Chemical: Drug

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem


Generic Names
  • Diethylenediamine
  • Diethyleneimine
  • Diketopiperazine
  • Glycine anhydride
  • Hexahydropyrazine
  • Piperazin
  • Piperazin [Germany]
  • Piperazine Citrate
  • Piperazine hexahydrate
  • Piperazine hydrate
  • Prolixin Decanoate
  • fluphenazine dihydrochloride
Trade Names
  • Anatensol
  • Antepan
  • Antepar
  • Antiren
  • Asca-Trol No. 3
  • Bryrel
  • Dapotum
  • Dispermine
  • Entacyl
  • Eraverm
  • Lumbrical
  • Lyogen
  • Moditen
  • Multifuge
  • Omca
  • Pacinol
  • Permitil
  • Piperazidine
  • Pipersol
  • Siqualone
  • Tasnon
  • Tensofin
  • Upixon
  • Uvilon
  • Valamina
  • Vermex
  • Vermidol
  • Vermizine
  • Worm-A-Ton
  • Worm-away
  • Wurmirazin
Brand Mixture Names
  • Canoids Cap (Aloin + Areca Catechu + Arecoline HBr + Benzocaine + Piperazine Citrate + Santonin)
  • Dyrex T F (Phenothiazine + Piperazine + Trichlorfon)
  • Feloids Tab (Aloin + Areca Catechu + Arecoline HBr + Benzocaine + Piperazine Citrate + Santonin)
  • Multi Wormer for Cats (Dichlorophene + Piperazine (Piperazine Citrate))
  • Multi Wormer for Dogs (Dichlorophene + Piperazine (Piperazine Citrate))
  • Ripercol Horse Wormer (Piperazine (Piperazine Hydrochloride) + Tetramisole HCl)

PharmGKB Accession Id





Piperazine is an organic compound that consists of a six-membered ring containing two opposing nitrogen atoms. Piperazine exists as small alkaline deliquescent crystals with a saline taste.

Piperazine was introduced to medicine as a solvent for uric acid. When taken into the body the drug is partly oxidized and partly eliminated unchanged. Outside the body, piperazine has a remarkable power to dissolve uric acid and producing a soluble urate, but in clinical experience it has not proved equally successful.

Piperazine was first introduced as an anthelmintic in 1953. A large number of piperazine compounds have anthelmintic action. Their mode of action is generally by paralysing parasites, which allows the host body to easily remove or expel the invading organism.

Source: Drug Bank


Used as alternative treatment for ascariasis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) and enterobiasis (oxyuriasis) caused by Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm). It is also used to treat partial intestinal obstruction by the common roundworm, a condition primarily occurring in children.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Piperazine is a GABA receptor agonist. Piperzine binds directly and selectively to muscle membrane GABA receptors, presumably causing hyperpolarization of nerve endings, resulting in flaccid paralysis of the worm. While the worm is paralyzed, it is dislodged from the intestinal lumen and expelled live from the body by normal intestinal peristalsis.

Source: Drug Bank


Piperazine is an anthelminthic especially useful in the treatment of partial intestinal obstruction caused by Ascaris worms, which is a condition primarily seen in children. Piperazine hydrate and piperazine citrate are the main anthelminthic piperazines.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take without regard to meals.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity


About 25% is metabolized in the liver. Piperazine is nitrosated to form N -mononitrosopiperazine (MNPz) in gastric juice, which is then metabolized to N-nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine (NHPYR).

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding


Source: Drug Bank


Rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract

Source: Drug Bank


LD 50 = 5 g/kg (Human, oral). Symptoms of overdose include muscle fatigue, seizures, and difficulty breathing.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula


Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES


Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES


Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank


Web Resource:
KEGG Compound:
KEGG Drug:
PubChem Compound:
PubChem Substance:
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
Therapeutic Targets Database:

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention piperazine and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials found.

Common Searches

Search PubMed
Search Medline Plus
Search PubChem
Search CTD

Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.