Chemical: Drug
timolol

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.


Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for timolol and CYP2D6
  2. EMA Label for timolol and CYP2D6

last updated 10/25/2013

1. FDA Label for timolol and CYP2D6

Summary

Timolol is a non-selective beta adrenergic agonist applied to the eye to reduce intraocular pressure. This drug-biomarker pair was previously in the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" but has subsequently been removed.

Annotation

Timolol is a non-selective beta adrenergic agonist applied to the eye to reduce intraocular pressure. This drug-biomarker pair was previously in the FDA's "Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels" but has subsequently been removed.

The drug label for timolol (Istalol) states:

Potentiated systemic beta-blockade (e.g., decreased heart rate) has been reported during combined treatment with quinidine and timolol, possibly because quinidine inhibits the metabolism of timolol via the P-450 enzyme, CYP2D6.

However, other labels listed at Daily Med for timolol do not state any associated genes. The drug has been removed from the FDA's biomarker table.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the FDA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Full label available at DailyMed

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label


last updated 01/22/2014

2. EMA Label for timolol and CYP2D6

Informative PGx

Summary

The EMA EPAR for timolol contains information regarding potentiated beta-blockade when treatment is combined with CYP2D6 inhibitors. No pharmacogenetic information was found in the label.

Annotation

Excerpt from the timolol (Ganfort) EPAR:

Potentiated systemic beta-blockade (e.g., decreased heart rate, depression) has been reported during combined treatment with CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g. quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine) and timolol.

This information is highlighted in the following sections: Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the timolol (Ganfort) EMA drug label.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the EMA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.


PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for timolol

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
VIP CA VA CYP2D6 *1 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2D6 *2 N/A N/A N/A
VIP CA VA CYP2D6 *3 N/A N/A N/A
VIP CA VA CYP2D6 *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2D6 *5 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2D6 *6 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2D6 *9 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2D6 *10 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2D6 *17 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2D6 *29 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2D6 *41 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
CYP2D6 poor metabolizer N/A N/A N/A
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs1065852 NC_000022.10:g.42526694G=, NC_000022.10:g.42526694G>A, NC_000022.11:g.42130692G=, NC_000022.11:g.42130692G>A, NG_008376.3:g.4300C=, NG_008376.3:g.4300C>T, NM_000106.5:c.100C=, NM_000106.5:c.100C>T, NM_001025161.2:c.100C=, NM_001025161.2:c.100C>T, NP_000097.3:p.Pro34=, NP_000097.3:p.Pro34Ser, NP_001020332.2:p.Pro34=, NP_001020332.2:p.Pro34Ser, NT_187682.1:g.53033G=, NT_187682.1:g.53033G>A, NW_004504305.1:g.53019A=, NW_004504305.1:g.53019A>G, NW_009646208.1:g.16258A=, NW_009646208.1:g.16258A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.100T=, XM_005278353.1:c.100T>C, XM_005278354.1:c.-1454C>T, XM_005278354.1:c.-1454T>C, XM_005278354.3:c.-1454C>T, XM_005278354.3:c.-1454T>C, XM_011529966.1:c.100C=, XM_011529966.1:c.100C>T, XM_011529967.1:c.100C=, XM_011529967.1:c.100C>T, XM_011529968.1:c.100C=, XM_011529968.1:c.100C>T, XM_011529969.1:c.37+605C>T, XM_011529969.1:c.37+605T>C, XM_011529970.1:c.100C=, XM_011529970.1:c.100C>T, XM_011529971.1:c.37+605C>T, XM_011529971.1:c.37+605T>C, XM_011529972.1:c.100C=, XM_011529972.1:c.100C>T, XM_011547541.1:c.-1454C>T, XM_011547541.1:c.-1454T>C, XM_011547750.1:c.37+605C>T, XM_011547750.1:c.37+605T>C, XM_011547751.1:c.-1114C>T, XM_011547751.1:c.-1114T>C, XM_011547756.1:c.42+469A>G, XM_011547756.1:c.42+469G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.-1454C>T, XM_011548819.1:c.-1454T>C, XP_005278410.1:p.Ser34=, XP_005278410.1:p.Ser34Pro, XP_011528268.1:p.Pro34=, XP_011528268.1:p.Pro34Ser, XP_011528269.1:p.Pro34=, XP_011528269.1:p.Pro34Ser, XP_011528270.1:p.Pro34=, XP_011528270.1:p.Pro34Ser, XP_011528272.1:p.Pro34=, XP_011528272.1:p.Pro34Ser, XP_011528274.1:p.Pro34=, XP_011528274.1:p.Pro34Ser, XR_430455.2:n.328+4A>G, XR_430455.2:n.328+4G>A, XR_952536.1:n.-1751A>G, XR_952536.1:n.-1751G>A, XR_952537.1:n.-1751A>G, XR_952537.1:n.-1751G>A, XR_952538.1:n.-1751A>G, XR_952538.1:n.-1751G>A, XR_952539.1:n.-1462A>G, XR_952539.1:n.-1462G>A, XR_952745.1:n.1257C=, XR_952745.1:n.1257C>T, rs117813846, rs58862176
G > A
SNP
P34S
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1135840 NC_000022.10:g.42522613G=, NC_000022.10:g.42522613G>C, NC_000022.11:g.42126611C=, NC_000022.11:g.42126611C>G, NG_008376.3:g.8381G=, NG_008376.3:g.8381G>C, NM_000106.5:c.1457G=, NM_000106.5:c.1457G>C, NM_001025161.2:c.1304G=, NM_001025161.2:c.1304G>C, NP_000097.3:p.Ser486=, NP_000097.3:p.Ser486Thr, NP_001020332.2:p.Ser435=, NP_001020332.2:p.Ser435Thr, NT_187682.1:g.48952G=, NT_187682.1:g.48952G>C, NW_004504305.1:g.48938G=, NW_004504305.1:g.48938G>C, NW_009646208.1:g.12177G=, NW_009646208.1:g.12177G>C, XM_005278353.1:c.1313C=, XM_005278353.1:c.1313C>G, XM_005278354.1:c.1157C=, XM_005278354.1:c.1157C>G, XM_005278354.3:c.1157C=, XM_005278354.3:c.1157C>G, XM_011529966.1:c.1452+5C>G, XM_011529966.1:c.1452+5G>C, XM_011529967.1:c.1452+5C>G, XM_011529967.1:c.1452+5G>C, XM_011529968.1:c.1452+5C>G, XM_011529968.1:c.1452+5G>C, XM_011529969.1:c.1308+5C>G, XM_011529969.1:c.1308+5G>C, XM_011529970.1:c.1299+5C>G, XM_011529970.1:c.1299+5G>C, XM_011529971.1:c.1313G=, XM_011529971.1:c.1313G>C, XM_011547750.1:c.1313C=, XM_011547750.1:c.1313C>G, XM_011547751.1:c.1241C=, XM_011547751.1:c.1241C>G, XP_005278410.1:p.Thr438=, XP_005278410.1:p.Thr438Ser, XP_005278411.1:p.Thr386=, XP_005278411.1:p.Thr386Ser, XP_011528273.1:p.Ser438=, XP_011528273.1:p.Ser438Thr, XP_011546052.1:p.Thr438=, XP_011546052.1:p.Thr438Ser, XP_011546053.1:p.Thr414=, XP_011546053.1:p.Thr414Ser, XR_952745.1:n.2472C=, XR_952745.1:n.2472C>G, rs57862116
G > C
SNP
S486T
rs16947 NC_000022.10:g.42523943A=, NC_000022.10:g.42523943A>G, NC_000022.11:g.42127941G=, NC_000022.11:g.42127941G>A, NG_008376.3:g.7051C=, NG_008376.3:g.7051C>T, NM_000106.5:c.886C=, NM_000106.5:c.886C>T, NM_001025161.2:c.733C=, NM_001025161.2:c.733C>T, NP_000097.3:p.Arg296=, NP_000097.3:p.Arg296Cys, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg245=, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg245Cys, NT_187682.1:g.50282A=, NT_187682.1:g.50282A>G, NW_004504305.1:g.50268G=, NW_004504305.1:g.50268G>A, NW_009646208.1:g.13507G=, NW_009646208.1:g.13507G>A, XM_005278353.1:c.742C=, XM_005278353.1:c.742C>T, XM_005278354.1:c.586C=, XM_005278354.1:c.586C>T, XM_005278354.3:c.586C=, XM_005278354.3:c.586C>T, XM_011529966.1:c.886C=, XM_011529966.1:c.886C>T, XM_011529967.1:c.886C=, XM_011529967.1:c.886C>T, XM_011529968.1:c.886C=, XM_011529968.1:c.886C>T, XM_011529969.1:c.742C=, XM_011529969.1:c.742C>T, XM_011529970.1:c.733C=, XM_011529970.1:c.733C>T, XM_011529971.1:c.742C=, XM_011529971.1:c.742C>T, XM_011529972.1:c.843+233C>T, XM_011529972.1:c.843+233T>C, XM_011547541.1:c.586C=, XM_011547541.1:c.586C>T, XM_011547750.1:c.742T=, XM_011547750.1:c.742T>C, XM_011547751.1:c.670T=, XM_011547751.1:c.670T>C, XM_011547756.1:c.-2094A>G, XM_011547756.1:c.-2094G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.586C=, XM_011548819.1:c.586C>T, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg248=, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg248Cys, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg196=, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg196Cys, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg296=, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg296Cys, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg296=, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg296Cys, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg296=, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg296Cys, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg248=, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg248Cys, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg245=, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg245Cys, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg248=, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg248Cys, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg196=, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg196Cys, XP_011546052.1:p.Cys248=, XP_011546052.1:p.Cys248Arg, XP_011546053.1:p.Cys224=, XP_011546053.1:p.Cys224Arg, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg196=, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg196Cys, XR_430455.2:n.-1930A>G, XR_430455.2:n.-1930G>A, XR_952745.1:n.2000+233C>T, XR_952745.1:n.2000+233T>C, rs117039205, rs57836231
A > G
SNP
R296C
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801252 NC_000010.10:g.115804036A>G, NC_000010.11:g.114044277A>G, NG_012187.1:g.5231A>G, NM_000684.2:c.145A>G, NP_000675.1:p.Ser49Gly, rs12720482, rs3740152
A > G
SNP
S49G
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs28371706 NC_000022.10:g.42525772G>A, NC_000022.11:g.42129770G>A, NG_008376.3:g.5222C>T, NM_000106.5:c.320C>T, NM_001025161.2:c.320C>T, NP_000097.3:p.Thr107Ile, NP_001020332.2:p.Thr107Ile, NT_187682.1:g.52111G>A, NW_004504305.1:g.52097G>A, NW_009646208.1:g.15336G>A, XM_005278353.1:c.320C>T, XM_005278354.1:c.-532C>T, XM_005278354.3:c.-532C>T, XM_011529966.1:c.320C>T, XM_011529967.1:c.320C>T, XM_011529968.1:c.320C>T, XM_011529969.1:c.177C>T, XM_011529970.1:c.320C>T, XM_011529971.1:c.177C>T, XM_011529972.1:c.320C>T, XM_011547541.1:c.-532C>T, XM_011547750.1:c.177C>T, XM_011547751.1:c.-192C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.-265G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.-532C>T, XP_005278410.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011528268.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011528269.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011528270.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011528271.1:p.His59=, XP_011528272.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011528273.1:p.His59=, XP_011528274.1:p.Thr107Ile, XP_011546052.1:p.His59=, XR_430455.2:n.-101G>A, XR_952745.1:n.1477C>T, rs587777915, rs59604033
G > A
SNP
T107I
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs28371725 NC_000022.10:g.42523805C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42127803C>T, NG_008376.3:g.7189G>A, NM_000106.5:c.985+39G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.832+39G>A, NT_187682.1:g.50144C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.50130C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.13369C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.841+39G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.685+39G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.685+39G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.985+39G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.985+39G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.985+39G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.841+39G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.832+39G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.841+39G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.844-169G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.724G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.841+39G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.769+39G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.724G>A, XP_011545843.1:p.Glu242Lys, XP_011547121.1:p.Glu242Lys, XR_952745.1:n.2001-169G>A, rs57124011, rs587777916
C > T
SNP
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs35742686 NC_000022.10:g.42524244delT, NC_000022.11:g.42128242delT, NG_008376.3:g.6750delA, NM_000106.5:c.775delA, NM_001025161.2:c.622delA, NP_000097.3:p.Arg259Glyfs, NP_001020332.2:p.Arg208Glyfs, NT_187682.1:g.50583delT, NW_004504305.1:g.50569delT, NW_009646208.1:g.13808delT, XM_005278353.1:c.631delA, XM_005278354.1:c.475delA, XM_005278354.3:c.475delA, XM_011529966.1:c.775delA, XM_011529967.1:c.775delA, XM_011529968.1:c.775delA, XM_011529969.1:c.631delA, XM_011529970.1:c.622delA, XM_011529971.1:c.631delA, XM_011529972.1:c.775delA, XM_011547541.1:c.475delA, XM_011547750.1:c.631delA, XM_011547751.1:c.559delA, XM_011547756.1:c.-1793delT, XM_011548819.1:c.475delA, XP_005278410.1:p.Arg211Glyfs, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg159Glyfs, XP_011528268.1:p.Arg259Glyfs, XP_011528269.1:p.Arg259Glyfs, XP_011528270.1:p.Arg259Glyfs, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg211Glyfs, XP_011528272.1:p.Arg208Glyfs, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg211Glyfs, XP_011528274.1:p.Arg259Glyfs, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg159Glyfs, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg211Glyfs, XP_011546053.1:p.Arg187Glyfs, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg159Glyfs, XR_430455.2:n.-1629delT, XR_952745.1:n.1932delA, rs45593132, rs60790764
T > -
T > T
indel
R259G
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs3892097 NC_000022.10:g.42524947C=, NC_000022.10:g.42524947C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42128945C=, NC_000022.11:g.42128945C>T, NG_008376.3:g.6047G=, NG_008376.3:g.6047G>A, NM_000106.5:c.506-1A>G, NM_000106.5:c.506-1G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.353-1A>G, NM_001025161.2:c.353-1G>A, NT_187682.1:g.51286C=, NT_187682.1:g.51286C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.51272T=, NW_004504305.1:g.51272T>C, NW_009646208.1:g.14511C=, NW_009646208.1:g.14511C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.363-2A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.363-2G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.207-2A>G, XM_005278354.1:c.207-2G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.207-2A>G, XM_005278354.3:c.207-2G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.506-1A>G, XM_011529966.1:c.506-1G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.506-1A>G, XM_011529967.1:c.506-1G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.506-1A>G, XM_011529968.1:c.506-1G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.363-2A>G, XM_011529969.1:c.363-2G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.353-1A>G, XM_011529970.1:c.353-1G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.363-2A>G, XM_011529971.1:c.363-2G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.506-1A>G, XM_011529972.1:c.506-1G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.207-2A>G, XM_011547541.1:c.207-2G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.363-2A>G, XM_011547750.1:c.363-2G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.290-1A>G, XM_011547751.1:c.290-1G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.-1090C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.-1090T>C, XM_011548819.1:c.207-2A>G, XM_011548819.1:c.207-2G>A, XR_430455.2:n.-926C>T, XR_430455.2:n.-926T>C, XR_952745.1:n.1663-1A>G, XR_952745.1:n.1663-1G>A, rs1800716, rs28371711, rs60082401, rs606231227
C > T
SNP
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs5030655 NC_000022.10:g.42525086delA, NC_000022.11:g.42129084delA, NG_008376.3:g.5908delT, NM_000106.5:c.454delT, NM_001025161.2:c.353-140delT, NP_000097.3:p.Trp152Glyfs, NT_187682.1:g.51425delA, NW_004504305.1:g.51411delA, NW_009646208.1:g.14650delA, XM_005278353.1:c.363-141delT, XM_005278354.1:c.155delT, XM_005278354.3:c.155delT, XM_011529966.1:c.454delT, XM_011529967.1:c.454delT, XM_011529968.1:c.454delT, XM_011529969.1:c.311delT, XM_011529970.1:c.353-140delT, XM_011529971.1:c.311delT, XM_011529972.1:c.454delT, XM_011547541.1:c.155delT, XM_011547750.1:c.311delT, XM_011547751.1:c.238delT, XM_011547756.1:c.-951delA, XM_011548819.1:c.155delT, XP_005278411.1:p.Val52Glyfs, XP_011528268.1:p.Trp152Glyfs, XP_011528269.1:p.Trp152Glyfs, XP_011528270.1:p.Trp152Glyfs, XP_011528271.1:p.Val104Glyfs, XP_011528273.1:p.Val104Glyfs, XP_011528274.1:p.Trp152Glyfs, XP_011545843.1:p.Val52Glyfs, XP_011546052.1:p.Val104Glyfs, XP_011546053.1:p.Trp80Glyfs, XP_011547121.1:p.Val52Glyfs, XR_430455.2:n.-787delA, XR_952745.1:n.1611delT, rs11568727, rs28371709
A > -
A > A
indel
W152G
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs5030656 NC_000022.10:g.42524176_42524178delCTT, NC_000022.11:g.42128174_42128176delCTT, NG_008376.3:g.6816_6818delAAG, NM_000106.5:c.841_843delAAG, NM_001025161.2:c.688_690delAAG, NP_000097.3:p.Lys281del, NP_001020332.2:p.Lys230del, NT_187682.1:g.50515_50517delCTT, NW_004504305.1:g.50501_50503delCTT, NW_009646208.1:g.13740_13742delCTT, XM_005278353.1:c.697_699delAAG, XM_005278354.1:c.541_543delAAG, XM_005278354.3:c.541_543delAAG, XM_011529966.1:c.841_843delAAG, XM_011529967.1:c.841_843delAAG, XM_011529968.1:c.841_843delAAG, XM_011529969.1:c.697_699delAAG, XM_011529970.1:c.688_690delAAG, XM_011529971.1:c.697_699delAAG, XM_011529972.1:c.841_843delAAG, XM_011547541.1:c.541_543delAAG, XM_011547750.1:c.697_699delAAG, XM_011547751.1:c.625_627delAAG, XM_011547756.1:c.-1861_-1859del, XM_011548819.1:c.541_543delAAG, XP_005278410.1:p.Lys233del, XP_005278411.1:p.Lys181del, XP_011528268.1:p.Lys281del, XP_011528269.1:p.Lys281del, XP_011528270.1:p.Lys281del, XP_011528271.1:p.Lys233del, XP_011528272.1:p.Lys230del, XP_011528273.1:p.Lys233del, XP_011528274.1:p.Lys281del, XP_011545843.1:p.Lys181del, XP_011546052.1:p.Lys233del, XP_011546053.1:p.Lys209del, XP_011547121.1:p.Lys181del, XR_430455.2:n.-1697_-1695del, XR_952745.1:n.1998_2000delAAG, rs587777919
CTT > -
CTT > CTT
indel
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs59421388 NC_000022.10:g.42523610C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42127608C>T, NG_008376.3:g.7384G>A, NM_000106.5:c.1012G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.859G>A, NP_000097.3:p.Val338Met, NP_001020332.2:p.Val287Met, NT_187682.1:g.49949C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.49935C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.13174C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.868G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.712G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.712G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.1012G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.1012G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.1012G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.868G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.859G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.868G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.870G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.*118G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.868G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.796G>A, XM_011548819.1:c.*118G>A, XP_005278410.1:p.Val290Met, XP_005278411.1:p.Val238Met, XP_011528268.1:p.Val338Met, XP_011528269.1:p.Val338Met, XP_011528270.1:p.Val338Met, XP_011528271.1:p.Val290Met, XP_011528272.1:p.Val287Met, XP_011528273.1:p.Val290Met, XP_011528274.1:p.Thr290=, XP_011546052.1:p.Val290Met, XP_011546053.1:p.Val266Met, XR_952745.1:n.2027G>A
C > T
SNP
V338M
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs61736512 NC_000022.10:g.42525134C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42129132C>T, NG_008376.3:g.5860G>A, NM_000106.5:c.406G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.353-188G>A, NP_000097.3:p.Val136Met, NT_187682.1:g.51473C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.51459C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.14698C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.363-189G>A, XM_005278354.1:c.107G>A, XM_005278354.3:c.107G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.406G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.406G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.406G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.263G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.353-188G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.263G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.406G>A, XM_011547541.1:c.107G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.263G>A, XM_011547751.1:c.190G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.-903C>T, XM_011548819.1:c.107G>A, XP_005278411.1:p.Arg36His, XP_011528268.1:p.Val136Met, XP_011528269.1:p.Val136Met, XP_011528270.1:p.Val136Met, XP_011528271.1:p.Arg88His, XP_011528273.1:p.Arg88His, XP_011528274.1:p.Val136Met, XP_011545843.1:p.Arg36His, XP_011546052.1:p.Arg88His, XP_011546053.1:p.Val64Ile, XP_011547121.1:p.Arg36His, XR_430455.2:n.-739C>T, XR_952745.1:n.1563G>A
C > T
SNP
V136M
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Timolol maleate
  • Timololum [INN-Latin]
Trade Names
  • Apo-Timol
  • Apo-Timop
  • Aquanil
  • Betim
  • Betimol
  • Blocadren
  • Istalol
  • Novo-Timol
  • Nu-Timolol
  • Phoxal-timolol
  • Proflax
  • Temserin
  • Tenopt
  • Tim-AK
  • Timacar
  • Timacor
  • Timopic
  • Timoptic
  • Timoptic OcuDose
  • Timoptic in Ocudose
  • Timoptic-XE
  • Timoptol
Brand Mixture Names
  • Combigan (Brimonidine Tartrate + Timolol Maleate)
  • Cosopt (Dorzolamide Hydrochloride + Timolol Maleate)
  • Timolide Tab (Hydrochlorothiazide + Timolol Maleate)
  • Timpilo 2 (Pilocarpine Hydrochloride + Timolol Maleate)
  • Timpilo 4 (Pilocarpine Hydrochloride + Timolol Maleate)
  • Xalacom (Latanoprost + Timolol Maleate)

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA451690

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to propranolol. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of migraine disorders and tremor.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

In its oral form it is used to treat high blood pressure and prevent heart attacks, and occasionally to prevent migraine headaches. In its opthalmic form it is used to treat open-angle and occasionally secondary glaucoma.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Like propranolol and nadolol, timolol competes with adrenergic neurotransmitters such as catecholamines for binding at beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and vascular smooth muscle and beta(2)-receptors in the bronchial and vascular smooth muscle. Beta(1)-receptor blockade results in a decrease in resting and exercise heart rate and cardiac output, a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and, possibly, a reduction in reflex orthostatic hypotension. Beta(2)-blockade results in an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. The exact mechanism whereby timolol reduces ocular pressure is still not known. The most likely action is by decreasing the secretion of aqueous humor.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Similar to propranolol and nadolol, timolol is a non-selective, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Timolol does not have significant intrinsic sympathomimetic, direct myocardial depressant, or local anesthetic (membrane-stabilizing) activity, but does possess a relatively high degree of lipid solubility. Timolol, when applied topically to the eye, has the action of reducing elevated, as well as normal, intraocular pressure, whether or not accompanied by glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous visual field loss and optic nerve damage.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Primarily hepatic (80%) via the cytochrome P450 2D6 isoenzyme.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

~10%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Bioavailability is about 60%

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

2.5-5 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

LD 50=1190 mg/kg (oral, mice), LD 50=900 mg/kg (oral, rat). Symptoms of overdose include drowsiness, vertigo, headache, and atriventricular block.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Timolol and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C13H24N4O3S

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC(C)(C)NC[C@@H](COc1c(nsn1)N2CCOCC2)O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CC(C)(C)NCC(O)COC1=NSN=C1N1CCOCC1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

316.42

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

316.156911344

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

CC(C)(C)NCC(O)COC1=NSN=C1N1CCOCC1

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C13H24N4O3S/c1-13(2,3)14-8-10(18)9-20-12-11(15-21-16-12)17-4-6-19-7-5-17/h10,14,18H,4-9H2,1-3H3

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ADRB1 (source: Drug Bank)
ADRB2 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
acetohexamide - timolol The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
aminophylline - timolol Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
chlorpropamide - timolol The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
chlorpropamide - timolol The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
cimetidine - timolol Increases the effect of the beta-blocker (source: Drug Bank)
cimetidine - timolol Cimetidine may increase the serum concentration of timolol by decreasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
clonidine - timolol Increased hypertension when clonidine stopped (source: Drug Bank)
clonidine - timolol Increased hypertension when clonidine stopped (source: Drug Bank)
dihydroergotamine - timolol Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
dihydroergotamine - timolol Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
disopyramide - timolol The beta-blocker increases toxicity of disopyramide (source: Drug Bank)
disopyramide - timolol The beta-blocker, timolol, may increase the toxicity of disopyramide. (source: Drug Bank)
epinephrine - timolol Hypertension, then bradycardia (source: Drug Bank)
epinephrine - timolol Hypertension, then bradycardia (source: Drug Bank)
ergotamine - timolol Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
ergotamine - timolol Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
fenoterol - timolol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
fenoterol - timolol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
formoterol - timolol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
formoterol - timolol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
glibenclamide - timolol The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
glibenclamide - timolol The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
gliclazide - timolol The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
gliclazide - timolol The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
ibuprofen - timolol Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins (source: Drug Bank)
indomethacin - timolol Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins (source: Drug Bank)
indomethacin - timolol Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins (source: Drug Bank)
insulin-glargine - timolol The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
insulin-glargine - timolol The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
l-methyldopa - timolol Possible hypertensive crisis (source: Drug Bank)
l-methyldopa - timolol Possible hypertensive crisis (source: Drug Bank)
methysergide - timolol Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
methysergide - timolol Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
orciprenaline - timolol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
orciprenaline - timolol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
oxtriphylline - timolol Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
pipobroman - timolol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
piroxicam - timolol Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins (source: Drug Bank)
piroxicam - timolol Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins (source: Drug Bank)
prazosin - timolol Risk of hypotension at the beginning of therapy (source: Drug Bank)
prazosin - timolol Risk of hypotension at the beginning of therapy (source: Drug Bank)
repaglinide - timolol The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
repaglinide - timolol The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
terazosin - timolol Increased risk of hypotension. Initiate concomitant therapy cautiously. (source: Drug Bank)
terbutaline - timolol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
terbutaline - timolol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
theophylline - timolol Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
theophylline - timolol Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - acetohexamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - acetohexamide The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - aminophylline Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - aminophylline Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - celecoxib The NSAID, Celecoxib, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - celecoxib The NSAID, Celecoxib, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - chlorpropamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - chlorpropamide The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - cimetidine Cimetidine increases the effect of the beta-blocker (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - cimetidine Cimetidine may increase the serum concentration of timolol by decreasing its metabolism. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - clonidine Increased hypertension when clonidine stopped (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - clonidine Increased hypertension when clonidine stopped (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - diclofenac The NSAID, Diclofenac, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - diclofenac The NSAID, Diclofenac, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - diflunisal The NSAID, Diflunisal, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - diflunisal The NSAID, Diflunisal, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - dihydroergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - dihydroergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - dihydroergotoxine Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - dihydroergotoxine Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - diltiazem Additive effects of decreased heart rate and contractility may occur. Increased risk of heart block. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - diltiazem Additive effects of decreased heart rate and contractility may occur. Increased risk of heart block. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - disopyramide The beta-blocker increases toxicity of disopyramide (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - disopyramide The beta-blocker increases toxicity of disopyramide (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - dyphylline Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - dyphylline Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - epinephrine Hypertension, then bradycardia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - epinephrine Hypertension, then bradycardia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - ergonovine Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - ergonovine Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - ergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - ergotamine Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - etodolac The NSAID, Etodolac, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - etodolac The NSAID, Etodolac, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - fenoprofen The NSAID, Fenoprofen, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - fenoprofen The NSAID, Fenoprofen, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - fenoterol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - fenoterol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - flurbiprofen The NSAID, Flurbiprofen, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - flurbiprofen The NSAID, Flurbiprofen, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - formoterol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - formoterol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - glibenclamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - glibenclamide The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - gliclazide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - gliclazide The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - glipizide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - glipizide The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - glisoxepide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - glisoxepide The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - glycodiazine The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - glycodiazine The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - ibuprofen Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins. The NSAID, Ibuprofen, may also antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - ibuprofen Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins. The NSAID, Ibuprofen, may also antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - indomethacin Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins. The NSAID, Indomethacine, may also antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - indomethacin Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins. The NSAID, Indomethacine, may also antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - isoproterenol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - isoproterenol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - ketoprofen The NSAID, Ketoprofen, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - ketoprofen The NSAID, Ketoprofen, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - ketorolac The NSAID, Ketorolac, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - ketorolac The NSAID, Ketorolac, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - l-methyldopa Possible hypertensive crisis (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - lidocaine The beta-blocker increases the effect and toxicity of lidocaine (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - lidocaine The beta-blocker, timolol, may increase the effect and toxicity of lidocaine. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - lumiracoxib The NSAID, Lumiracoxib, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - lumiracoxib The NSAID, Lumiracoxib, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - meloxicam The NSAID, Meloxicam, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - meloxicam The NSAID, Meloxicam, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - Methyldopa Possible hypertensive crisis (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - Methyldopa Possible hypertensive crisis (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - methysergide Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - methysergide Ischemia with risk of gangrene (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - nabumetone The NSAID, Nabumetone, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - nabumetone The NSAID, Nabumetone, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - naproxen The NSAID, Naproxen, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - naproxen The NSAID, Naproxen, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - orciprenaline Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - orciprenaline Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - oxaprozin The NSAID, Oxaprozin, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - oxaprozin The NSAID, Oxaprozin, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - oxtriphylline Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - oxtriphylline Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - pirbuterol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - pirbuterol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - piroxicam Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins. The NSAID, Piroxicam, may also antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - piroxicam Risk of inhibition of renal prostaglandins. The NSAID, Piroxicam, may also antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - prazosin Risk of hypotension at the beginning of therapy (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - prazosin Risk of hypotension at the beginning of therapy (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - procaterol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - procaterol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - repaglinide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - repaglinide The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - salbutamol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - salmeterol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - salmeterol Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - sulindac The NSAID, Sulindac, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - sulindac The NSAID, Sulindac, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - terbutaline Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - terbutaline Antagonism (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - theophylline Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - theophylline Antagonism of action and increased effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - tolazamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - tolazamide The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - tolbutamide The beta-blocker decreases the symptoms of hypoglycemia (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - tolbutamide The beta-blocker, timolol, may decrease symptoms of hypoglycemia. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - tolmetin The NSAID, Tolmetin, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - tolmetin The NSAID, Tolmetin, may antagonize the antihypertensive effect of Timolol. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - verapamil Additive effects of decreased heart rate and contractility may occur. Increased risk of heart block. (source: Drug Bank)
timolol - verapamil Additive effects of decreased heart rate and contractility may occur. Increased risk of heart block. (source: Drug Bank)
trazodone - timolol The 2D6 inhibitor, Trazodone, may increase the efficacy of Timolol by decreasing Timolol metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Timolol efficacy if Trazodone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
trazodone - timolol The 2D6 inhibitor, Trazodone, may increase the efficacy of Timolol by decreasing Timolol metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Timolol efficacy if Trazodone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
treprostinil - timolol Additive hypotensive effect. Monitor antihypertensive therapy during concomitant use. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to timolol: 7

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics: the genetics of variable drug responses. Circulation. 2011. Roden Dan M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of CYP2D6 single-nucleotide polymorphism with response to ophthalmic timolol in primary open-angle Glaucoma--a pilot study. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2010. Yuan Hongzhi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 2D6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Owen Ryan P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Circadian changes of intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure after timolol or latanoprost in Caucasians with normal-tension glaucoma. Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie. 2008. Costagliola Ciro, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms of genes CYP2D6, ADRB1 and GNAS1 in pharmacokinetics and systemic effects of ophthalmic timolol. A pilot study. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2005. Nieminen Tuomo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic explanation for excessive beta-blockade following timolol eye drops. Potential for oral-ophthalmic drug interaction. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 1995. Edeki T I, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
68669-522-05
DrugBank:
DB00373
PDB:
TIM
ChEBI:
39465
KEGG Compound:
C07141
PubChem Compound:
33624
PubChem Substance:
175467
IUPHAR Ligand:
565
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
812455
HET:
TIM
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000088
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
00f62dd1-dad2-4892-8a5d-21e5e54509ce

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention timolol and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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NURSA Datasets

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No NURSA datasets available.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.