Chemical: Drug
phenobarbital

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for phenobarbital

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *2 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C19 *2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *3 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C19 *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-A *24:20 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-B *07:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-B *13:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-B *15:02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA HLA-B *51:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA HLA-DRB1 *04:10:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1045642 NC_000007.13:g.87138645A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87509329A>G, NG_011513.1:g.208920T>C, NM_000927.4:c.3435T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Ile1145=, rs10239679, rs11568726, rs117328163, rs17210003, rs2229108, rs386513066, rs60023214, rs9690664
A > G
SNP
I1145I
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1128503 NC_000007.13:g.87179601A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87550285A>G, NG_011513.1:g.167964T>C, NM_000927.4:c.1236T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Gly412=, rs116989428, rs17276907, rs2032587, rs2229105, rs28365046, rs386518005, rs58257317
A > G
SNP
G412G
No VIP available CA VA
rs17183814 NC_000002.11:g.166152389G>A, NC_000002.12:g.165295879G>A, NG_008143.1:g.61478G>A, NM_001040142.1:c.56G>A, NM_001040143.1:c.56G>A, NM_021007.2:c.56G>A, NP_001035232.1:p.Arg19Lys, NP_001035233.1:p.Arg19Lys, NP_066287.2:p.Arg19Lys, XM_005246750.1:c.56G>A, XM_005246750.2:c.56G>A, XM_005246751.1:c.56G>A, XM_005246752.1:c.56G>A, XM_005246753.1:c.56G>A, XM_005246753.2:c.56G>A, XM_005246754.1:c.27-1G>A, XM_005246754.3:c.27-1G>A, XM_011511608.1:c.56G>A, XM_011511609.1:c.56G>A, XP_005246807.1:p.Arg19Lys, XP_005246808.1:p.Arg19Lys, XP_005246809.1:p.Arg19Lys, XP_005246810.1:p.Arg19Lys, XP_011509910.1:p.Arg19Lys, XP_011509911.1:p.Arg19Lys, rs52803852
G > A
SNP
R19K
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2032582 NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>C, NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>T, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>C, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>T, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>A, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>G, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>A, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>G, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Ala, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Thr, rs10228331, rs2229106, rs386553610, rs57135550, rs9641018
A > C
SNP
S893A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs211037 NC_000005.10:g.162101274C>T, NC_000005.9:g.161528280C>T, NG_009290.1:g.38633C>T, NM_000816.3:c.588C>T, NM_198903.2:c.588C>T, NM_198904.2:c.588C>T, NP_000807.2:p.Asn196=, NP_944493.2:p.Asn196=, NP_944494.1:p.Asn196=, XM_005265870.1:c.588C>T, XP_005265927.1:p.Asn196=, rs3765200, rs61071827
C > T
SNP
N196N
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2229944 NC_000005.10:g.161294312G>A, NC_000005.9:g.160721319G>A, NM_000813.2:c.1194C>T, NM_021911.2:c.1308C>T, NP_000804.1:p.Ala398=, NP_068711.1:p.Ala436=, XM_005265867.1:c.1308C>T, XM_005265868.1:c.1194C>T, XM_005265869.1:c.1200C>T, XM_011534501.1:c.558C>T, XP_005265924.1:p.Ala436=, XP_005265925.1:p.Ala398=, XP_005265926.1:p.Ala400=, XP_011532803.1:p.Ala186=, rs118051818, rs386561760
G > A
SNP
A398A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2279020 NC_000005.10:g.161895883G>A, NC_000005.9:g.161322889G>A, NG_011548.1:g.53693G>A, NM_000806.5:c.1059+15G>A, NM_001127643.1:c.1059+15G>A, NM_001127644.1:c.1059+15G>A, NM_001127645.1:c.1059+15G>A, NM_001127648.1:c.1059+15G>A
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2606345 NC_000015.10:g.74724835C>A, NC_000015.9:g.75017176C>A, NG_008431.1:g.7294C>A, NM_000499.3:c.-27+606G>T, NM_000499.4:c.-27+606G>T, NM_001319216.1:c.-30+606G>T, NM_001319217.1:c.-30+606G>T, XM_005254185.1:c.-30+606G>T, XM_005254186.1:c.-30+330G>T, XM_005254187.1:c.-30+606G>T, XM_005254188.1:c.-30+606G>T, XM_005254189.1:c.-221+606G>T, rs17861098
C > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3219151 NC_000005.10:g.161701908C>T, NC_000005.9:g.161128914C>T, NM_000811.2:c.*135C>T, rs17059674, rs57122315
C > T
SNP
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs4244285 NC_000010.10:g.96541616G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94781859G>A, NG_008384.2:g.24154G>A, NM_000769.1:c.681G>A, NM_000769.2:c.681G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Pro227=, rs116940633, rs17879456, rs60361278
G > A
SNP
P227P
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs4986893 NC_000010.10:g.96540410G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94780653G>A, NG_008384.2:g.22948G>A, NM_000769.2:c.636G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Trp212Ter, rs52827375, rs57081121
G > A
SNP
W212*
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Fenobarbital
  • Phenobarbitol
  • Phenobarbituric Acid
  • Phenylethylbarbiturate
  • Phenylethylbarbituric Acid
  • Phenylethylmalonylurea
  • phenobarbitone
Trade Names
  • Adonal
  • Aephenal
  • Agrypnal
  • Amylofene
  • Aphenylbarbit
  • Aphenyletten
  • Barbenyl
  • Barbinal
  • Barbiphen
  • Barbiphenyl
  • Barbipil
  • Barbita
  • Barbivis
  • Barbonal
  • Barbophen
  • Bardorm
  • Bartol
  • Bialminal
  • Blu-Phen
  • Cabronal
  • Calmetten
  • Calminal
  • Cardenal
  • Chinoin
  • Codibarbita
  • Coronaletta
  • Cratecil
  • Damoral
  • Dezibarbitur
  • Dormina
  • Dormiral
  • Dormital
  • Doscalun
  • Duneryl
  • Ensobarb
  • Ensodorm
  • Epanal
  • Epidorm
  • Epilol
  • Episedal
  • Epsylone
  • Eskabarb
  • Etilfen
  • Euneryl
  • Fenbital
  • Fenemal
  • Fenosed
  • Fenylettae
  • Gardenal
  • Gardepanyl
  • Glysoletten
  • Haplopan
  • Haplos
  • Helional
  • Hennoletten
  • Henotal
  • Hypnaletten
  • Hypnette
  • Hypno-Tablinetten
  • Hypnogen
  • Hypnolone
  • Hypnoltol
  • Hysteps
  • Lefebar
  • Leonal
  • Lephebar
  • Lepinal
  • Lepinaletten
  • Linasen
  • Liquital
  • Lixophen
  • Lubergal
  • Lubrokal
  • Lumen
  • Lumesettes
  • Lumesyn
  • Luminal
  • Lumofridetten
  • Luphenil
  • Luramin
  • Molinal
  • Neurobarb
  • Nirvonal
  • Noptil
  • Nova-Pheno
  • Nunol
  • Parkotal
  • Pharmetten
  • Phen-Bar
  • Phenaemal
  • Phenemal
  • Phenemalum
  • Phenobal
  • Phenobarbyl
  • Phenoluric
  • Phenolurio
  • Phenomet
  • Phenonyl
  • Phenoturic
  • Phenyletten
  • Phenyral
  • Phob
  • Polcominal
  • Promptonal
  • Seda-Tablinen
  • Sedabar
  • Sedicat
  • Sedizorin
  • Sedlyn
  • Sedofen
  • Sedonal
  • Sedonettes
  • Sevenal
  • Sinoratox
  • Solfoton
  • Solfoton Talpheno
  • Solu-Barb
  • Sombutol
  • Somnolens
  • Somnoletten
  • Somnosan
  • Somonal
  • Spasepilin
  • Starifen
  • Starilettae
  • Stental
  • Stental Extentabs
  • Talpheno
  • Teolaxin
  • Teoloxin
  • Thenobarbital
  • Theoloxin
  • Triabarb
  • Tridezibarbitur
  • Triphenatol
  • Versomnal
  • Zadoletten
  • Zadonal
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA450911

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It promotes binding to inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype receptors, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of all types of seizures except absence seizures.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Phenobarbital acts on GABAA receptors, increasing synaptic inhibition. This has the effect of elevating seizure threshold and reducing the spread of seizure activity from a seizure focus. Phenobarbital may also inhibit calcium channels, resulting in a decrease in excitatory transmitter release. The sedative-hypnotic effects of phenobarbital are likely the result of its effect on the polysynaptic midbrain reticular formation, which controls CNS arousal.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Phenobarbital, the longest-acting barbiturate, is used for its anticonvulsant and sedative-hypnotic properties in the management of all seizure disorders except absence (petit mal).

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid alcohol.|Take on an empty stomach for quicker absorption|Increase dietary intake of magnesium, folate, vitamin B6, B12, and/or consider taking a multivitamin.|Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic (mostly via CYP2C19).

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

20 to 45%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Absorbed in varying degrees following oral, rectal or parenteral administration. The salts are more rapidly absorbed than are the acids. The rate of absorption is increased if the sodium salt is ingested as a dilute solution or taken on an empty stomach.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

53 to 118 hours (mean 79 hours)

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

CNS and respiratory depression which may progress to Cheyne-Stokes respiration, areflexia, constriction of the pupils to a slight degree (though in severe poisoning they may wshow paralytic dilation), oliguria, tachycardia, hypotension, lowered body temperature, and coma. Typical shock syndrome (apnea, circulatory collapse, respiratory arrest, and death) may occur.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C12H12N2O3

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CCC1(C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O)c2ccccc2

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CCC1(C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

232.2353

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

232.08479226

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

CCC1(C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C12H12N2O3/c1-2-12(8-6-4-3-5-7-8)9(15)13-11(17)14-10(12)16/h3-7H,2H2,1H3,(H2,13,14,15,16,17)

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Acetaminophen Pathway (therapeutic doses), Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram showing acetaminophen metabolism and transport in the liver.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
CHRNA4 (source: Drug Bank)
CHRNA7 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA1 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA2 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA3 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA4 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA5 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA6 (source: Drug Bank)
GRIA1 (source: Drug Bank)
GRIA2 (source: Drug Bank)
GRIK2 (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDrug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
acetaminophen

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
aminophylline - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of aminophylline. (source: Drug Bank)
betamethasone - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, betamethasone. (source: Drug Bank)
clomifene - phenobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
clomifene - phenobarbital The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, clomifene. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - phenobarbital The barbiturate increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
delavirdine - phenobarbital The anticonvulsant decreases the effect of delavirdine (source: Drug Bank)
delavirdine - phenobarbital The anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of delavirdine. (source: Drug Bank)
dexamethasone - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
dexamethasone - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, dexamethasone. (source: Drug Bank)
diethylstilbestrol - phenobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
diethylstilbestrol - phenobarbital The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, diethylstilbestrol. (source: Drug Bank)
disopyramide - phenobarbital Phenobarbital decreases levels of disopyramide (source: Drug Bank)
disopyramide - phenobarbital Phenobarbital decreases levels of disopyramide (source: Drug Bank)
divalproex sodium - phenobarbital Divalproex sodium increases the effect of the barbiturate, phenobarbital. (source: Drug Bank)
doxycycline - phenobarbital The anticonvulsant decreases the effect of doxycycline (source: Drug Bank)
doxycycline - phenobarbital The anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of doxycycline. (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol - phenobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
estradiol - phenobarbital The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estradiol. (source: Drug Bank)
ethinyl estradiol - phenobarbital This product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank)
ethinyl estradiol - phenobarbital This product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank)
felbamate - phenobarbital Felbamate increases the effect and toxicity of phenobarbital/primidone (source: Drug Bank)
felbamate - phenobarbital Felbamate increases the effect and toxicity of phenobarbital/primidone (source: Drug Bank)
felodipine - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of felodipine (source: Drug Bank)
felodipine - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of felodipine. (source: Drug Bank)
fludrocortisone - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, fludrocortisone. (source: Drug Bank)
folic acid - phenobarbital Folic acid decreases the effect of anticonvulsant (source: Drug Bank)
folic acid - phenobarbital Folic acid decreases the effect of anticonvulsant, phenobarbital. (source: Drug Bank)
gefitinib - phenobarbital This CYP3A4 inducer may reduce gefitinib concentrations and pharmacological effects (source: Drug Bank)
gefitinib - phenobarbital The CYP3A4 inducer, phenobarbital, may decrease the serum concentration and therapeutic effects of gefitinib. (source: Drug Bank)
griseofulvin - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of griseofulvin (source: Drug Bank)
griseofulvin - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin. (source: Drug Bank)
hydrocortisone - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
hydrocortisone - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, hydrocortisone. (source: Drug Bank)
imatinib - phenobarbital Phenobarbital decreases levels of imatinib (source: Drug Bank)
imatinib - phenobarbital Phenobarbital decreases levels of imatinib (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of itraconazole (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of itraconazole. (source: Drug Bank)
levonorgestrel - phenobarbital Phenobarbital decreases the effect of levonorgestrel (source: Drug Bank)
levonorgestrel - phenobarbital Phenobarbital decreases the effect of levonorgestrel (source: Drug Bank)
medroxyprogesterone - phenobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
medroxyprogesterone - phenobarbital The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, medroxyprogesterone. (source: Drug Bank)
megestrol - phenobarbital The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
megestrol - phenobarbital The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, megestrol. (source: Drug Bank)
methadone - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of methadone (source: Drug Bank)
methadone - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of methadone. (source: Drug Bank)
metoprolol - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metabolized beta-blocker (source: Drug Bank)
metoprolol - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metabolized beta-blocker (source: Drug Bank)
metronidazole - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole (source: Drug Bank)
metronidazole - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of metronidazole. (source: Drug Bank)
nifedipine - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker (source: Drug Bank)
nifedipine - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker, nifedipine. (source: Drug Bank)
norethindrone - phenobarbital This product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank)
norethindrone - phenobarbital This product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank)
oxtriphylline - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of oxtriphylline. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - acenocoumarol The barbiturate decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - acenocoumarol The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - aminophylline The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of aminophylline. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - anisindione The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the anticoagulant effect of anisindione. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - betamethasone The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, betamethasone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - chlorotrianisene The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, chlorotrianisene. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - clomifene The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - clomifene The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, clomifene. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - conjugated estrogens The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, conjugated estrogens. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - cortisone acetate The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - cyclosporine The barbiturate decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - cyclosporine The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - dasatinib Decreased levels/efficacy of ddasatinib (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - dasatinib Phenobarbital may decrease the serum level and efficacy of dasatinib. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - delavirdine The anticonvulsant decreases the effect of delavirdine (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - delavirdine The anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of delavirdine. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - dexamethasone The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - dexamethasone The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, dexamethasone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - dicumarol The barbiturate decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - dicumarol The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the anticoagulant effect, dicumarol. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - diethylstilbestrol The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - diethylstilbestrol The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, diethylstilbestrol (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - disopyramide Phenobarbital decreases levels of disopyramide (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - disopyramide Phenobarbital decreases levels of disopyramide (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - doxycycline The anticonvulsant decreases the effect of doxycycline (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - doxycycline The anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of doxycycline (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - dyphylline The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of dyphylline. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - estradiol The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - estriol The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estriol. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - estrone The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - estrone The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, estrone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - ethinyl estradiol This product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - felbamate Felbamate increases the effect and toxicity of phenobarbital/primidone (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - felbamate Felbamate increases the effect and toxicity of phenobarbital/primidone (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - felodipine The barbiturate decreases the effect of felodipine (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - felodipine The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of felodipine. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - fludrocortisone The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, fludrocortisone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - folic acid Folic acid decreases the effect of anticonvulsant (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - gefitinib This CYP3A4 inducer may reduce gefitinib plasma concentrations and pharmacological effects (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - gefitinib The CYP3A4 inducer, phenobarbital, may decrease the serum concentration and therapeutic effects of gefitinib. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - griseofulvin The barbiturate decreases the effect of griseofulvin (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - griseofulvin The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of griseofulvin. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - hydrocortisone The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - hydrocortisone The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, hydrocortisone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - imatinib Phenobarbital decreases levels of imatinib (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - imatinib Phenobarbital decreases levels of imatinib (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - itraconazole The barbiturate decreases the effect of itraconazole (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - itraconazole The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of itraconazole. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - levonorgestrel Phenobarbital decreases the effect of levonorgestrel (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - levonorgestrel Phenobarbital decreases the effect of levonorgestrel (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - medroxyprogesterone The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - medroxyprogesterone The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone, medroxyprogesterone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - megestrol The enzyme inducer decreases the effect of hormones (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - megestrol The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone, megestrol. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - mestranol This product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - mestranol This product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - methadone The barbiturate decreases the effect of methadone (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - methadone The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of methadone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - methoxyflurane The barbiturate increases the renal toxicity of methoxyflurane (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - methoxyflurane The barbiturate, phenobarbital, increases the renal toxicity of methoxyflurane. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - methylprednisolone The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - methylprednisolone The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, methylprednisolone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - metoprolol The barbiturate decreases the effect of the metabolized beta-blocker (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - metoprolol The barbiturate decreases the effect of the metabolized beta-blocker (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - metronidazole The barbiturate decreases the effect of metronidazole (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - metronidazole The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of metronidazole. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - nifedipine The barbiturate decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - nifedipine The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker, nifedipine. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - norethindrone This product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - norethindrone This product may cause a slight decrease of contraceptive effect (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - oxtriphylline The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of oxtriphylline. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - paramethasone The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, paramethasone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - prednisolone The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - prednisolone The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, prednisolone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - prednisone The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - prednisone The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, prednisone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - propranolol The barbiturate decreases the effect of the metabolized beta-blocker (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - propranolol The barbiturate decreases the effect of the metabolized beta-blocker (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - quinestrol The enzyme inducer, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the hormone agent, quinestrol. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - quinidine The anticonvulsant decreases the effect of quinidine (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - quinidine The anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - sodium Divalproex sodium increases the effect of barbiturate, phenobarbital. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - sunitinib Possible decrease in sunitinib levels (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - sunitinib Possible decrease in sunitinib levels (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - theophylline The barbiturate decreases the effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - theophylline The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of theophylline. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - triamcinolone The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - triamcinolone The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, triamcinolone. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - verapamil The barbiturate decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - verapamil The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of the calcium channel blocker, verapamil. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - voriconazole The barbiturate decreases the effect of voriconazole (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - voriconazole The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of voriconazole. (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - warfarin The barbiturate decreases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - warfarin The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
prednisolone - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
prednisolone - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, prednisolone. (source: Drug Bank)
prednisone - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
prednisone - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, prednisone. (source: Drug Bank)
propranolol - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metabolized beta-blocker (source: Drug Bank)
propranolol - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of metabolized beta-blocker (source: Drug Bank)
quinidine - phenobarbital The anticonvulsant decreases the effect of quinidine (source: Drug Bank)
quinidine - phenobarbital The anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine. (source: Drug Bank)
telithromycin - phenobarbital Phenobarbital may decrease the plasma concentration of Telithromycin. Consider alternate therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
theophylline - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of theophylline (source: Drug Bank)
theophylline - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of theophylline. (source: Drug Bank)
ticlopidine - phenobarbital Ticlopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Phenobarbital. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Phenobarbital if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tipranavir - phenobarbital Phenobarbial decreases the concentration of Tipranavir. Monitor for decreased Tipranavir efficacy. (source: Drug Bank)
tramadol - phenobarbital Phenobarbital may decrease the effect of Tramadol by increasing Tramadol metabolism and clearance. (source: Drug Bank)
trazodone - phenobarbital The CYP3A4 inducer, Phenobarbital, may decrease Trazodone efficacy by increasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Phenobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
trazodone - phenobarbital The CYP3A4 inducer, Phenobarbital, may decrease Trazodone efficacy by increasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Phenobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
triamcinolone - phenobarbital The barbiturate decreases the effect of the corticosteroid (source: Drug Bank)
triamcinolone - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, may decrease the effect of the corticosteroid, triamcinolone. (source: Drug Bank)
trimipramine - phenobarbital The barbiturate, Phenobarbital, may increase the metabolism and clearance of Trimipramine. Monitor for changes in the therapeutics and adverse effects of Trimipramine if Phenobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Dose adjustments of Trimipramine may be required. (source: Drug Bank)
triprolidine - phenobarbital The CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Phenobarbital, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
triprolidine - phenobarbital The CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Phenobarbital, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil - phenobarbital Phenobarbital, a CYP3A4 inducer, may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Verapamil if Phenobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
voriconazole - phenobarbital Phenobarbital may reduce serum concentrations and efficacy of voriconazole. Concomitant voriconazole and long-acting barbiturates therapy is contraindicated. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin - phenobarbital Phenobarbital may decrease the serum concentration of warfarin by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if phenobarbital is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to phenobarbital: 53

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Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: an update on pharmacogenetics studies in drug-induced severe skin reaction. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Rufini Sara, et al. PubMed
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Association of ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism with phenobarbital resistance in Thai patients with epilepsy. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2015. Keangpraphun T, et al. PubMed
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T Cell-Mediated Hypersensitivity Reactions to Drugs. Annual review of medicine. 2014. Pavlos Rebecca, et al. PubMed
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Association of SCN1A, SCN2A and ABCC2 gene polymorphisms with the response to antiepileptic drugs in Chinese Han patients with epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Ma Chun-Lai, et al. PubMed
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Human UGT1A4 and UGT1A3 Conjugate 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3: Metabolite Structure, Kinetics, Inducibility and Interindividual Variability. Endocrinology. 2014. Wang Zhican, et al. PubMed
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Association of HLA-B*1502 and *1511 allele with antiepileptic drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in central China. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban. 2014. Sun Dan, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP polymorphisms, ethnicity and sex differences in metabolism on dosing strategies: the case of efavirenz. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Naidoo Panjasaram, et al. PubMed
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Specific HLA types are associated with antiepileptic drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in Japanese subjects. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Kaniwa Nahoko, et al. PubMed
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GABRG2, rs211037 is associated with epilepsy susceptibility, but not with antiepileptic drug resistance and febrile seizures. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Balan Shabeesh, et al. PubMed
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HLA-B alleles associated with severe cutaneous reactions to antiepileptic drugs in Han Chinese. Epilepsia. 2013. Cheung Ying-Kit, et al. PubMed
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SCN1A, SCN2A and SCN3A gene polymorphisms and responsiveness to antiepileptic drugs: a multicenter cohort study and meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Haerian Batoul Sadat, et al. PubMed
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Phenobarbital-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions are associated with CYP2C19*2 in Thai children. Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2013. Manuyakorn Wiparat, et al. PubMed
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Enhancement of hepatic 4-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) through CYP3A4 induction in vitro and in vivo: Implications for drug-induced osteomalacia. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2012. Wang Zhican, et al. PubMed
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Effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C19 polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in neonates and infants with seizures. Archives of disease in childhood. 2012. Lee Soon Min, et al. PubMed
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Lack of association between ABCC2 gene variants and treatment response in epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Hilger Eva, et al. PubMed
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HLA-B*1502 allele is associated with a cross-reactivity pattern of cutaneous adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs. The Journal of international medical research. 2012. Wang J, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic association study on the role of drug metabolizing, drug transporters and drug target gene polymorphisms in drug-resistant epilepsy in a north Indian population. Indian journal of human genetics. 2011. Kumari Ritu, et al. PubMed
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Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
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Gene-wide tagging study of the association between ABCC2, ABCC5 and ABCG2 genetic polymorphisms and multidrug resistance in epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Kwan Patrick, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms in sex hormone metabolizing genes and drug response in women with epilepsy. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
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Transporter hypothesis of drug-resistant epilepsy: challenges for pharmacogenetic approaches. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Potschka Heidrun. PubMed
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Absence of a general association between ABCB1 genetic variants and response to antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy patients. Biochimie. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP2B6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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Genetic profile of patients with epilepsy on first-line antiepileptic drugs and potential directions for personalized treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Grover Sandeep, et al. PubMed
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Key factors in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs. Nature reviews. Drug discovery. 2010. Bialer Meir, et al. PubMed
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Differential role of sodium channels SCN1A and SCN2A gene polymorphisms with epilepsy and multiple drug resistance in the north Indian population. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Lakhan Ram, et al. PubMed
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Gene-wide tagging study of association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and multidrug resistance in epilepsy in Han Chinese. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kwan Patrick, et al. PubMed
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No association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with drug-refractory epilepsy in a north Indian population. Epilepsy & behavior : E&B. 2009. Lakhan R, et al. PubMed
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HLA-B locus in Japanese patients with anti-epileptics and allopurinol-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Kaniwa Nahoko, et al. PubMed
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Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed
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Functional evaluation of polymorphisms in the human ABCB1 gene and the impact on clinical responses of antiepileptic drugs. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
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Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: assessment of medication risks with emphasis on recently marketed drugs. The EuroSCAR-study. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2008. Mockenhaupt Maja, et al. PubMed
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HLA-B allele associations with certain drugs are not confirmed in Japanese patients with severe cutaneous drug reactions. Acta dermato-venereologica. 2008. Kano Yoko, et al. PubMed
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Relative activation of human pregnane X receptor versus constitutive androstane receptor defines distinct classes of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 inducers. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2007. Faucette Stephanie R, et al. PubMed
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Stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase is essential for the induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by phenobarbital in human and mouse liver. Molecular pharmacology. 2006. Rencurel Franck, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 polymorphisms influence the response to antiepileptic drugs in Japanese epilepsy patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2006. Seo Takayuki, et al. PubMed
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Evaluation of 170 xenobiotics as transactivators of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) and correlation to known CYP3A4 drug interactions. Current drug metabolism. 2006. Sinz Michael, et al. PubMed
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Study of the genetic determinants of UGT1A1 inducibility by phenobarbital in cultured human hepatocytes. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2006. Ramírez Jacqueline, et al. PubMed
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Phenobarbital and phenytoin increased acetaminophen hepatotoxicity due to inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in cultured human hepatocytes. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2005. Kostrubsky Seva E, et al. PubMed
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The induction of cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) in the human liver and intestine is mediated by the xenobiotic sensors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutively activated receptor (CAR). The Journal of biological chemistry. 2004. Burk Oliver, et al. PubMed
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Effects of prototypical microsomal enzyme inducers on cytochrome P450 expression in cultured human hepatocytes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Madan Ajay, et al. PubMed
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Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Ding Xinxin, et al. PubMed
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Nuclear pregnane x receptor and constitutive androstane receptor regulate overlapping but distinct sets of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. Molecular pharmacology. 2002. Maglich Jodi M, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4 induction by drugs: correlation between a pregnane X receptor reporter gene assay and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2002. Luo Gang, et al. PubMed
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Med-psych drug-drug interactions update. Psychosomatics. 2002. Armstrong Scott C, et al. PubMed
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CYP2A5/CYP2A6 expression in mouse and human hepatocytes treated with various in vivo inducers. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2000. Donato M T, et al. PubMed
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Expression and induction of CYP1A1/1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes: a 10-year follow-up. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2000. Meunier V, et al. PubMed
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The pregnane X receptor: a promiscuous xenobiotic receptor that has diverged during evolution. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). 2000. Jones S A, et al. PubMed
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Free radical intermediates of phenytoin and related teratogens. Prostaglandin H synthase-catalyzed bioactivation, electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry, and photochemical product analysis. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1998. Parman T, et al. PubMed
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The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug interactions. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1998. Lehmann J M, et al. PubMed
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Enhanced cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide activation in primary human hepatocyte cultures: response to cytochrome P-450 inducers and autoinduction by oxazaphosphorines. Cancer research. 1997. Chang T K, et al. PubMed
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Influence of phenytoin and phenobarbital on the disposition of a single oral dose of clonazepam. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1980. Khoo K C, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
DrugBank:
DB01174
ChEBI:
8069
KEGG Compound:
C07434
KEGG Drug:
D00506
PubChem Compound:
4763
PubChem Substance:
46505776
7847572
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
178799
ChemSpider:
4599
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000061

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention phenobarbital and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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