYP2C19 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of Valproic acid, a CYP2C19 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Valproic acid therapeutic and adverse effects if Felbamate is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
valproic acid - lamotrigine Valproic acid may increase the adverse effects of Lamotrigine by increasing Lamotrigine serum concentration. The Lamotrigine dose should be reduced by 50% during concomitant therapy. Monitor for changes in Lamotrigine therapeutic and adverse effects if Valproic acid is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
valproic acid - lorazepam Valproic acid may increase the serum concentration of Lorazepam by reducing Lorazepam metabolism. The Lorazepam dose should be reduced by 50% during concomitant therapy. Monitor for increased Lorazepam effects and toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
valproic acid - rifampin Rifampin may reduce the serum concentration of Valproic acid by increasing Valproic acid metabolism. Valproic acid dose adjustments may be required during concomitant therapy. Monitor Valproic acid serum concentrations, efficacy and toxicity if Rifampin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
valproic acid - telithromycin The macrolide antibiotic, Erythromycin, may increase the serum concentratin of Valproic acid. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Valproic acid therapeutic and adverse effects if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDisease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Asthma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Atrial Fibrillation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Bipolar Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
bone density
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Breast Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular Abnormalities
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Colorectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Congenital Abnormalities
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Craniofacial Abnormalities
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Crohn Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cystic Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Depression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Resistance
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Epidermal Necrolysis, Toxic
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy, Absence
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy, Generalized
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Esophagitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Fragile X Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gilbert's syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glaucoma
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Headache
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Failure
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIV
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIV Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperammonemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperbilirubinemia, Hereditary
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypercholesterolemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Jaundice
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Kidney Transplantation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Nonlymphocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Migraine with Aura
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Migraine without Aura
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mycoses
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasm Metastasis
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neural Tube Defects
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ocular Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pain
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pancreatitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Parkinson Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Rhabdomyolysis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Schizophrenia
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Seizures
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sjogren's Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sleep Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Spinal Dysraphism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stroke
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thromboembolism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thrombosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tobacco Use Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Toxic liver disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tremor
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Urinary Incontinence
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Weight gain

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to valproic acid: 80

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The COL1A1 SP1 polymorphism is associated with lower bone mineral density in patients treated with valproic acid. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Villegas-Martínez Irene, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical significance of CYP2C9-status guided valproic acid therapy in children. Epilepsia. 2015. Bűdi Tamás, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of LEPR and ANKK1 gene polymorphisms with weight gain in epilepsy patients receiving valproic acid. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP). 2015. Li Hongliang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between HLA-B*15:02 allele and antiepileptic drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions in Hong Kong Chinese: a population-based study. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine. 2014. Kwan P K L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic insights into migraine treatment in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Gentile Giovanna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of SCN1A, SCN2A and ABCC2 gene polymorphisms with the response to antiepileptic drugs in Chinese Han patients with epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Ma Chun-Lai, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Use of magnetic resonance imaging in pharmacogenomics. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Viviani Roberto, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of the Superoxide Dismutase 2 Val16Ala Polymorphism on the Relationship between Valproic Acid Exposure and Elevation of gamma-Glutamyltransferase in Patients with Epilepsy: A Population Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analysis. PloS one. 2014. Ogusu Naoki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gene-wide tagging study of the effects of common genetic polymorphisms in the alpha subunits of the GABAA receptor on epilepsy treatment response. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GABRG2, rs211037 is associated with epilepsy susceptibility, but not with antiepileptic drug resistance and febrile seizures. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Balan Shabeesh, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B alleles associated with severe cutaneous reactions to antiepileptic drugs in Han Chinese. Epilepsia. 2013. Cheung Ying-Kit, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SCN1A, SCN2A and SCN3A gene polymorphisms and responsiveness to antiepileptic drugs: a multicenter cohort study and meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Haerian Batoul Sadat, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prospective study of POLG mutations presenting in children with intractable epilepsy: prevalence and clinical features. Epilepsia. 2013. Uusimaa Johanna, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of bipolar disorder. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Severino Giovanni, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Valproic acid pathway: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Ghodke-Puranik Yogita, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neurotrophic Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Type 2 (NTRK2) Gene Associated with Treatment Response to Mood Stabilizers in Patients with Bipolar I Disorder. Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN. 2013. Wang Zuowei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P-450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. McDonagh Ellen M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of UGT1A6, UGT2B7, and CYP2C9 genotypes on plasma concentrations of valproic acid in Chinese children with epilepsy. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. 2012. Guo Yingjie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lack of association between ABCC2 gene variants and treatment response in epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Hilger Eva, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A genomic approach to predict synergistic combinations for breast cancer treatment. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Soldi R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Possible role of CYP2C9 & CYP2C19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in drug refractory epilepsy. The Indian journal of medical research. 2011. Lakhan Ram, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of genetic variants in six candidate genes with valproic acid therapy optimization. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of valproic acid on organic acid metabolism in children: a metabolic profiling study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Price K E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic association study on the role of drug metabolizing, drug transporters and drug target gene polymorphisms in drug-resistant epilepsy in a north Indian population. Indian journal of human genetics. 2011. Kumari Ritu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Perspectives on Epigenetics and Its Relevance to Adverse Drug Reactions. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Kacevska M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug-resistant epilepsia and fulminant valproate liver toxicity. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome in two children confirmed post mortem by identification of p.W748S mutation in POLG gene. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2011. Pronicka Ewa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of drug-induced birth defects: what is known so far?. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Wilffert Bob, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
POLG1 manifestations in childhood. Neurology. 2011. Isohanni P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gene-wide tagging study of the association between ABCC2, ABCC5 and ABCG2 genetic polymorphisms and multidrug resistance in epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Kwan Patrick, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Interaction networks of lithium and valproate molecular targets reveal a striking enrichment of apoptosis functional clusters and neurotrophin signaling. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Gupta A, et al. PubMed
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New insights on the mechanisms of valproate-induced hyperammonemia: Inhibition of hepatic N-acetylglutamate synthase activity by valproyl-Coa. Journal of hepatology. 2010. Aires Cátia C P, et al. PubMed
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Polymerase gamma gene POLG determines the risk of sodium valproate-induced liver toxicity. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2010. Stewart Joanna D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms in sex hormone metabolizing genes and drug response in women with epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identifying genomic and developmental causes of adverse drug reactions in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Becker Mara L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CPS14217C>A genotype on valproic-acid-induced hyperammonemia. Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society. 2010. Yagi Mariko, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Transporter hypothesis of drug-resistant epilepsy: challenges for pharmacogenetic approaches. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Potschka Heidrun. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of CYP2C9 polymorphism on metabolism of valproate and its hepatotoxin metabolite in Iranian patients. Toxicology mechanisms and methods. 2010. Amini-Shirazi Noushin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Absence of a general association between ABCB1 genetic variants and response to antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy patients. Biochimie. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic profile of patients with epilepsy on first-line antiepileptic drugs and potential directions for personalized treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The influence of cytochrome oxidase CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the plasma concentrations of valproic acid in epileptic patients. Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2010. Tan Lan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
POLG DNA testing as an emerging standard of care before instituting valproic acid therapy for pediatric seizure disorders. Seizure : the journal of the British Epilepsy Association. 2010. Saneto Russell P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Key factors in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs. Nature reviews. Drug discovery. 2010. Bialer Meir, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 genotypes on pharmacokinetic variability of valproic acid in Chinese epileptic patients: nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Jiang Dechun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Molecular and therapeutic potential and toxicity of valproic acid. Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology. 2010. Chateauvieux Sébastien, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Novel histone deacetylase inhibitors in clinical trials as anti-cancer agents. Journal of hematology & oncology. 2010. Tan Jiahuai, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Structure, function, regulation and polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 2A6. Current drug metabolism. 2009. Di Yuan Ming, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Differential role of sodium channels SCN1A and SCN2A gene polymorphisms with epilepsy and multiple drug resistance in the north Indian population. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Lakhan Ram, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Valproic acid at therapeutic plasma levels may increase 5-azacytidine efficacy in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009. Voso Maria Teresa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Preliminary evidence on the association between XBP1-116C/G polymorphism and response to prophylactic treatment with valproate in bipolar disorders. Psychiatry research. 2009. Kim Byungsu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce a very broad, pleiotropic anticancer drug resistance phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia cells by modulation of multiple ABC transporter genes. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009. Hauswald Stefanie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Status epilepticus in children with Alpers' disease caused by POLG1 mutations: EEG and MRI features. Epilepsia. 2009. Wolf Nicole I, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kasperavici¿te Dalia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gene-wide tagging study of association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and multidrug resistance in epilepsy in Han Chinese. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kwan Patrick, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of MDR1 C3435T polymorphism with bipolar disorder in patients treated with valproic acid. Molecular biology reports. 2009. Turgut Gunfer, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
No association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with drug-refractory epilepsy in a north Indian population. Epilepsy & behavior : E&B. 2009. Lakhan R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Reversible valproate hepatotoxicity due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG1). BMJ case reports. 2009. McFarland R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Modest reactivation of the mutant FMR1 gene by valproic acid is accompanied by histone modifications but not DNA demethylation. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Tabolacci Elisabetta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Machine learning methods and docking for predicting human pregnane X receptor activation. Chemical research in toxicology. 2008. Khandelwal Akash, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional evaluation of polymorphisms in the human ABCB1 gene and the impact on clinical responses of antiepileptic drugs. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of lorazepam and valproic acid in relation to UGT2B7 genetic polymorphism in healthy subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2008. Chung J-Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Reversible valproate hepatotoxicity due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG1). Archives of disease in childhood. 2008. McFarland R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Valproic acid induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor pathways. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Cerveny Lukas, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inhibitory effect of valproic acid on cytochrome P450 2C9 activity in epilepsy patients. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2007. Gunes Arzu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Contribution of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, and CYP2B6 to valproic acid metabolism in hepatic microsomes from individuals with the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotype. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2006. Kiang Tony K L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mitochondrial DNA polymerase-gamma and human disease. Human molecular genetics. 2006. Hudson Gavin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In vivo activation of SMN in spinal muscular atrophy carriers and patients treated with valproate. Annals of neurology. 2006. Brichta Lars, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB1 polymorphisms influence the response to antiepileptic drugs in Japanese epilepsy patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2006. Seo Takayuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Defining the clinical role of pharmacogenetics in antiepileptic drug therapy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2006. Dlugos D J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity. Nature reviews. Drug discovery. 2005. Kaplowitz Neil. PubMed
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UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6 pharmacogenetics: II. Functional impact of the three most common nonsynonymous UGT1A6 polymorphisms (S7A, T181A, and R184S). The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2005. Krishnaswamy Soundararajan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The effect of valproic acid on drug and steroid glucuronidation by expressed human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Biochemical pharmacology. 2003. Ethell Brian T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of CYP2C9 genotypes on the formation of a hepatotoxic metabolite of valproic acid in human liver microsomes. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2003. Ho P C, et al. PubMed
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Med-psych drug-drug interactions update. Psychosomatics. 2002. Armstrong Scott C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In vitro evaluation of valproic acid as an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 isoforms: preferential inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2001. Wen X, et al. PubMed
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Human CYP2C9 and CYP2A6 mediate formation of the hepatotoxin 4-ene-valproic acid. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1997. Sadeque A J, et al. PubMed
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Valproic acid-carbamazepine interaction: is valproic acid a selective inhibitor of epoxide hydrolase?. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 1995. Svinarov D A, et al. PubMed
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The enzymatic basis for the metabolism and inhibitory effects of valproic acid: dehydrogenation of valproyl-CoA by 2-methyl-branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1990. Ito M, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0121-0675-16
DrugBank:
DB00313
ChEBI:
9926
KEGG Compound:
C07185
KEGG Drug:
D00399
PubChem Compound:
3121
PubChem Substance:
46505925
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2260654
ChemSpider:
3009
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DNC001659
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
7d5cb52e-37dd-4dfa-a6f4-09f9548846c6

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention valproic acid and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.