Chemical: Drug
quinine

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.


Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for quinine and CYP2D6,G6PD
  2. HCSC Label for quinine and G6PD

last updated 12/20/2013

1. FDA Label for quinine and CYP2D6,G6PD

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for quinine (QUALAQUIN) states that it is contraindicated in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency due to the risk for hemolysis. G6PD deficiency is a condition caused by variants in the G6PD gene which can be determined by enzymatic or genetic tests, however the drug label does not specifically mention testing.

Annotation

Quinine (QUALAQUIN) is an antimalarial indicated for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Excerpts from the quinine (QUALAQUIN) drug label:

QUALAQUIN is contraindicated in patients with the following: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Hemolysis can occur in patients with G6PD deficiency receiving quinine.

Do not take QUALAQUIN® if you have: low levels of an enzyme called Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD).

Desipramine (CYP2D6 susbtrate): Quinine (750 mg/day for 2 days) decreased the metabolism of desipramine in patients who were extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers, but had no effect in patients who were poor CYP2D6 metabolizers.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the quinine drug label.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the FDA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Full label available at DailyMed

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label

  • Hypoglycemia
    • Warnings section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Malaria
    • Indications & usage section, Contraindications section
    • source: PHONT
  • ABCB1
    • metabolism/PK, Drug interactions section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP1A2
    • metabolism/PK, Drug interactions section, Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP2C19
    • metabolism/PK, Drug interactions section, Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP2C8
    • metabolism/PK, Drug interactions section, Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP2C9
    • metabolism/PK, Drug interactions section, Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP2D6
    • metabolism/PK, Drug interactions section, Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP2E1
    • metabolism/PK, Drug interactions section, Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP3A4
    • metabolism/PK, Drug interactions section, Clinical pharmacology section, Warnings and precautions section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • G6PD
    • toxicity, Dosage & administration section, Patient Counseling Information
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

last updated 06/08/2015

2. HCSC Label for quinine and G6PD

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for quinine states that it is contraindicated in patients with G6PD deficiency. However, it makes no statements regarding testing for G6PD deficiency prior to treatment.

Annotation

Quinine is an antimalarial agent. Excerpts from the quinine product monograph:

Contraindications...patients with G-6-PD deficiency.

Patients at risk for G-6-PD deficiency should not be breastfed until this disease can be ruled out.

For the complete product monograph text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the quinine product monograph.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by HCSC and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.


PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for quinine

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
G6PD deficiency N/A N/A N/A
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs776746 NC_000007.13:g.99270539C>T, NC_000007.14:g.99672916T>C, NG_007938.1:g.12083G=, NG_007938.1:g.12083G>A, NM_000777.4:c.219-237A>G, NM_000777.4:c.219-237G>A, NM_001190484.2:c.219-237A>G, NM_001190484.2:c.219-237G>A, NM_001291829.1:c.-253-1A>G, NM_001291829.1:c.-253-1G>A, NM_001291830.1:c.189-237A>G, NM_001291830.1:c.189-237G>A, NR_033807.2:n.717-1A>G, NR_033807.2:n.717-1G>A, NR_033808.1:n.689-1G>A, NR_033809.1:n.581-237G>A, NR_033810.1:n.689-1G>A, NR_033811.1:n.321-1G>A, NR_033812.1:n.321-1G>A, XM_005250169.1:c.189-237G>A, XM_005250170.1:c.-357-1G>A, XM_005250171.1:c.-253-1G>A, XM_005250172.1:c.-254G>A, XM_005250173.1:c.-331-237G>A, XM_005250198.1:c.806-4288C>T, XM_006715859.2:c.219-237A>G, XM_011515843.1:c.-254A>G, XM_011515844.1:c.-229-237A>G, XM_011515845.1:c.-463-1A>G, XM_011515846.1:c.-331-237A>G, XM_011515847.1:c.-571-1A>G, XR_927383.1:n.344-237A>G, XR_927402.1:n.1466+48736T>C, rs10361242, rs11266830, rs386613022, rs58244770
C > T
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • 6'-Methoxycinchonidine
  • 6'-Methoxycinchonine
  • Quinine sulfate
  • Quinine, Anhydrous
  • Quinineanhydrous
  • Quinoline Alkaloid
Trade Names
  • Aflukin
  • Chinin
  • Chinine
  • Coco-Quinine
  • Quinine Dab
Brand Mixture Names
  • Holis 12 Pr (Aloe + Citrullus Colocynthis + Gamboge + Podophyllum + Quinine + White Hellebore Root)
  • Holis 21 (Castanea Vesca + Citrullus Colocynthis + Ipecac + Nitric Acid + Quinine + Silver Nitrate)
  • Holis 22 (Carbon Disulfide + Chenopodium Ambrosioides + Quinine Sulfate + Tobacco)
  • Holis 73 (Asafetida + Charcoal Activated + Gratiola Officinalis + Lycopodium Clavatum + Magnesium Carbonate + Potassium Carbonate + Quinine + Silver Nitrate)
  • Holis 78 (Aconitinum + Cedron + Citrullus Colocynthis + Hypericum Perforatum + Plantago Major + Quinine + Quinine Sulfate)
  • Holis 82 (Acetic Acid + Asafetida + Charcoal Activated + Magnesium Carbonate + Potassium Carbonate + Quinine + Radish + Silver Nitrate)
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate + Potassium Phosphate Dibasic + Quinine Sulfate + Sodium Chloride + Sodium Sulfate + Sodium Sulfite)
  • Thc Complex #57 (Arnica Montana + Barium Carbonate + Belladonna + Carbon Disulfide + Cinchona Officinalis + Cocculus Indicus + Conium Maculatum + Ferrum Phosphoricum + Gelsemium Sempervirens + German Chamomile + Hahnemann's Causticum + Lycopodium Clavatum + Oyster Shells + Phosphorus + Pomegranate Bark + Quinine Sulfate + Salicylic Acid + Sanguinaria Canadensis + Sulfur)
  • Triogene for (Calcium Glycerophosphate + Gentiana Lutea + Iron + Kola + Quinine)

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA451213

Type(s):

Drug

Description

An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of malaria and leg cramps

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

The theorized mechanism of action for quinine and related anti-malarial drugs is that these drugs are toxic to the malaria parasite. Specifically, the drugs interfere with the parasite's ability to break down and digest hemoglobin. Consequently, the parasite starves and/or builds up toxic levels of partially degraded hemoglobin in itself.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Quinine is used parenterally to treat life-threatening infections caused by chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Quinine acts as a blood schizonticide although it also has gametocytocidal activity against P. vivax and P. malariae. Because it is a weak base, it is concentrated in the food vacuoles of P. falciparum. It is thought to act by inhibiting heme polymerase, thereby allowing accumulation of its cytotoxic substrate, heme. As a schizonticidal drug, it is less effective and more toxic than chloroquine. However, it has a special place in the management of severe falciparum malaria in areas with known resistance to chloroquine.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take with food to reduce irritation.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic, over 80% metabolized by the liver.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Approximately 70%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

76 - 88%

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Approximately 18 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Quinine is a documented causative agent of drug induced thrombocytopenia (DIT). Thrombocytopenia is a low amount of platelets in the blood. Quinine induces production of antibodies against glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex in the majority of cases of DIT, or more rarely, the platelet-glycoprotein complex GPIIb-IIIa. Increased antibodies against these complexes increases platelet clearance, leading to the observed thrombocytopenia.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Quinine is eliminated primarily via hepatic biotransformation. Approximately 20% of quinine is excreted unchanged in urine.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C20H24N2O2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

COc1ccc2c(c1)c(ccn2)[C@H]([C@H]3CC4CCN3C[C@H]4C=C)O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

[H][C@]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

324.4168

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

324.183778022

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

[H][C@]1(C[C@@H]2CC[N@]1C[C@@H]2C=C)[C@H](O)C1=CC=NC2=CC=C(OC)C=C12

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C20H24N2O2/c1-3-13-12-22-9-7-14(13)10-19(22)20(23)16-6-8-21-18-5-4-15(24-2)11-17(16)18/h3-6,8,11,13-14,19-20,23H,1,7,9-10,12H2,2H3/t13-,14-,19-,20+/m0/s1

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
GP9 (source: Drug Bank)
HBA1 (source: Drug Bank)
HBA2 (source: Drug Bank)
KCNN4 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
astemizole - quinine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
astemizole - quinine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
digoxin - quinine Quinine/quinidine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
digoxin - quinine Quinine/quinidine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
mesoridazine - quinine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
mesoridazine - quinine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - acenocoumarol Quinine/quinidine increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - acenocoumarol Quinine, a moderate CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of acenocoumarol by decreasing its metabolism via CYP2C9. (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - anisindione Quinine/quinidine increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - anisindione Quinine may increase the anticoagulant effect of anisindione. (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - astemizole Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - astemizole Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - atomoxetine The CYP2D6 inhibitor could increase the effect and toxicity of atomoxetine (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - atomoxetine The CYP2D6 inhibitor could increase the effect and toxicity of atomoxetine (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - atracurium The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - atracurium The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - dicumarol Quinine/quinidine increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - dicumarol Quinine may increase the anticoagulant effect of dicumarol. (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - digitoxin Quinine/quinidine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - digitoxin Quinine/quinidine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - digoxin Quinine/quinidine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - digoxin Quinine/quinidine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - gallamine triethiodide The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - gallamine triethiodide The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - mesoridazine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - mesoridazine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - metocurine The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - metocurine The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - pancuronium The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - pancuronium The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - succinylcholine The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - succinylcholine The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - terfenadine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - terfenadine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - thioridazine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - thioridazine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - vecuronium The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - vecuronium The quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - warfarin Quinine/quinidine increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
quinine - warfarin Quinine, a moderate CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of S-warfarin by decreasing its metabolism via CYP2C9. (source: Drug Bank)
tamoxifen - quinine Quinine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
tamoxifen - quinine Quinine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
tamsulosin - quinine Quinine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Quinine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tamsulosin - quinine Quinine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Quinine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
telithromycin - quinine Telithromycin may reduce clearance of Quinine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Quinine if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
terfenadine - quinine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
terfenadine - quinine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
thioridazine - quinine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
thioridazine - quinine Increased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias (source: Drug Bank)
thiothixene - quinine May cause additive QTc-prolonging effects. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
thiothixene - quinine May cause additive QTc-prolonging effects. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
toremifene - quinine May cause additive QTc-prolonging effects. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated. (source: Drug Bank)
tramadol - quinine Quinine may decrease the effect of Tramadol by decreasing active metabolite production. (source: Drug Bank)
trandolapril - quinine May cause additive hypotensive effects. Monitor for changes in blood pressure if Quinine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
voriconazole - quinine Additive QTc prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
vorinostat - quinine Additive QTc prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
ziprasidone - quinine Additive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
zuclopenthixol - quinine Additive QTc-prolonging effects increases risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to quinine: 15

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The genetics of pro-arrhythmic adverse drug reactions. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Petropoulou Evmorfia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP3A5. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Lamba Jatinder, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Medications and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an evidence-based review. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. 2010. Youngster Ilan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin interactions with substances listed in drug information compendia and in the FDA-approved label for warfarin sodium. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Anthony M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Application of pharmacogenomics to malaria: a holistic approach for successful chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Mehlotra Rajeev K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
4Beta-hydroxycholesterol is a new endogenous CYP3A marker: relationship to CYP3A5 genotype, quinine 3-hydroxylation and sex in Koreans, Swedes and Tanzanians. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Diczfalusy Ulf, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Lancet. 2008. Cappellini M D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Primaquine: report from CDC expert meeting on malaria chemoprophylaxis I. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2006. Hill David R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Antimalarial drug toxicity: a review. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. 2004. Taylor W Robert J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The influence of pharmacogenetics on opioid analgesia: studies with codeine and oxycodone in the Sprague-Dawley/Dark Agouti rat model. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1994. Cleary J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Combined G-6PD and 6-PGD deficiency in a Hindu boy. Acta haematologica. 1977. Dash S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Toxicity of primaquine in Caucasians. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1952. CLAYMAN C B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Toxicity of primaquine in Negroes. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1952. HOCKWALD R S, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
13310-153-07
DrugBank:
DB00468
ChEBI:
15854
KEGG Compound:
C06526
PubChem Compound:
8549
PubChem Substance:
151706
IUPHAR Ligand:
2510
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2254522
BindingDB:
50198086
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000491
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
1f66fba7-4026-4504-918d-4c88f2835cc0

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention quinine and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials found.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.