Chemical: Drug
pyrazinamide

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.


last updated 10/25/2013

1. FDA Label for isoniazid,pyrazinamide,rifampin and NAT2

Informative PGx

Summary

'Slow inactivators' of isoniazid may be more susceptible to drug toxicity when taking Rifator due to higher blood concentrations of the drug in these individuals. Acetylation status of an individual can be determined by examining genetic variants in the NAT2 gene.

Annotation

NAT1 and NAT2 genes are biomarkers listed for the Rifampin, Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide (Rifator) drug label in the FDA Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels table, however the latest available drug label for Rifator (updated on 27/02/2013) does not specifically mention genetic or biomarker testing for these genes. The label does contain information relating to the metabolism of isoniazid by acetylation and dehydrazination. NAT1 and NAT2 are acetyltransferase enzymes. The label states that slow acetylators may have higher blood levels of isoniazid. Acetylation status of an individual can be determined by examining genetic variants in the NAT2 gene (see NAT2 VIP summary).

The label also mentions that Rifampin and Isoniazid can induce or inhibit particular CYP450 enzymes, and therefore could affect the metabolism of drugs taken concomitantly that are metabolized via these enzymes.

Excerpts from the Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamid (RIFATER) drug label:

The rate of acetylation does not significantly alter the effectiveness of isoniazid. However, slow acetylation may lead to higher blood levels of the drug, and thus, an increase in toxic reactions.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the Rifampin, Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide drug label.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the FDA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label

  • Hepatitis, Toxic
    • Indications & usage section, Contraindications section, Warnings section, Precautions section
    • source: PHONT
  • HIV
    • Indications & usage section
    • source: PHONT
  • Leukemia
    • Indications & usage section, Precautions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Toxic liver disease
    • Adverse reactions section, Precautions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Tuberculosis
    • Indications & usage section, Warnings section, Precautions section
    • source: PHONT

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for pyrazinamide

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2E1 *5B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available GSTM1 non-null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA GSTM1 null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available GSTT1 non-null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA GSTT1 null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *5A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *5B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *5D N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *6A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *6B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *7A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *7B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *13 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *14 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA STAT3 CTA N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA STAT3 TCG N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA STAT3 TTA N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1041983 NC_000008.10:g.18257795C>T, NC_000008.11:g.18400285C>T, NG_012246.1:g.14041C>T, NM_000015.2:c.282C>T, NP_000006.2:p.Tyr94=, XM_011544358.1:c.282C>T, XP_011542660.1:p.Tyr94=, rs17845484, rs17858364, rs59855457
C > T
SNP
Y94Y
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1045642 NC_000007.13:g.87138645A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87509329A>G, NG_011513.1:g.208920T>C, NM_000927.4:c.3435T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Ile1145=, rs10239679, rs11568726, rs117328163, rs17210003, rs2229108, rs386513066, rs60023214, rs9690664
A > G
SNP
I1145I
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1057910 NC_000010.10:g.96741053A=, NC_000010.10:g.96741053A>C, NC_000010.11:g.94981296A=, NC_000010.11:g.94981296A>C, NG_008385.1:g.47639A=, NG_008385.1:g.47639A>C, NM_000771.3:c.1075A=, NM_000771.3:c.1075A>C, NP_000762.2:p.Ile359=, NP_000762.2:p.Ile359Leu, XM_005269575.1:c.1075A=, XM_005269575.1:c.1075A>C, XP_005269632.1:p.Ile359=, XP_005269632.1:p.Ile359Leu, rs17847042, rs3198471, rs61212474
A > C
SNP
I359L
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1080983 NC_000022.10:g.42528568T=, NC_000022.10:g.42528568T>C, NC_000022.11:g.42132561C=, NC_000022.11:g.42132561C>T, NG_008376.3:g.2431G=, NG_008376.3:g.2431G>A, NM_000106.5:c.-1770A>G, NM_000106.5:c.-1770G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.-1770A>G, NM_001025161.2:c.-1770G>A, NT_187682.1:g.54907T=, NT_187682.1:g.54907T>C, NW_004504305.1:g.54891C=, NW_004504305.1:g.54891C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.18129C=, NW_009646208.1:g.18129C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.-1773A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.-1773G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529966.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.-1045-725A>G, XM_011529967.1:c.-1045-725G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529968.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.-1228A>G, XM_011529969.1:c.-1228G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529970.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.-1228A>G, XM_011529971.1:c.-1228G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529972.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.-1233A>G, XM_011547750.1:c.-1233G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.42+2343C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.42+2343T>C, XR_430455.2:n.836C>T, XR_430455.2:n.836T>C, XR_952536.1:n.122C=, XR_952536.1:n.122C>T, XR_952537.1:n.122C=, XR_952537.1:n.122C>T, XR_952538.1:n.122C=, XR_952538.1:n.122C>T, XR_952539.1:n.40+371C>T, XR_952539.1:n.40+371T>C, XR_952540.1:n.-1213C>T, XR_952540.1:n.-1213T>C, XR_952745.1:n.-618A>G, XR_952745.1:n.-618G>A, rs57121857
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1080989 NC_000022.10:g.42527793C=, NC_000022.10:g.42527793C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42131791C=, NC_000022.11:g.42131791C>T, NG_008376.3:g.3201G=, NG_008376.3:g.3201G>A, NM_000106.5:c.-1000A>G, NM_000106.5:c.-1000G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.-1000A>G, NM_001025161.2:c.-1000G>A, NT_187682.1:g.54132C=, NT_187682.1:g.54132C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.54118T=, NW_004504305.1:g.54118T>C, NW_009646208.1:g.17357T=, NW_009646208.1:g.17357T>C, XM_005278353.1:c.-1000A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529966.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529967.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529968.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.-458G=, XM_011529969.1:c.-458G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529970.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.-458G=, XM_011529971.1:c.-458G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529972.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.-458G=, XM_011547750.1:c.-458G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.42+1568C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.42+1568T>C, XR_430455.2:n.329-263C>T, XR_430455.2:n.329-263T>C, XR_952536.1:n.-652C>T, XR_952536.1:n.-652T>C, XR_952537.1:n.-652C>T, XR_952537.1:n.-652T>C, XR_952538.1:n.-652C>T, XR_952538.1:n.-652T>C, XR_952539.1:n.-363C>T, XR_952539.1:n.-363T>C, XR_952540.1:n.-1986C>T, XR_952540.1:n.-1986T>C, XR_952745.1:n.158G=, XR_952745.1:n.158G>A
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1524107 NC_000007.13:g.22768219C>T, NC_000007.14:g.22728600C>T, NG_011640.1:g.6454C>T, NM_000600.4:c.211-93C>T, NM_001318095.1:c.-18-93C>T, NR_131935.1:n.-980G>A, XM_005249745.1:c.373-93C>T, XM_005249745.3:c.373-93C>T, XM_005249746.1:c.-18-93C>T, XM_011515390.1:c.211-93C>T, XM_011515391.1:c.-18-93C>T
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1695 NC_000011.10:g.67585218A>G, NC_000011.9:g.67352689A>G, NG_012075.1:g.6624A>G, NM_000852.3:c.313A>G, NP_000843.1:p.Ile105Val, XM_005273958.1:c.313A>G, XP_005274015.1:p.Ile105Val, rs1138257, rs11553891, rs17353321, rs17856342, rs2230827, rs4609, rs56971933, rs947894
A > G
SNP
I105V
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799929 NC_000008.10:g.18257994C>T, NC_000008.11:g.18400484C>T, NG_012246.1:g.14240C>T, NM_000015.2:c.481C>T, NP_000006.2:p.Leu161=, XM_011544358.1:c.481C>T, XP_011542660.1:p.Leu161=, rs17595342, rs4646268, rs58882350, rs60310310
C > T
SNP
L161L
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799930 NC_000008.10:g.18258103G>A, NC_000008.11:g.18400593G>A, NG_012246.1:g.14349G>A, NM_000015.2:c.590G>A, NP_000006.2:p.Arg197Gln, XM_011544358.1:c.590G>A, XP_011542660.1:p.Arg197Gln, rs17517027, rs17856496, rs4646269, rs60190029, rs61467963
G > A
SNP
R197Q
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799931 NC_000008.10:g.18258370G>A, NC_000008.11:g.18400860G>A, NG_012246.1:g.14616G>A, NM_000015.2:c.857G>A, NP_000006.2:p.Gly286Glu, XM_011544358.1:c.857G>A, XP_011542660.1:p.Gly286Glu, rs17693862, rs4646270, rs52802193, rs58803786
G > A
SNP
G286E
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800629 NC_000006.11:g.31543031G=, NC_000006.11:g.31543031G>A, NC_000006.12:g.31575254G=, NC_000006.12:g.31575254G>A, NG_007462.1:g.4682G=, NG_007462.1:g.4682G>A, NG_012010.1:g.8156G=, NG_012010.1:g.8156G>A, NM_000594.3:c.-488A>G, NM_000594.3:c.-488G>A, NT_113891.2:g.3052647A=, NT_113891.2:g.3052647A>G, NT_113891.3:g.3052541A=, NT_113891.3:g.3052541A>G, NT_167245.1:g.2828572G=, NT_167245.1:g.2828572G>A, NT_167245.2:g.2822987G=, NT_167245.2:g.2822987G>A, NT_167246.1:g.2885915G=, NT_167246.1:g.2885915G>A, NT_167246.2:g.2880295G=, NT_167246.2:g.2880295G>A, NT_167247.1:g.2922737G=, NT_167247.1:g.2922737G>A, NT_167247.2:g.2917152G=, NT_167247.2:g.2917152G>A, NT_167248.1:g.2836669G=, NT_167248.1:g.2836669G>A, NT_167248.2:g.2831073G=, NT_167248.2:g.2831073G>A, NT_167249.1:g.2873832G=, NT_167249.1:g.2873832G>A, NT_167249.2:g.2874534G=, NT_167249.2:g.2874534G>A, rs116610137, rs117441802, rs148958203, rs3091256, rs36205298, rs4134777, rs59729336
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801280 NC_000008.10:g.18257854T>C, NC_000008.11:g.18400344T>C, NG_012246.1:g.14100T>C, NM_000015.2:c.341T>C, NP_000006.2:p.Ile114Thr, XM_011544358.1:c.341T>C, XP_011542660.1:p.Ile114Thr, rs4134724, rs56935242
T > C
SNP
I114T
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2003569 NC_000002.11:g.234667937G>A, NC_000002.12:g.233759291G>A, NG_002601.2:g.174548G>A, NG_033238.1:g.4019G>A, NM_000463.2:c.-997G>A, NM_001072.3:c.862-7743G>A, NM_007120.2:c.868-7743G>A, NM_019075.2:c.856-7743G>A, NM_019076.4:c.856-7743G>A, NM_019077.2:c.856-7743G>A, NM_019078.1:c.868-7743G>A, NM_019093.2:c.868-7743G>A, NM_021027.2:c.856-7743G>A, NM_205862.1:c.61-7743G>A, XR_241238.1:n.924-7743G>A, XR_241239.1:n.-975G>A, XR_241240.1:n.1023-7743G>A, XR_241241.1:n.942-7743G>A, rs17286591
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2008584 NC_000002.11:g.234637015A>G, NC_000002.12:g.233728369A>G, NG_002601.2:g.143626A>G, NM_001072.3:c.861+34504A>G, NM_007120.2:c.867+8682A>G, NM_019075.2:c.856-38665A>G, NM_019076.4:c.856-38665A>G, NM_019077.2:c.856-38665A>G, NM_019078.1:c.867+14511A>G, NM_019093.2:c.-758A>G, NM_021027.2:c.856-38665A>G, NM_205862.1:c.60+34504A>G, XR_241238.1:n.923+8682A>G, XR_241240.1:n.1022+34504A>G, XR_241241.1:n.942-38665A>G, rs16849646, rs17869157, rs55772651, rs60783229, rs62191914
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2031920 NC_000010.10:g.135339845C>T, NC_000010.11:g.133526341C>T, NG_008383.1:g.3979C>T, NM_000773.3:c.-1055C>T, XM_005252665.1:c.-512C>T, rs3813868
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2066992 NC_000007.13:g.22768249G>T, NC_000007.14:g.22728630G>T, NG_011640.1:g.6484G>T, NM_000600.4:c.211-63G>T, NM_001318095.1:c.-18-63G>T, NR_131935.1:n.-1010C>A, XM_005249745.1:c.373-63G>T, XM_005249745.3:c.373-63G>T, XM_005249746.1:c.-18-63G>T, XM_011515390.1:c.211-63G>T, XM_011515391.1:c.-18-63G>T, rs17147236, rs58064907
G > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2069837 NC_000007.13:g.22768027A>G, NC_000007.14:g.22728408A>G, NG_011640.1:g.6262A>G, NM_000600.4:c.211-285A>G, NM_001318095.1:c.-18-285A>G, NR_131935.1:n.-788T>C, XM_005249745.1:c.373-285A>G, XM_005249745.3:c.373-285A>G, XM_005249746.1:c.-18-285A>G, XM_011515390.1:c.211-285A>G, XM_011515391.1:c.-18-285A>G, rs111176548, rs16873259, rs3779040, rs56908115
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2070672 NC_000010.10:g.135340548A>G, NC_000010.11:g.133527044A>G, NG_008383.1:g.4682A>G, NM_000773.3:c.-352A>G, XM_005252665.1:c.21+171A>G, rs58043512
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2070673 NC_000010.10:g.135340567A>T, NC_000010.11:g.133527063A>T, NG_008383.1:g.4701A>T, NM_000773.3:c.-333A>T, XM_005252665.1:c.21+190A>T
A > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2227956 NC_000006.11:g.31778272G=, NC_000006.11:g.31778272G>A, NC_000006.12:g.31810495G=, NC_000006.12:g.31810495G>A, NG_011855.1:g.9564C=, NG_011855.1:g.9564C>T, NM_005527.3:c.1478C=, NM_005527.3:c.1478C>T, NP_005518.3:p.Thr493=, NP_005518.3:p.Thr493Met, NT_113891.2:g.3287853A=, NT_113891.2:g.3287853A>G, NT_113891.3:g.3287747A=, NT_113891.3:g.3287747A>G, NT_167244.1:g.3093033A=, NT_167244.1:g.3093033A>G, NT_167244.2:g.3143117A=, NT_167244.2:g.3143117A>G, NT_167245.1:g.3063859G=, NT_167245.1:g.3063859G>A, NT_167245.2:g.3058274G=, NT_167245.2:g.3058274G>A, NT_167248.1:g.3071920A=, NT_167248.1:g.3071920A>G, NT_167248.2:g.3066324A=, NT_167248.2:g.3066324A>G, XM_005249070.1:c.1670C=, XM_005249070.1:c.1670C>T, XM_005249070.3:c.1670C=, XM_005249070.3:c.1670C>T, XM_005249071.1:c.1478C=, XM_005249071.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005249072.1:c.1478C=, XM_005249072.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005249073.1:c.1478C=, XM_005249073.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005249073.2:c.1478C=, XM_005249073.2:c.1478C>T, XM_005249074.1:c.1478C=, XM_005249074.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005272813.1:c.1670T=, XM_005272813.1:c.1670T>C, XM_005272814.1:c.1478T=, XM_005272814.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005272815.1:c.1478T=, XM_005272815.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005272816.1:c.1478T=, XM_005272816.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005272816.2:c.1478T=, XM_005272816.2:c.1478T>C, XM_005272817.1:c.1478T=, XM_005272817.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005274858.1:c.1478T=, XM_005274858.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005274859.1:c.1670T=, XM_005274859.1:c.1670T>C, XM_005274859.3:c.1670T=, XM_005274859.3:c.1670T>C, XM_005274860.1:c.1478T=, XM_005274860.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005274861.1:c.1478T=, XM_005274861.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005274861.2:c.1478T=, XM_005274861.2:c.1478T>C, XM_005274862.1:c.1478T=, XM_005274862.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005274970.1:c.1670C=, XM_005274970.1:c.1670C>T, XM_005274970.3:c.1670C=, XM_005274970.3:c.1670C>T, XM_005274971.1:c.1478C=, XM_005274971.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005274972.1:c.1478C=, XM_005274972.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005274973.1:c.1478C=, XM_005274973.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005274973.2:c.1478C=, XM_005274973.2:c.1478C>T, XM_005274974.1:c.1478C=, XM_005274974.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005275398.1:c.1478T=, XM_005275398.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005275399.1:c.1670T=, XM_005275399.1:c.1670T>C, XM_005275400.1:c.1478T=, XM_005275400.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005275401.1:c.1478T=, XM_005275401.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005275401.2:c.1478T=, XM_005275401.2:c.1478T>C, XM_005275402.1:c.1478T=, XM_005275402.1:c.1478T>C, XM_011514566.1:c.1478C=, XM_011514566.1:c.1478C>T, XM_011546311.1:c.1478T=, XM_011546311.1:c.1478T>C, XM_011547246.1:c.1478T=, XM_011547246.1:c.1478T>C, XM_011547247.1:c.1670T=, XM_011547247.1:c.1670T>C, XM_011547652.1:c.1478C=, XM_011547652.1:c.1478C>T, XM_011548238.1:c.1478T=, XM_011548238.1:c.1478T>C, XM_011548239.1:c.1670T=, XM_011548239.1:c.1670T>C, XP_005249127.1:p.Thr557=, XP_005249127.1:p.Thr557Met, XP_005249128.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005249128.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005249129.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005249129.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005249130.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005249130.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005249131.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005249131.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005272870.1:p.Met557=, XP_005272870.1:p.Met557Thr, XP_005272871.1:p.Met493=, XP_005272871.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005272872.1:p.Met493=, XP_005272872.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005272873.1:p.Met493=, XP_005272873.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005272874.1:p.Met493=, XP_005272874.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005274915.1:p.Met493=, XP_005274915.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005274916.1:p.Met557=, XP_005274916.1:p.Met557Thr, XP_005274917.1:p.Met493=, XP_005274917.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005274918.1:p.Met493=, XP_005274918.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005274919.1:p.Met493=, XP_005274919.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005275027.1:p.Thr557=, XP_005275027.1:p.Thr557Met, XP_005275028.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005275028.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005275029.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005275029.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005275030.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005275030.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005275031.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005275031.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005275455.1:p.Met493=, XP_005275455.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005275456.1:p.Met557=, XP_005275456.1:p.Met557Thr, XP_005275457.1:p.Met493=, XP_005275457.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005275458.1:p.Met493=, XP_005275458.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005275459.1:p.Met493=, XP_005275459.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_011512868.1:p.Thr493=, XP_011512868.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_011544613.1:p.Met493=, XP_011544613.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_011545548.1:p.Met493=, XP_011545548.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_011545549.1:p.Met557=, XP_011545549.1:p.Met557Thr, XP_011545954.1:p.Thr493=, XP_011545954.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_011546540.1:p.Met493=, XP_011546540.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_011546541.1:p.Met557=, XP_011546541.1:p.Met557Thr, rs116591280, rs117465227, rs148468928, rs35842419, rs386561656, rs52829371, rs57160046
G > A
SNP
T493M
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3755319 NC_000002.11:g.234667582A=, NC_000002.11:g.234667582A>C, NC_000002.12:g.233758936A=, NC_000002.12:g.233758936A>C, NG_002601.2:g.174193A=, NG_002601.2:g.174193A>C, NG_033238.1:g.3664A=, NG_033238.1:g.3664A>C, NM_000463.2:c.-1352A=, NM_000463.2:c.-1352A>C, NM_001072.3:c.862-8098A=, NM_001072.3:c.862-8098A>C, NM_007120.2:c.868-8098A=, NM_007120.2:c.868-8098A>C, NM_019075.2:c.856-8098A=, NM_019075.2:c.856-8098A>C, NM_019076.4:c.856-8098A=, NM_019076.4:c.856-8098A>C, NM_019077.2:c.856-8098A=, NM_019077.2:c.856-8098A>C, NM_019078.1:c.868-8098A=, NM_019078.1:c.868-8098A>C, NM_019093.2:c.868-8098A=, NM_019093.2:c.868-8098A>C, NM_021027.2:c.856-8098A=, NM_021027.2:c.856-8098A>C, NM_205862.1:c.61-8098A=, NM_205862.1:c.61-8098A>C, XR_241238.1:n.924-8098A=, XR_241238.1:n.924-8098A>C, XR_241239.1:n.-1330A=, XR_241239.1:n.-1330A>C, XR_241240.1:n.1023-8098A=, XR_241240.1:n.1023-8098A>C, XR_241241.1:n.942-8098A=, XR_241241.1:n.942-8098A>C, rs35208194, rs36208045, rs57256426
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3813867 NC_000010.10:g.135339605G>C, NC_000010.11:g.133526101G>C, NG_008383.1:g.3739G>C, NM_000773.3:c.-1295G>C, XM_005252665.1:c.-752G>C, rs57822387
G > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3814637 NC_000010.10:g.96521045C>T, NC_000010.11:g.94761288C>T, NG_008384.2:g.3583C>T, NM_000769.2:c.-1418C>T, rs11565103, rs117910415, rs17878465, rs58858251
C > G
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4148323 NC_000002.11:g.234669144G>A, NC_000002.12:g.233760498G>A, NG_002601.2:g.175755G>A, NG_033238.1:g.5226G>A, NM_000463.2:c.211G>A, NM_001072.3:c.862-6536G>A, NM_007120.2:c.868-6536G>A, NM_019075.2:c.856-6536G>A, NM_019076.4:c.856-6536G>A, NM_019077.2:c.856-6536G>A, NM_019078.1:c.868-6536G>A, NM_019093.2:c.868-6536G>A, NM_021027.2:c.856-6536G>A, NM_205862.1:c.61-6536G>A, NP_000454.1:p.Gly71Arg, XR_241238.1:n.924-6536G>A, XR_241239.1:n.233G>A, XR_241240.1:n.1023-6536G>A, XR_241241.1:n.942-6536G>A, rs113525835, rs34360183, rs58105808, rs58585123
G > A
SNP
G71R
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4149032 NC_000012.11:g.21317791C>T, NC_000012.12:g.21164857C>T, NG_011745.1:g.38664C>T, NM_006446.4:c.85-7793C>T, rs57192307
C > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs4646244 NC_000008.10:g.18247718T>A, NC_000008.11:g.18390208T>A, NG_012246.1:g.3964T>A, NM_000015.2:c.-1144T>A, rs17595300
T > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4646267 NC_000008.10:g.18247913A>G, NC_000008.11:g.18390403A>G, NG_012246.1:g.4159A>G, NM_000015.2:c.-949A>G
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4646903 NC_000015.10:g.74719300A>G, NC_000015.9:g.75011641A>G, NG_008431.1:g.1759A>G, NM_000499.3:c.*1189T>C, NM_000499.4:c.*1189T>C, NM_000499.4:c.*947+242T>C, NM_001319216.1:c.*1189T>C, NM_001319216.1:c.*947+242T>C, NM_001319217.1:c.*1189T>C, NM_001319217.1:c.*947+242T>C, XM_005254185.1:c.*1189T>C, XM_005254186.1:c.*1189T>C, XM_005254187.1:c.*1189T>C, XM_005254188.1:c.*1189T>C, XM_005254189.1:c.*1189T>C, rs116877783, rs17861083, rs5030838
A > G
A > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4918758 NC_000010.10:g.96697252T>C, NC_000010.11:g.94937495T>C, NG_008385.1:g.3838T>C, NM_000771.3:c.-1188T>C, XM_005269575.1:c.-1188T>C, rs17110346
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4986893 NC_000010.10:g.96540410G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94780653G>A, NG_008384.2:g.22948G>A, NM_000769.2:c.636G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Trp212Ter, rs52827375, rs57081121
G > A
SNP
W212*
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6413432 NC_000010.10:g.135348544T>A, NC_000010.11:g.133535040T>A, NG_008383.1:g.12678T>A, NM_000773.3:c.967+1143T>A, XM_005252665.1:c.1027+1143T>A
T > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6431625 NC_000002.11:g.234637912T>C, NC_000002.12:g.233729266T>C, NG_002601.2:g.144523T>C, NM_001072.3:c.861+35401T>C, NM_007120.2:c.867+9579T>C, NM_019075.2:c.856-37768T>C, NM_019076.4:c.856-37768T>C, NM_019077.2:c.856-37768T>C, NM_019078.1:c.867+15408T>C, NM_019093.2:c.140T>C, NM_021027.2:c.856-37768T>C, NM_205862.1:c.60+35401T>C, NP_061966.1:p.Val47Ala, XR_241238.1:n.923+9579T>C, XR_241240.1:n.1022+35401T>C, XR_241241.1:n.942-37768T>C, rs17864457, rs61313666
T > C
SNP
V47A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9332096 NC_000010.10:g.96696875C>T, NC_000010.11:g.94937118C>T, NG_008385.1:g.3461C>T, NM_000771.3:c.-1565C>T, XM_005269575.1:c.-1565C>T
C > T
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • PZA
  • Pirazimida
  • Pirazinamid
  • Pyrazinamdie
  • Pyrazine carboxylamide
  • Pyrazineamide
  • Pyrazinecarboxamide
  • Pyrazinecarboxylic acid amide
  • Pyrazinoic acid amide
Trade Names
  • Aldinamid
  • Aldinamide
  • Braccopiral
  • Corsazinmid
  • Dipimide
  • Eprazin
  • Farmizina
  • Isopas
  • Lynamide
  • Novamid
  • Pezetamid
  • Piraldina
  • Pirilene
  • Prazina
  • Pyrafat
  • Pyramide
  • Pyrazide
  • Pyrazinamide BP 2000
  • Rifater
  • Rozide
  • Tebrazid
  • Tebrazio
  • Unipyranamide
  • Zinamide
  • Zinastat
  • pms-Pyrazinamide
Brand Mixture Names
  • Rifater - Tab (Isoniazid + Pyrazinamide + Rifampin)

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA451182

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the initial treatment of active tuberculosis in adults and children when combined with other antituberculous agents.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Pyrazinamide is an important sterilizing prodrug that shortens tuberculosis (TB) therapy. However, the mechanism of action of pyrazinamide is poorly understood because of its unusual properties. In literature it has been written that the pyrazinoic acid (POA), the active moiety of pyrazinamide, disrupted membrane energetics and inhibited membrane transport function at acid pH in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The antimycobacterial activity appears to partly depend on conversion of the drug to POA. Susceptible strains of M. tuberculosis produce pyrazinamidase, an enzyme that deaminates pyrazinamide to POA, and the vitro susceptibility of a given strain of the organism appears to correspond to its pyrazinamidase activity. Experimental evidence suggests that pyrazinamide diffuses into M. tuberculosis in a passive manner, is converted into POA by pyrazinamidase, and because of an inefficient efflux system, accumulates in huge amounts in the bacterial cytoplasm. The accumulation of POA lowers the intracellular pH to a suboptimal level that is likely to inactivate a vital target enzyme such as fatty acid synthase. Recent studies (2007) demonstrated that pyrazinamide and its analogs inhibit the activity of purified FAS I.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Pyrazinamide kills or stops the growth of certain bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). It is used with other drugs to treat tuberculosis. It is a highly specific agent and is active only against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In vitro and in vivo, the drug is active only at a slightly acid pH. Pyrazinamie gets activated to Pyrazinoic acid in the bacilli where it interferes with fatty acid synthase FAS I. This interferes with the bacteriums ability to synthesize new fatty acids, required for growth and replication.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take without regard to meals.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

~10% (bound to plasma proteins)

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Rapidly and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

9-10 hours (normal conditions)

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Side effects include liver injury, arthralgias, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, dysuria,malaise and fever, sideroblastic anemia, adverse effects on the blood clotting mechanism or vascular integrity, and hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, pruritis and skin rashes.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Approximately 70% of an oral dose is excreted in the urine, mainly by glomerular filtration within 24 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C5H5N3O

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

c1cnc(cn1)C(=O)N

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

NC(=O)C1=NC=CN=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

123.1127

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

123.043261797

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

NC(=O)C1=NC=CN=C1

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C5H5N3O/c6-5(9)4-3-7-1-2-8-4/h1-3H,(H2,6,9)

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
FASN (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
cyclosporine - pyrazinamide Pyrazinamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - pyrazinamide Pyrazinamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
pyrazinamide - cyclosporine Pyrazinamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
pyrazinamide - cyclosporine Pyrazinamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to pyrazinamide: 48

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2 variants are associated with drug-induced liver injury caused by anti-tuberculosis drugs in Indonesian patients with tuberculosis. Journal of human genetics. 2016. Yuliwulandari Rika, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Analysis of IL-6, STAT3 and HSPA1L Gene Polymorphisms in Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatitis in a Nested Case-Control Study. PloS one. 2015. Wang Jing, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Involvement of cytochrome P450 1A1 and glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphisms and promoter hypermethylation in the progression of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury: a case-control study. PloS one. 2015. He Lei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of NAT2, GST and CYP2E1 polymorphisms and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2014. Singla Neha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Evolution and transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis in a Russian population. Nature genetics. 2014. Casali Nicola, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
N-acetyltransferase 2, cytochrome P4502E1 and glutathione S-transferase genotypes in antitubercular treatment-induced hepatotoxicity in North Indians. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2014. Rana S V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dependence of efavirenz- and rifampicin-isoniazid-based antituberculosis treatment drug-drug interaction on CYP2B6 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms: ANRS 12154 study in Cambodia. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2014. Bertrand Julie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of N-acetyltransferase 2 and cytochrome P450 2E1 gene polymorphisms with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western India. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2013. Gupta Vinod H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
N-acetyl transferase 2 and cytochrome P450 2E1 genes and isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in Brazilian patients. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2013. Santos N P C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship of NAT2, CYP2E1 and GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphisms with mild elevation of liver enzymes in Brazilian individuals under anti-tuberculosis drug therapy. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2013. Forestiero Francisco Jose, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The roles of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and other predictors in anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2012. Monteiro T P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Sex, ethnicity and slow acetylator profile are the major causes of hepatotoxicity induced by antituberculosis drugs. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2012. Chamorro Julián G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: a nested case-control study. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2012. Tang S-W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphism of the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene as a susceptibility risk factor for antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Tunisian patients with tuberculosis. Pathologie-biologie. 2012. Ben Mahmoud L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic interaction between NAT2, GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1, and environmental factors is associated with adverse reactions to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Molecular diagnosis & therapy. 2012. Costa Gustavo N O, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms associated with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Chinese patients. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2012. An Hui-Ru, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
TNF-alpha genetic polymorphism -308G/A and antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. 2012. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury: a meta-analysis. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2012. Wang P-Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic study of drug-metabolising enzyme polymorphisms on the risk of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury: a meta-analysis. PloS one. 2012. Cai Yu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship between CYP2E1 polymorphism and increase of ALT activity during therapy of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine. 2011. Kudryashov A V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms and risk of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Caucasians. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2011. Leiro-Fernandez V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The SLCO1B1 rs4149032 polymorphism is highly prevalent in South Africans and is associated with reduced rifampin concentrations: dosing implications. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2011. Chigutsa Emmanuel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of NAT2, CYP2E1 and GST enzymes and the occurrence of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis in Brazilian TB patients. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 2011. Teixeira Raquel Lima de Figueiredo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison between acetylator phenotype and genotype polymorphism of n-acetyltransferase-2 in tuberculosis patients. Hepatology international. 2011. Rana S V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of N-acetyltransferase-2 genotypes and anti-tuberculosis induced liver injury; first case-controlled study from Iran. Current drug safety. 2011. Khalili Hossein, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms in anti-TB drug-induced maculopapular eruption. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Role of polymorphic N-acetyl transferase2 and cytochrome P4502E1 gene in antituberculosis treatment-induced hepatitis. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2011. Bose Purabi Deka, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of isoniazid-metabolizing enzyme genotypes and isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in tuberculosis patients. In vivo (Athens, Greece). 2011. Sotsuka Takayo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene deletions are not associated with hepatotoxicity caused by antitubercular drugs. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2010. Chatterjee S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to first-line anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2010. Lee S-W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Low N-acetyltransferase 2 activity in isoniazid-associated acute hepatitis requiring liver transplantation. Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. 2010. Cramer Jakob P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTT1 and GSTM1 null mutations and adverse reactions induced by antituberculosis drugs in Koreans. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2010. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase associated with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Chinese tuberculosis patients. The Journal of international medical research. 2010. Wang T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of slow N-acetyltransferase 2 profile and anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity in patients from Southern Brazil. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Possuelo L G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 homozygous null mutations on the risk of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in a Caucasian population. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. 2008. Leiro Virginia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), CYP2E1 and Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genotypes on the serum concentrations of isoniazid and metabolites in tuberculosis patients. The Journal of toxicological sciences. 2008. Fukino Katsumi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional characterization of human xanthine oxidase allelic variants. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Kudo Mutsumi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of anti-TB drugs-related hepatotoxicity. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Roy Puspita Das, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: concise up-to-date review. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2008. Tostmann Alma, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Determining the relation between N-acetyltransferase-2 acetylator phenotype and antituberculosis drug induced hepatitis by molecular biologic tests. Tüberküloz ve toraks. 2008. Bozok Cetintaş Vildan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of NAT2 and CYP2E1 associated with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Korean patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2007. Cho Hyun-Jung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Two years review of cutaneous adverse drug reaction from first line anti-tuberculous drugs. The Medical journal of Malaysia. 2007. Tan W C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Predisposition of antituberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity by cytochrome P450 2E1 genotype and haplotype in pediatric patients. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2006. Roy Bidyut, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Adverse reactions to first-line antituberculosis drugs. Expert opinion on drug safety. 2006. Forget Eric J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity. Nature reviews. Drug discovery. 2005. Kaplowitz Neil. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 2E1 genotype and the susceptibility to antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2003. Huang Yi-Shin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Increased risk of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in individuals with glutathione S-transferase M1 'null' mutation. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2001. Roy B, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
55806-012-02
DrugBank:
DB00339
ChEBI:
8656
KEGG Compound:
C01956
KEGG Drug:
D00144
PubChem Compound:
1046
PubChem Substance:
46507478
5057
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
618810
ChemSpider:
1017
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000660
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
a719ec72-771f-49c9-b93d-9d5f585176a4

Clinical Trials

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