Chemical: Drug
progesterone

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for progesterone

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C19 *2A N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C19 *3A N/A N/A N/A
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs4244285 NC_000010.10:g.96541616G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94781859G>A, NG_008384.2:g.24154G>A, NM_000769.1:c.681G>A, NM_000769.2:c.681G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Pro227=, rs116940633, rs17879456, rs60361278
G > A
SNP
P227P
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs4986893 NC_000010.10:g.96540410G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94780653G>A, NG_008384.2:g.22948G>A, NM_000769.2:c.636G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Trp212Ter, rs52827375, rs57081121
G > A
SNP
W212*
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs776746 NC_000007.13:g.99270539C>T, NC_000007.14:g.99672916T>C, NG_007938.1:g.12083G=, NG_007938.1:g.12083G>A, NM_000777.4:c.219-237A>G, NM_000777.4:c.219-237G>A, NM_001190484.2:c.219-237A>G, NM_001190484.2:c.219-237G>A, NM_001291829.1:c.-253-1A>G, NM_001291829.1:c.-253-1G>A, NM_001291830.1:c.189-237A>G, NM_001291830.1:c.189-237G>A, NR_033807.2:n.717-1A>G, NR_033807.2:n.717-1G>A, NR_033808.1:n.689-1G>A, NR_033809.1:n.581-237G>A, NR_033810.1:n.689-1G>A, NR_033811.1:n.321-1G>A, NR_033812.1:n.321-1G>A, XM_005250169.1:c.189-237G>A, XM_005250170.1:c.-357-1G>A, XM_005250171.1:c.-253-1G>A, XM_005250172.1:c.-254G>A, XM_005250173.1:c.-331-237G>A, XM_005250198.1:c.806-4288C>T, XM_006715859.2:c.219-237A>G, XM_011515843.1:c.-254A>G, XM_011515844.1:c.-229-237A>G, XM_011515845.1:c.-463-1A>G, XM_011515846.1:c.-331-237A>G, XM_011515847.1:c.-571-1A>G, XR_927383.1:n.344-237A>G, XR_927402.1:n.1466+48736T>C, rs10361242, rs11266830, rs386613022, rs58244770
C > T
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Corpus Luteum Hormone
  • Progesterona [INN-Spanish]
  • Progesteronum
  • Progesteronum [INN-Latin]
Trade Names
  • Agolutin
  • Amen
  • Bio-Luton
  • Colprosterone
  • Corlutin
  • Corlutina
  • Corluvite
  • Corporin
  • Crinone
  • Curretab
  • Cyclogest
  • Cyclogesterin
  • Cycrin
  • Delalutin
  • Flavolutan
  • Fologenon
  • Gesterol
  • Gesterol 100
  • Gesterol 50
  • Gestiron
  • Gestone
  • Gestormone
  • Gestron
  • Glanducorpin
  • Gynlutin
  • Gynoluton
  • Gynolutone
  • Hormoflaveine
  • Hormoluton
  • Lingusorbs
  • Lipo-Lutin
  • Lucorteum
  • Lucorteum Sol
  • Luteal Hormone
  • Luteinique
  • Luteocrin Normale
  • Luteodyn
  • Luteogan
  • Luteohormone
  • Luteol
  • Luteopur
  • Luteosan
  • Luteostab
  • Luteovis
  • Lutex
  • Lutidon
  • Lutin
  • Lutociclina
  • Lutocuclin M
  • Lutocyclin
  • Lutocyclin M
  • Lutocylin
  • Lutocylol
  • Lutoform
  • Lutogyl
  • Lutren
  • Lutromone
  • Membrettes
  • Methylpregnone
  • Nalutron
  • Percutacrine
  • Percutacrine Luteinique
  • Piaponon
  • Pranone
  • Pregnenedione
  • Primolut
  • Prochieve
  • Progekan
  • Progestasert
  • Progesterol
  • Progestin
  • Progestogel
  • Progestol
  • Progeston
  • Progestone
  • Progestosol
  • Progestron
  • Progestronol
  • Projestaject
  • Prolets
  • Prolidon
  • Prolutin
  • Proluton
  • Prolutone
  • Prometrium
  • Protormone
  • Syngesterone
  • Syngestrets
  • Syntolutan
  • Thiuram E
  • Thiuranide
  • Utrogestan
Brand Mixture Names
  • Calf-Oid Implant (Estradiol Benzoate + Progesterone)
  • Component E-C Implants (Estradiol Benzoate + Progesterone)
  • Component E-S Implants (Estradiol Benzoate + Progesterone)
  • Component E-S Implants with Tylan (Estradiol Benzoate + Progesterone + Tylosin Tartrate)
  • Synovex C (Estradiol Benzoate + Progesterone)
  • Synovex S (Estradiol Benzoate + Progesterone)

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA451123

Type(s):

Drug

Description

The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the corpus luteum and the placenta. Progesterone acts on the uterus, the mammary glands, and the brain. It is required in embryo implantation, pregnancy maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for milk production. Progesterone, converted from pregnenolone, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of gonadal steroid hormones and adrenal corticosteroids.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For progesterone supplementation or replacement as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment for infertile women with progesterone deficiency and for the treatment of secondary amenorrhea. Also used for the reduction of the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia and the attendant risk of endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women receiving estrogen replacement therapy, as well as treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance in the absence of organic pathology such as fibroids or uterine cancer.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Progesterone shares the pharmacological actions of the progestins. Progesterone binds to the progesterone and estrogen receptors. Target cells include the female reproductive tract, the mammary gland, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary. Once bound to the receptor, progestins like Progesterone will slow the frequency of release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus and blunt the pre-ovulatory LH (luteinizing hormone) surge. In women who have adequate endogenous estrogen, progesterone transforms a proliferative endometrium into a secretory one. Progesterone is essential for the development of decidual tissue and is necessary to increase endometrial receptivity for implantation of an embryo. Once an embryo has been implanted, progesterone acts to maintain the pregnancy. Progesterone also stimulates the growth of mammary alveolar tissue and relaxes uterine smooth muscle. It has little estrogenic and androgenic activity.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Progesterone is a naturally occuring progestin or a synthetic form of the naturally occurring female sex hormone, progesterone. In a woman's normal menstrual cycle, an egg matures and is released from the ovaries (ovulation). The ovary then produces progesterone, preventing the release of further eggs and priming the lining of the womb for a possible pregnancy. If pregnancy occurs, progesterone levels in the body remain high, maintaining the womb lining. If pregnancy does not occur, progesterone levels in the body fall, resulting in a menstrual period. Progesterone tricks the body processes into thinking that ovulation has already occurred by maintaining high levels of the synthetic progesterone. This prevents the release of eggs from the ovaries.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid alcohol.|Increase dietary intake of magnesium, folate, vitamin B6, B12, and/or consider taking a multivitamin.|Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).|Take with food.|Take at the same time everyday.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Progesterone is metabolized primarily by the liver largely to pregnanediols and pregnanolones.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

96%-99%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Progesterone absorption is prolonged with an absorption half-life of approximately 25-50 hours.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

34.8-55.13 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pregnanediol and pregnanolone are excreted in the urine and bile. Progesterone metabolites which are excreted in the bile may undergo enterohepatic recycling or may be excreted in the feces. Progesterone metabolites are excreted mainly by the kidneys.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C21H30O2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC(=O)[C@H]1CC[C@@H]2[C@@]1(CC[C@H]3[C@H]2CCC4=CC(=O)CC[C@]34C)C

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CC(=O)[C@H]1CC[C@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

314.4617

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

314.224580204

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

[H][C@@]12CC[C@H](C(C)=O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C21H30O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h12,16-19H,4-11H2,1-3H3/t16-,17+,18-,19-,20-,21+/m0/s1

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

PharmGKB contains no curated pathways for this drug. If you would like to volunteer to work on a pathway, please let us know.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. Androgen biosynthesis - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  2. Endogenous sterols - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  3. how progesterone initiates the oocyte maturation - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)
  4. Mineralocorticoid biosynthesis - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
CYP17A1 (source: Drug Bank)
ESR1 (source: Drug Bank)
NR3C2 (source: Drug Bank)
PGR (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
topotecan - progesterone The p-glycoprotein inhibitor, Progesterone, may increase the bioavailability of oral Topotecan. A clinically significant effect is also expected with IV Topotecan. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to progesterone: 7

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP3A5. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Lamba Jatinder, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of a human nuclear receptor defines a new signaling pathway for CYP3A induction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1998. Bertilsson G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug interactions. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1998. Lehmann J M, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0591-3128-79
DrugBank:
DB00396
PDB:
1CA
ChEBI:
17026
KEGG Compound:
C00410
KEGG Drug:
D00066
PubChem Compound:
5994
PubChem Substance:
148842
46508968
IUPHAR Ligand:
2377
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2240605
ChemSpider:
5773
HET:
1CA
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000549
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
a09a3b76-36f1-4d20-930e-7e3da97e7ebd

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention progesterone and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials found.

Common Searches

Search PubMed
Search Medline Plus
Search PubChem
Search CTD

Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.