Chemical: Drug
pioglitazone

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for pioglitazone

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C8 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C8 *2 N/A N/A N/A
VIP CA VA CYP2C8 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2D6 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2D6 *2 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs10509681 NC_000010.10:g.96798749T>C, NC_000010.11:g.95038992T>C, NG_007972.1:g.35506A>G, NM_000770.3:c.1196A>G, NM_001198853.1:c.986A>G, NM_001198854.1:c.890A>G, NM_001198855.1:c.986A>G, NP_000761.3:p.Lys399Arg, NP_001185782.1:p.Lys329Arg, NP_001185783.1:p.Lys297Arg, NP_001185784.1:p.Lys329Arg, XR_246073.1:n.1331A>G, XR_945610.1:n.1331A>G, rs17522568, rs56435423, rs61450273
T > C
SNP
K399R
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1063537 NC_000003.11:g.186574075C>T, NC_000003.12:g.186856286C>T, NG_021140.1:g.18613C>T, NM_001177800.1:c.*1582C>T, NM_004797.3:c.*1582C>T, NR_046662.1:n.-163G>A, XM_011513324.1:c.*1582C>T, rs17846871
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1063538 NC_000003.11:g.186574183T>C, NC_000003.12:g.186856394T>C, NG_021140.1:g.18721T>C, NM_001177800.1:c.*1690T>C, NM_004797.3:c.*1690T>C, NR_046662.1:n.-271A>G, XM_011513324.1:c.*1690T>C, rs17295273, rs17846873, rs61006468
T > C
SNP
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs11572080 NC_000010.10:g.96827030C>T, NC_000010.11:g.95067273C>T, NG_007972.1:g.7225G>A, NM_000770.3:c.416G>A, NM_001198853.1:c.206G>A, NM_001198854.1:c.110G>A, NM_001198855.1:c.206G>A, NP_000761.3:p.Arg139Lys, NP_001185782.1:p.Arg69Lys, NP_001185783.1:p.Arg37Lys, NP_001185784.1:p.Arg69Lys, XR_246073.1:n.512G>A, XR_945610.1:n.512G>A, rs60090616
C > T
SNP
R139K
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1501299 NC_000003.11:g.186571123G>T, NC_000003.12:g.186853334G>T, NG_021140.1:g.15661G>T, NM_001177800.1:c.214+62G>T, NM_004797.3:c.214+62G>T, NR_046662.1:n.2087-92C>A, XM_011513324.1:c.214+62G>T, rs17846868, rs386534657, rs61322123
G > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs16861194 NC_000003.11:g.186559425A>G, NC_000003.12:g.186841636A>G, NG_021140.1:g.3963A>G, NM_001177800.1:c.-1173A>G, NM_004797.3:c.-1122A>G, XM_011513324.1:c.-1238A>G, rs28973159, rs59520866
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801282 NC_000003.11:g.12393125C>G, NC_000003.12:g.12351626C>G, NG_011749.1:g.68777C>G, NM_005037.5:c.-2-28078C>G, NM_015869.4:c.34C>G, NM_138711.3:c.-2-28078C>G, NM_138712.3:c.-2-28078C>G, NP_056953.2:p.Pro12Ala, XM_011533840.1:c.-2-28078C>G, XM_011533841.1:c.-2-28078C>G, XM_011533842.1:c.34C>G, XM_011533843.1:c.34C>G, XM_011533844.1:c.-2-28078C>G, XP_011532144.1:p.Pro12Ala, XP_011532145.1:p.Pro12Ala, rs17241090, rs17749580, rs36206375, rs56460253, rs57327233
C > G
SNP
P12A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2082940 NC_000003.11:g.186574164T>C, NC_000003.12:g.186856375T>C, NG_021140.1:g.18702T>C, NM_001177800.1:c.*1671T>C, NM_004797.3:c.*1671T>C, NR_046662.1:n.-252A>G, XM_011513324.1:c.*1671T>C, rs17503536, rs17846875, rs60359478
T > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2241766 NC_000003.11:g.186570892T>G, NC_000003.12:g.186853103T>G, NG_021140.1:g.15430T>G, NM_001177800.1:c.45T>G, NM_004797.3:c.45T>G, NP_001171271.1:p.Gly15=, NP_004788.1:p.Gly15=, NR_046662.1:n.2226A>C, XM_011513324.1:c.45T>G, XP_011511626.1:p.Gly15=, rs17846867, rs36219441
T > -
T > C
SNP
G15G
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2241767 NC_000003.11:g.186571196A>G, NC_000003.12:g.186853407A>G, NG_021140.1:g.15734A>G, NM_001177800.1:c.214+135A>G, NM_004797.3:c.214+135A>G, NR_046662.1:n.2087-165T>C, XM_011513324.1:c.214+135A>G, rs28973163, rs56622750, rs59775053
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs266729 NC_000003.11:g.186559474C>G, NC_000003.12:g.186841685C>G, NG_021140.1:g.4012C>G, NM_001177800.1:c.-1124C>G, NM_004797.3:c.-1073C>G, XM_011513324.1:c.-1189C>G
C > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs328 NC_000008.10:g.19819724C>G, NC_000008.11:g.19962213C>G, NG_008855.1:g.28143C>G, NM_000237.2:c.1421C>G, NP_000228.1:p.Ser474Ter, rs17482566, rs3735962, rs52834251
C > G
SNP
S474*
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3774261 NC_000003.11:g.186571559A>G, NC_000003.12:g.186853770A>G, NG_021140.1:g.16097A>G, NM_001177800.1:c.215-414A>G, NM_004797.3:c.215-414A>G, NR_046662.1:n.2086+8T>C, XM_011513324.1:c.215-414A>G, rs28973164, rs59618226, rs60811615
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3821799 NC_000003.11:g.186571486T>C, NC_000003.12:g.186853697T>C, NG_021140.1:g.16024T>C, NM_001177800.1:c.214+425T>C, NM_004797.3:c.214+425T>C, NR_046662.1:n.2086+81A>G, XM_011513324.1:c.214+425T>C, rs17300854, rs56544256, rs57312489
T > C
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Pioglitazona [INN-Spanish]
  • Pioglitazone Hydrochloride
  • Pioglitazone [Ban:Inn]
  • Pioglitazonum [INN-Latin]
  • pioglitazone HCl
Trade Names
  • Actos
  • Actost
  • Glustin
Brand Mixture Names
  • ActoplusMet (Pioglitazone + Metformin)

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA450970

Type(s):

Drug

Description

Pioglitazone is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Pioglitazone selectively stimulates nuclear receptor peroxisone proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma). It modulates the transcription of the insulin-sensitive genes involved in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism in the lipidic, muscular tissues and in the liver.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Pioglitazone acts as an agonist at peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) in target tissues for insulin action such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Activation of PPAR-gamma receptors increases the transcription of insulin-responsive genes involved in the control of glucose production, transport, and utilization. In this way, pioglitazone both enhances tissue sensitivity to insulin and reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is improved without an increase in insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Pioglitazone, a member of the drug group known as the thiazolidinediones or "insulin sensitizers", is not chemically or functionally related to the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, the biguanides, or the sulfonylureas. Pioglitazone targets insulin resistance and, hence, is used alone or in combination with insulin, metformin, or asulfonylurea as an antidiabetic agent.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take without regard to meals. Food slightly delays absorption rate but extent of absorption is not affected.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

> 99%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Following oral administration, in the fasting state, pioglitazone is first measurable in serum within 30 minutes, with peak concentrations observed within 2 hours. Food slightly delays the time to peak serum concentration to 3 to 4 hours, but does not alter the extent of absorption.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

3-7 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Hypogycemia; LD 50=mg/kg (orally in rat)

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Following oral administration, approximately 15% to 30% of the pioglitazone dose is recovered in the urine. Renal elimination of pioglitazone is negligible, and the drug is excreted primarily as metabolites and their conjugates. It is presumed that most of the oral dose is excreted into the bile either unchanged or as metabolites and eliminated in the feces.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

  • 0.63 ± 0.41 L/kg

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C19H20N2O3S

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CCc1ccc(nc1)CCOc2ccc(cc2)CC3C(=O)NC(=O)S3

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CCC1=CN=C(CCOC2=CC=C(CC3SC(=O)NC3=O)C=C2)C=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

356.439

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

356.119463206

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

CCC1=CN=C(CCOC2=CC=C(CC3SC(=O)NC3=O)C=C2)C=C1

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C19H20N2O3S/c1-2-13-3-6-15(20-12-13)9-10-24-16-7-4-14(5-8-16)11-17-18(22)21-19(23)25-17/h3-8,12,17H,2,9-11H2,1H3,(H,21,22,23)

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
PPARG (source: Drug Bank )

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
ethinyl estradiol - pioglitazone Possible loss of contracepitve effect (source: Drug Bank )
ethinyl estradiol - pioglitazone Possible loss of contracepitve effect (source: Drug Bank )
gemfibrozil - pioglitazone Increases the effect and toxicity of rosiglitazone/pioglitazone (source: Drug Bank )
gemfibrozil - pioglitazone Increases the effect and toxicity of rosiglitazone/pioglitazone (source: Drug Bank )
ketoconazole - pioglitazone Ketoconazole increases the effect of pioglitazone (source: Drug Bank )
ketoconazole - pioglitazone Ketoconazole increases the effect of pioglitazone (source: Drug Bank )
norethindrone - pioglitazone Possible loss of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank )
norethindrone - pioglitazone Possible loss of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - ethinyl estradiol Possible loss of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil increases the effect and toxicity of rosiglitazone/pioglitazone (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil increases the effect and toxicity of rosiglitazone/pioglitazone (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - glucosamine Possibly hyperglycemia (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - ketoconazole Ketoconazole increases the effect of pioglitazone (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - ketoconazole Ketoconazole increases the effect of pioglitazone (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - mestranol Possible loss of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - mestranol Possible loss of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - norethindrone Possible loss of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - norethindrone Possible loss of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - pregabalin Possible loss of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank )
pioglitazone - somatropin recombinant Somatropin may antagonize the hypoglycemic effect of pioglitazone. Monitor for changes in fasting and postprandial blood sugars. (source: Drug Bank )
pregabalin - pioglitazone Increased risk of edema (source: Drug Bank )
pregabalin - pioglitazone Increased risk of edema (source: Drug Bank )
tamoxifen - pioglitazone Pioglitazone may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy. (source: Drug Bank )
tamoxifen - pioglitazone Pioglitazone may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy. (source: Drug Bank )
tamsulosin - pioglitazone Pioglitazone, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Pioglitazone is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank )
tamsulosin - pioglitazone Pioglitazone, a CYP2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Pioglitazone is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank )
tramadol - pioglitazone Pioglitazone may decrease the effect of Tramadol by decreasing active metabolite production. (source: Drug Bank )

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to pioglitazone: 25

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Adiponectin Gene Polymorphism rs2241766 T/G Is Associated with Response to Pioglitazone Treatment in Type 2 Diabetic Patients from Southern China. PloS one. 2014. Yang Hong, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of CYP2C8*2 on the Pharmacokinetics of Pioglitazone in Healthy African-American Volunteers. Pharmacotherapy. 2013. Aquilante Christina L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 8. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Aquilante Christina L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of the CYP2C8 *3 polymorphism on the drug-drug interaction between gemfibrozil and pioglitazone. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Aquilante Christina L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pioglitazone improves lipid and insulin levels in overweight rats on a high cholesterol and fructose diet by decreasing hepatic inflammation. British journal of pharmacology. 2010. Collino Massimo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The role of human CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 variants in pioglitazone metabolism in vitro. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2009. Muschler Eugen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Utility of adiponectin as a biomarker predictive of glycemic efficacy is demonstrated by collaborative pooling of data from clinical trials conducted by multiple sponsors. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Wagner J A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 2C8 pharmacogenetics: a review of clinical studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Daily Elizabeth B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pioglitazone stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase signalling and increases the expression of genes involved in adiponectin signalling, mitochondrial function and fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle in vivo: a randomised trial. Diabetologia. 2009. Coletta D K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A pilot study suggests that the G/G genotype of resistin single nucleotide polymorphism at -420 may be an independent predictor of a reduction in fasting plasma glucose and insulin resistance by pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes. Endocrine journal. 2009. Makino Hideichi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Machine learning methods and docking for predicting human pregnane X receptor activation. Chemical research in toxicology. 2008. Khandelwal Akash, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
No significant effect of SLCO1B1 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Kalliokoski Annikka, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Trimethoprim and the CYP2C8*3 allele have opposite effects on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Tornio Aleksi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Reduction in hematocrit and hemoglobin following pioglitazone treatment is not hemodilutional in Type II diabetes mellitus. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Berria R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MitoNEET is a uniquely folded 2Fe 2S outer mitochondrial membrane protein stabilized by pioglitazone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007. Paddock Mark L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Response to pioglitazone treatment is associated with the lipoprotein lipase S447X variant in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. International journal of clinical practice. 2007. Wang G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of pioglitazone on the metabolic and hormonal response to a mixed meal in type II diabetes. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Gastaldelli A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of glucose-lowering drug treatment: a systematic review. Molecular diagnosis & therapy. 2007. Bozkurt Ozlem, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pioglitazone is metabolised by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in vitro: potential for interactions with CYP2C8 inhibitors. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2006. Jaakkola Tiina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Jaakkola Tiina, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PPAR-gamma modulates allergic inflammation through up-regulation of PTEN. The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2005. Lee Kyung S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the transport of troglitazone sulfate: implications for understanding troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2004. Nozawa Takashi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of a novel mitochondrial protein ("mitoNEET") cross-linked specifically by a thiazolidinedione photoprobe. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism. 2004. Colca Jerry R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Analysis of the relationship between the Pro12Ala variant in the PPAR-gamma2 gene and the response rate to therapy with pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. 2003. Blüher Matthias, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
64764-151-04
DrugBank:
DB01132
ChEBI:
8228
KEGG Compound:
C07675
PubChem Compound:
4829
PubChem Substance:
46507136
9877
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2242573
ChemSpider:
4663
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000272
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
d2ddc491-88a9-4063-9150-443b4fa4330c

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention pioglitazone and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials loaded.

NURSA Datasets

provided by nursa.org

No NURSA datasets available.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.