Chemical: Drug
pantoprazole

last updated 02/07/2014

1. DPWG Guideline for pantoprazole and CYP2C19

Summary

For CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers, be extra alert to insufficient response and consider increasing pantoprazole dose by 400%.

Annotation

The Royal Dutch Pharmacists Association - Pharmacogenetics Working Group has evaluated therapeutic dose recommendations for pantoprazole based on CYP2C19 genotype [Article:21412232]. For the CYP2C19 UM phenotype, they conclude to be extra alert to insufficient response and recommend to consider dose increase by 400%.

Phenotype (Genotype) Therapeutic Dose Recommendation Level of Evidence Clinical Relevance
CYP2C19 PM (*2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3) None Published controlled studies of moderate quality# relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints Positive clinical effects
CYP2C19 IM (*1/*2, *1/*3, *17/*2, *17/*3) None Published controlled studies of moderate quality# relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints Positive clinical effects
CYP2C19 UM (*17/*17) Helicobacter pylori eradication: increase dose by 400%. Be extra alert to insufficient response
Other: be extra alert to insufficient response. Consider dose increase by 400%
Published controlled studies of moderate quality# relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints Clinical effect (not statistically significant difference); Kinetic effect (not statistically significant difference)


last updated 10/25/2013

1. FDA Label for pantoprazole and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

Pantoprazole is metabolized mainly by CYP2C19 and to minor extents by CYPs 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. For adult patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, no dosage adjustment is needed. For known pediatric poor metabolizers, a dose reduction should be considered.

Annotation

Pantoprazole is indicated for short-term treatment of erosive esophagitis associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that suppresses the final step in gastric acid production by covalently binding to the (H+, K+)-ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell.

Excerpts from the pantoprazole (Protonix) label:

Pantoprazole is metabolized mainly by CYP2C19 and to minor extents by CYPs 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. In in vivo drug-drug interaction studies with CYP2C19 substrates (diazepam (also a CYP3A4 substrate) and phenytoin (also a CYP3A4 inducer) and clopidogrel), nifedipine, midazolam, and clarithromycin (CYP3A4 substrates), metoprolol (a CYP2D6 substrate), diclofenac, naproxen and piroxicam (CYP2C9 substrates), and theophylline (a CYP1A2 substrate) in healthy subjects, the pharmacokinetics of pantoprazole were not significantly altered.

For adult patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, no dosage adjustment is needed. Similar to adults, pediatric patients who have the poor metabolizer genotype of CYP2C19 (CYP2C19 *2/*2) exhibited greater than a 6-fold increase in AUC compared to pediatric extensive (CYP2C19 *1/*1) and intermediate (CYP2C19 *1/*x) metabolizers. Poor metabolizers exhibited approximately 10-fold lower apparent oral clearance compared to extensive metabolizers. For known pediatric poor metabolizers, a dose reduction should be considered.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the pantoprazole (Protonix) drug label.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the FDA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Full label available at DailyMed

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label

  • Epidermal Necrolysis, Toxic
    • Warnings section
    • source: PHONT
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux
    • Indications & usage section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • Peptic Ulcer
    • Adverse reactions section
    • source: PHONT
  • CYP2C19
    • metabolism/PK, Drug interactions section, Clinical pharmacology section, Pharmacokinetics section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP3A4
    • metabolism/PK, Drug interactions section, Pharmacokinetics section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for pantoprazole

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *2 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available VA CYP2C19 *2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *3 N/A N/A N/A
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2C19 *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *17 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1045642 NC_000007.13:g.87138645A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87509329A>G, NG_011513.1:g.208920T>C, NM_000927.4:c.3435T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Ile1145=, rs10239679, rs11568726, rs117328163, rs17210003, rs2229108, rs386513066, rs60023214, rs9690664
A > G
SNP
I1145I
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs4244285 NC_000010.10:g.96541616G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94781859G>A, NG_008384.2:g.24154G>A, NM_000769.1:c.681G>A, NM_000769.2:c.681G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Pro227=, rs116940633, rs17879456, rs60361278
G > A
SNP
P227P
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs4986893 NC_000010.10:g.96540410G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94780653G>A, NG_008384.2:g.22948G>A, NM_000769.2:c.636G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Trp212Ter, rs52827375, rs57081121
G > A
SNP
W212*
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Pantoprazol [INN-Spanish]
  • Pantoprazole Na
  • Pantoprazole Sodium
  • Pantoprazolum [INN-Latin]
  • Pantoprozole
Trade Names
  • Astropan
  • Pantoloc
  • Pantopan
  • Pantor
  • Pantozol
  • Protium
  • Protonix
  • Protonix I.V.
  • Protonix IV
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA450774

Type(s):

Drug

Description

Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor drug used for short-term treatment of erosion and ulceration of the esophagus caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Short-term (up to 16 weeks) treatment of erosive esophagitis.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that suppresses the final step in gastric acid production by forming a covalent bond to two sites of the (H +,K + )- ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. This effect is dose- related and leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion irrespective of the stimulus.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Pantoprazole is a substituted benzimidazole indicated for the short-term treatment (up to 16 weeks) in the healing and symptomatic relief of erosive esophagitis. Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that suppresses the final step in gastric acid production.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take without regard to meals.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Pantoprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. The main metabolic pathway is demethylation, by CYP2C19, with subsequent sulfation; other metabolic pathways include oxidation by CYP3A4. There is no evidence that any of the pantoprazole metabolites have significant pharmacologic activity.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

98%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Pantoprazole is well absorbed. It undergoes little first-pass metabolism resulting in an absolute bioavailability of approximately 77%.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

1 hour

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Single intravenous doses of pantoprazole at 378, 230, and 266 mg/kg (38, 46, and 177 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) were lethal to mice, rats and dogs, respectively. The symptoms of toxicity included hypoactivity, ataxia, hunched sitting, limb-splay, lateral position, segregation, absence of ear reflex, and tremor. There is limited experience regarding cases of human overdosage, and treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

  • 7.6-14.0 L/h

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

After administration of a single intravenous dose of 14C-labeled pantoprazole to healthy, normal metabolizer subjects, approximately 71% of the dose was excreted in the urine with 18% excreted in the feces through biliary excretion.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

  • 11.0 to 23.6 L

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C16H15F2N3O4S

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

COc1ccnc(c1OC)CS(=O)c2[nH]c3cc(ccc3n2)OC(F)F

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

COC1=C(OC)C(CS(=O)C2=NC3=C(N2)C=C(OC(F)F)C=C3)=NC=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

383.37

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

383.075133083

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

COC1=C(OC)C(CS(=O)C2=NC3=C(N2)C=C(OC(F)F)C=C3)=NC=C1

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C16H15F2N3O4S/c1-23-13-5-6-19-12(14(13)24-2)8-26(22)16-20-10-4-3-9(25-15(17)18)7-11(10)21-16/h3-7,15H,8H2,1-2H3,(H,20,21)

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ATP12A (source: Drug Bank)
ATP1A1 (source: Drug Bank)
ATP4A (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
atazanavir - pantoprazole This gastric pH modifier decreases the levels/effects of atazanavir (source: Drug Bank)
atazanavir - pantoprazole This gastric pH modifier decreases the levels/effects of atazanavir (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir - pantoprazole Omeprazole decreases the absorption of indinavir (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir - pantoprazole Omeprazole decreases the absorption of indinavir (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole - pantoprazole The proton pump inhibitor decreases the absorption of imidazole (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole - pantoprazole The proton pump inhibitor decreases the absorption of imidazole (source: Drug Bank)
ketoconazole - pantoprazole The proton pump inhibitor decreases the absorption of imidazole (source: Drug Bank)
ketoconazole - pantoprazole The proton pump inhibitor decreases the absorption of imidazole (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - atazanavir This gastric pH modifier decreases the levels/effects of atazanavir (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - atazanavir This gastric pH modifier decreases the levels/effects of atazanavir (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - dasatinib Possible decreased levels of dasatinib (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - dasatinib Pantoprazole may decrease the serum level of dasatinib. (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - enoxacin The agent decreases the absorption of enoxacin (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - enoxacin Pantoprazole may decrease the absorption of enoxacin. (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - indinavir Omeprazole decreases the absorption of indinavir (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - indinavir Omeprazole decreases the absorption of indinavir (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - itraconazole The proton pump inhibitor decreases the absorption of imidazole (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - itraconazole The proton pump inhibitor decreases the absorption of imidazole (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - ketoconazole The proton pump inhibitor decreases the absorption of imidazole (source: Drug Bank)
pantoprazole - ketoconazole The proton pump inhibitor decreases the absorption of imidazole (source: Drug Bank)
topotecan - pantoprazole The BCRP/ABCG2 inhibitor, Pantaprazole, may increase the bioavailability and serum concentration of oral Topotecan. Monitor for change in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Topotecan if Pantaprazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to pantoprazole: 32

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Rapid and ultra-rapid metabolizers with CYP2C19*17 polymorphism do not respond to standard therapy with proton pump inhibitors. Meta gene. 2016. Deshpande Neha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
No relevant pharmacokinetic interaction between pantoprazole and mycophenolate in renal transplant patients: a randomized crossover study. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Rissling Olesja, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Comparative risk of ischemic stroke among users of clopidogrel together with individual proton pump inhibitors. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2015. Leonard Charles E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic testing: the case for CYP2C19 proton pump inhibitor gene-drug pairs. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lima John J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Evaluation of the relationship between polymorphisms in CYP2C19 and the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Román Manuel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 polymorphism affects single-dose pharmacokinetics of oral pantoprazole in healthy volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Gawrońska-Szklarz Barbara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of stable isotope (+/-)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole: Implications for a rapid screening phenotype test of CYP2C19 activity. Chirality. 2011. Thacker David L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics: From Bench to Byte- An Update of Guidelines. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A comparison of the acid-inhibitory effects of esomeprazole and pantoprazole in relation to pharmacokinetics and CYP2C19 polymorphism. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2010. Hunfeld N G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of CYP2C19: functional and clinical implications of a new variant CYP2C19*17. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Li-Wan-Po Alain, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of the CYP2C19*17 Allele on the Pharmacokinetics of Omeprazole and Pantoprazole in Children: Evidence for a Differential Effect. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Kearns Gregory L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ADME pharmacogenetics: current practices and future outlook. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2009. Grossman Iris. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Single-dose pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous pantoprazole in children and adolescents. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Kearns Gregory L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *17 mutations on pharmacodynamics and kinetics of proton pump inhibitors in Caucasians. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Hunfeld Nicole G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Proton pump inhibitors: an update of their clinical use and pharmacokinetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Shi Shaojun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a meta-analysis. Helicobacter. 2008. Zhao Fujun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of the CYP2C19 polymorphism on the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infection by 7-day triple therapy with regular proton pump inhibitor dosage. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2008. Kang Jung Mook, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: assessment of medication risks with emphasis on recently marketed drugs. The EuroSCAR-study. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2008. Mockenhaupt Maja, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Low-dose intravenous pantoprazole for optimal inhibition of gastric acid in Korean patients. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2007. Oh Jung-Hwan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2C19*17 gene variant on Helicobacter pylori eradication in peptic ulcer patients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006. Kurzawski Mateusz, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A common novel CYP2C19 gene variant causes ultrarapid drug metabolism relevant for the drug response to proton pump inhibitors and antidepressants. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Sim Sarah C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the action of proton pump inhibitors: a review of a special problem. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Klotz U. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of CYP2C19 and MDR1 polymorphisms on cure rate in patients with acid-related disorders with Helicobacter pylori infection. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2005. Gawrońska-Szklarz Barbara, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Differential drug-induced mRNA expression of human CYP3A4 compared to CYP3A5, CYP3A7 and CYP3A43. European journal of pharmacology. 2003. Krusekopf Solveigh, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Interaction of omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole with P-glycoprotein. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology. 2001. Pauli-Magnus C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The proton-pump inhibitors: similarities and differences. Clinical therapeutics. 2000. Horn J. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolic disposition of pantoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in relation to S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation phenotype and genotype. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1997. Tanaka M, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0008-0923-51
DrugBank:
DB00213
ChEBI:
7915
KEGG Compound:
C11806
KEGG Drug:
D05353
PubChem Compound:
4679
PubChem Substance:
213529
46504622
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2241804
BindingDB:
50241342
ChemSpider:
4517
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000724
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
51e4144a-489e-436c-609a-39305f8f56ba

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention pantoprazole and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials loaded.

NURSA Datasets

provided by nursa.org

No NURSA datasets available.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.