Chemical: Drug
mercaptopurine

Available Guidelines

  1. CPIC Guideline for mercaptopurine and TPMT
  2. DPWG Guideline for mercaptopurine and TPMT

last updated 09/15/2016

1. CPIC Guideline for mercaptopurine and TPMT

Summary

Start with reduced doses of mercaptopurine for patients with one nonfunctional TPMT allele, or drastically reduced doses for patients with malignancy and two nonfunctional alleles; adjust dose based on degree of myelosuppression and disease-specific guidelines. Consider alternative nonthiopurine immunosuppressant therapy for patients with nonmalignant conditions and two nonfunctional alleles.

Annotation

May 2016 Update on PharmGKB

Several studies have reported that individuals who carry low-function alleles for NUDT15 are unable to tolerate usual doses of thiopurines. [Articles:25108385, 25624441, 26033531, 26076924, 26405151, 26503813, 26590936, 26735160, 26878724] These alleles are more common among those of Asian ancestry and Hispanic ethnicity than others. [Articles:25624441, 26878724] The dose tolerated by those with two low-function alleles is only ~ 10% that tolerated by those with no low-function NUDT15 or TPMT alleles. [Articles:25624441, 26878724] CPIC is planning a guideline to address NUDT15 variants and possible dosing recommendations for thiopurines.

April 2013 Update

Advance online publication January 2013

March 2011

Advance online publication January 2011.

  • Guidelines regarding the use of pharmacogenomic tests in dosing for azathioprine, thioguanine and mercaptopurine were published in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC).
  • Excerpt from the 2011 thiopurine dosing guidelines:
    • "Thiopurines are most commonly used to treat nonmalignant conditions but are also critical anticancer agents. The approach to dosing adjustments based on TPMT status may differ depending on the clinical indication and the propensity to initiate therapy at higher vs. lower starting doses. We and others advocate testing for TPMT status prior to initiating thiopurine therapy, so that starting dosages can be adjusted accordingly."
  • Download and read:

Table 1: Recommended dosing of mercaptopurine by TPMT phenotype

Adapted from Tables 1 and 2 of the 2011 guideline manuscript.

Phenotype (Genotype)Examples of diplotypesImplications for mercaptopurine and azathioprine pharmacologic measuresDosing recommendations for mercaptopurineClassification of recommendations
Homozygous wild-type or normal, high activity (two functional *1 alleles)*1/*1Lower concentrations of TGN metabolites, higher methylTIMP, this is the "normal" patternStart with normal starting dose (e.g., 75 mg/m2/d or 1.5 mg/kg/d) and adjust doses of mercaptopurine (and of any other myelosuppressive therapy) without any special emphasis on mercaptopurine compared to other agents. Allow 2 weeks to reach steady state after each dose adjustment.Strong
Heterozygote or intermediate activity (one functional allele - *1, plus one nonfunctional allele - *2, *3A, *3B, *3C, or *4)*1/*2, *1/*3A, *1/*3B, *1/*3C, *1/*4Moderate to high concentrations of TGN metabolites; low concentrations of methylTIMPStart with reduced doses (start at 30-70% of full dose: e.g., at 50 mg/m2/d or 0.75 mg/kg/d) and adjust doses of MP based on degree of myelosuppression and disease-specific guidelines. Allow 2-4 weeks to reach steady state after each dose adjustment. In those who require a dosage reduction based on myelosuppression, the median dose may be ~40% lower (44 mg/m2) than that tolerated in wild-type patients (75 mg/m2). In setting of myelosuppression, and depending on other therapy, emphasis should be on reducing mercaptopurine over other agents.Strong
Homozygous variant, mutant, low, or deficient activity (two nonfunctional alleles - *2, *3A, *3B, *3C, or *4)*3A/*3A, *2/*3A, *3C/*3A, *3C/*4, *3C/*2, *3A/*4Extremely high concentrations of TGN metabolites; fatal toxicity possible without dose decrease; no methylTIMP metabolitesFor malignancy, start with drastically reduced doses (reduce daily dose by 10-fold and reduce frequency to thrice weekly instead of daily, e.g., 10 mg/m2/d given just 3 days/week) and adjust doses of MP based on degree of myelosuppression and disease-specific guidelines. Allow 4-6 weeks to reach steady state after each dose adjustment. In setting of myelosuppression, emphasis should be on reducing mercaptopurine over other agents. For nonmalignant conditions, consider alternative nonthiopurine immunosuppressant therapy.Strong

last updated 08/25/2016

2. DPWG Guideline for mercaptopurine and TPMT

Summary

Select an alternative drug or reduce the initial dose for intermediate or poor metabolizers.

Annotation

The Royal Dutch Pharmacists Association - Pharmacogenetics Working Group has evaluated therapeutic dose recommendations for mercaptopurine based on TPMT genotype [Article:21412232]. They recommend selecting an alternative drug or reducing the initial dose for patients carrying inactive alleles.

Phenotype (Genotype)Therapeutic Dose RecommendationLevel of EvidenceClinical Relevance
IM (one inactive allele: *2, *3, *4-*18)Select alternative drug or reduce dose by 50%. Increase dose in response of hematologic monitoring and efficacy.Published controlled studies of good quality* relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints.Clinical effect (S): Failure of lifesaving therapy e.g. anticipated myelosuppression; prevention of breast cancer relapse; arrhythmia; neutropenia < 0.5x109/l; leucopenia < 1.0x109/l; thrombocytopenia < 25x109/l; life-threatening complications from diarrhea.
PM (two inactive alleles: *2, *3, *4-*18)Select alternative drug or reduce dose by 90%. Increase dose in response of hematologic monitoring and efficacy.Published controlled studies of good quality* relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints.Clinical effect (S): death; arrhythmia; unanticipated myelosuppression.
  • *See Methods or [Article:18253145] for definition of "good quality."
  • S: statistically significant difference.


Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for mercaptopurine and TPMT
  2. EMA Label for mercaptopurine and TPMT
  3. HCSC Label for mercaptopurine and TPMT




Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Clinical Annotation for TPMT*1, TPMT*10, TPMT*13, TPMT*15, TPMT*19, TPMT*1A, TPMT*24, TPMT*25, TPMT*26, TPMT*27, TPMT*28, TPMT*30, TPMT*31, TPMT*32, TPMT*33, TPMT*34, TPMT*37, TPMT*3D, TPMT*5, mercaptopurine and thioguanine (level 4 Dosage, Toxicity/ADR)

Level of Evidence
Level 4
Type
Dosage, Toxicity/ADR
Variant
*1, *10, *13, *15, *19, *1A, *24, *25, *26, *27, *28, *30, *31, *32, *33, *34, *37, *3D, *5
Genes
TPMT
OMB Race
Mixed Population
Race Notes
Various races as well as in vitro studies

To see the rest of this clinical annotation please register or sign in.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for mercaptopurine

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA HLA-DQA1 *02:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA HLA-DRB1 *07:01:01:01 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NUDT15 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NUDT15 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NUDT15 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NUDT15 *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NUDT15 *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *1S N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *3B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *3C N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *3D N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *8 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *9 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *10 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *11 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *12 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *13 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *14 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *15 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available TPMT *16 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available TPMT *17 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *18 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available TPMT *19 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available TPMT *20 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *21 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *22 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *23 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *24 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *25 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *26 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available TPMT *27 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available TPMT *28 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available TPMT *30 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *31 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *32 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *33 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *34 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA TPMT *37 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
TPMT poor metabolizer N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
TPMT intermediate metabolizer phenotype N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10035440 NC_000005.10:g.31539356T>C, NC_000005.9:g.31539463T>C, NM_018356.2:c.807+667T>C, NR_134298.1:n.710+667T>C, XM_005248319.1:c.12+667T>C, XM_005248319.2:c.12+667T>C, XM_006714479.1:c.555+667T>C, XM_006714480.2:c.12+667T>C, XM_011514062.1:c.900+667T>C, XR_241704.1:n.934+667T>C, rs13155198, rs56434987, rs58924525, rs59453111
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10061133 NC_000005.10:g.55170716A>G, NC_000005.9:g.54466544A>G, NM_001145734.2:c.126+1872T>C, NM_001170402.1:c.126+1872T>C, NM_152623.2:c.126+1872T>C, NR_029960.1:n.-94T>C, NR_030387.1:n.27T>C, XM_005248450.1:c.126+1872T>C, XM_011543218.1:c.126+1872T>C
A > C
A > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10505168 NC_000008.10:g.113655752T>C, NC_000008.11:g.112643523T>C, NM_052900.2:c.2998+1586A>G, NM_198123.1:c.3310+1586A>G, NM_198124.1:c.3190+1586A>G, NR_031745.1:n.31T>C, XM_005250771.1:c.3190+1586A>G, XM_011516808.1:c.3112+1586A>G, XM_011516809.1:c.2872+1586A>G, XM_011516810.1:c.2800+1586A>G, XM_011516811.1:c.1414+1586A>G, XM_011516812.1:c.3190+1586A>G, XM_011516813.1:c.586+1586A>G, XM_011516814.1:c.3190+1586A>G, XM_011516816.1:c.2998+1586A>G, rs60368931
T > A
T > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1051266 NC_000021.8:g.46957794T>C, NC_000021.9:g.45537880T>C, NG_028278.1:g.9592A>G, NM_001205206.1:c.80A>G, NM_194255.2:c.80A>G, NP_001192135.1:p.His27Arg, NP_919231.1:p.His27Arg, XM_005261163.1:c.80A>G, XM_005261164.1:c.-279A>G, XM_005261164.2:c.-279A>G, XM_011529696.1:c.371A>G, XM_011529697.1:c.371A>G, XM_011529698.1:c.146A>G, XM_011529699.1:c.-1639A>G, XM_011529700.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529701.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529702.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529703.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529704.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529705.1:c.371A>G, XM_011529707.1:c.371A>G, XM_011529708.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529709.1:c.-279A>G, XM_011529710.1:c.-165-5732A>G, XP_005261220.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011527998.1:p.His124Arg, XP_011527999.1:p.His124Arg, XP_011528000.1:p.His49Arg, XP_011528002.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011528003.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011528004.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011528005.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011528006.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011528007.1:p.His124Arg, XP_011528009.1:p.His124Arg, XP_011528010.1:p.His27Arg, rs17844977, rs17857726, rs3171496, rs386514057, rs61510559
T > C
SNP
H27R
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10868138 NC_000009.11:g.86917301T>C, NC_000009.12:g.84302386T>C, NM_001199633.1:c.338A>G, NM_022127.2:c.338A>G, NP_001186562.1:p.Tyr113Cys, NP_071410.1:p.Tyr113Cys, NR_037638.2:n.660A>G, XM_011518905.1:c.422A>G, XM_011518906.1:c.422A>G, XM_011518907.1:c.89A>G, XM_011518909.1:c.422A>G, XM_011518910.1:c.422A>G, XP_011517207.1:p.Tyr141Cys, XP_011517208.1:p.Tyr141Cys, XP_011517209.1:p.Tyr30Cys, XP_011517211.1:p.Tyr141Cys, XP_011517212.1:p.Tyr141Cys, XR_929832.1:n.549A>G, rs52792697, rs56686947
T > -
T > C
SNP
Y113C
No VIP available CA VA
rs10948059
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11045879 NC_000012.11:g.21382619T>C, NC_000012.12:g.21229685T>C, NG_011745.1:g.103492T>C, NM_006446.4:c.1865+4846T>C, rs60471795
T > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1127354 NC_000020.10:g.3193842C>A, NC_000020.11:g.3213196C>A, NG_012093.1:g.8787C>A, NM_001267623.1:c.67-789C>A, NM_033453.3:c.94C>A, NM_181493.2:c.43C>A, NP_258412.1:p.Pro32Thr, NP_852470.1:p.Pro15Thr, NR_052000.1:n.194C>A, NR_052001.1:n.49-62C>A, NR_052002.1:n.286C>A, XM_006723564.2:c.94C>A, XM_006723565.2:c.67-789C>A, XM_011529234.1:c.94C>A, XM_011529235.1:c.94C>A, XP_006723627.1:p.Pro32Thr, XP_011527536.1:p.Pro32Thr, XP_011527537.1:p.Pro32Thr, rs111069069, rs11565932, rs117814751, rs16988347, rs3177087, rs3183216, rs41320251, rs52834049
C > A
SNP
P32T
rs1142345 NC_000006.11:g.18130918T>C, NC_000006.12:g.18130687T>C, NG_012137.2:g.29457A>G, NM_000367.3:c.719A>G, NP_000358.1:p.Tyr240Cys, XM_011514839.1:c.674A>G, XM_011514840.1:c.650A>G, XP_011513141.1:p.Tyr225Cys, XP_011513142.1:p.Tyr217Cys, rs16880254, rs1801205, rs29001646, rs52798150, rs61510596
T > C
SNP
Y240C
No VIP available CA VA
rs116855232 NC_000013.10:g.48619855C>T, NC_000013.11:g.48045719C>T, NM_018283.2:c.415C>T, NP_060753.1:p.Arg139Cys
C > T
SNP
R139C
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11866002 NC_000016.10:g.58553833C>T, NC_000016.9:g.58587737C>T, NM_001265612.1:c.2904G>A, NM_016284.4:c.2919G>A, NM_206999.2:c.2919G>A, NP_001252541.1:p.Gln968=, NP_057368.3:p.Gln973=, NP_996882.1:p.Gln973=, NR_049763.1:n.3237G>A, XM_005255845.1:c.2919G>A, XM_005255846.1:c.2919G>A, XM_005255847.1:c.2916G>A, XM_005255848.1:c.2904G>A, XM_005255849.1:c.2916G>A, XM_005255850.1:c.2919G>A, XM_005255851.1:c.2919G>A, XP_005255902.1:p.Gln973=, XP_005255903.1:p.Gln973=, XP_005255904.1:p.Gln972=, XP_005255905.1:p.Gln968=, XP_005255906.1:p.Gln972=, XP_005255907.1:p.Gln973=, XP_005255908.1:p.Gln973=, XR_243400.1:n.3197G>A, rs59053850
C > -
C > T
SNP
Q968Q
No VIP available CA VA
rs12201199 NC_000006.11:g.18139802A>T, NC_000006.12:g.18139571A>T, NG_012137.2:g.20573T>A, NM_000367.3:c.419+94T>A, XM_011514839.1:c.419+94T>A, XM_011514840.1:c.350+94T>A, rs58109747
A > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12529220 NC_000006.11:g.18148247T>A, NC_000006.12:g.18148016T>A, NG_012137.2:g.12128A>T, NM_000367.3:c.141-101A>T, XM_011514839.1:c.141-101A>T, XM_011514840.1:c.72-101A>T
T > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12894467 NC_000014.8:g.101507727C>T, NC_000014.9:g.101041390C>T, NR_030582.1:n.28C>T, NR_031575.1:n.-1587C>T, rs60410947
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1695 NC_000011.10:g.67585218A>G, NC_000011.9:g.67352689A>G, NG_012075.1:g.6624A>G, NM_000852.3:c.313A>G, NP_000843.1:p.Ile105Val, XM_005273958.1:c.313A>G, XP_005274015.1:p.Ile105Val, rs1138257, rs11553891, rs17353321, rs17856342, rs2230827, rs4609, rs56971933, rs947894
A > G
SNP
I105V
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17087144 NC_000009.11:g.86964718T>A, NC_000009.12:g.84349803T>A, NM_022127.2:c.-45-9125A>T, XM_011518906.1:c.-45-9125A>T, XM_011518907.1:c.-98+18649A>T, rs57817760, rs60939937
T > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17268122 NC_000013.10:g.95844494G>T, NC_000013.11:g.95192240G>T, NM_001105515.2:c.1263+2596C>A, NM_001301829.1:c.1263+2596C>A, NM_001301830.1:c.1038+2596C>A, NM_005845.4:c.1263+2596C>A, XM_005254025.1:c.1134+2596C>A, XM_005254025.2:c.1134+2596C>A, XM_005254026.1:c.1263+2596C>A, XM_005254027.1:c.1038+2596C>A, XM_005254028.1:c.1038+2596C>A, XM_006719914.1:c.1263+2596C>A, XM_011521047.1:c.714+2596C>A
G > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17428030 NC_000009.11:g.86953621A>G, NC_000009.12:g.84338706A>G, NM_001199633.1:c.60+1868T>C, NM_022127.2:c.60+1868T>C, NR_037638.2:n.206+1868T>C, XM_011518905.1:c.60+1868T>C, XM_011518906.1:c.60+1868T>C, XM_011518907.1:c.-97-25252T>C, XM_011518909.1:c.60+1868T>C, XM_011518910.1:c.60+1868T>C, XR_929832.1:n.187+1868T>C, rs61131364
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs17839843 NC_000006.11:g.18143854G>A, NC_000006.12:g.18143623G>A, NG_012137.2:g.16521C>T, NM_000367.3:c.339C>T, NP_000358.1:p.Thr113=, XM_011514839.1:c.339C>T, XM_011514840.1:c.270C>T, XP_011513141.1:p.Thr113=, XP_011513142.1:p.Thr90=, rs61457799
G > A
SNP
T113T
rs1800460 NC_000006.11:g.18139228C>T, NC_000006.12:g.18138997C>T, NG_012137.2:g.21147G>A, NM_000367.3:c.460G>A, NP_000358.1:p.Ala154Thr, XM_011514839.1:c.460G>A, XM_011514840.1:c.391G>A, XP_011513141.1:p.Ala154Thr, XP_011513142.1:p.Ala131Thr, rs11568060, rs16880273, rs386545583, rs57650974
C > T
SNP
A154T
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs1800462 NC_000006.11:g.18143955C>G, NC_000006.12:g.18143724C>G, NG_012137.2:g.16420G>C, NM_000367.3:c.238G>C, NP_000358.1:p.Ala80Pro, XM_011514839.1:c.238G>C, XM_011514840.1:c.169G>C, XP_011513141.1:p.Ala80Pro, XP_011513142.1:p.Ala57Pro
C > G
SNP
A80P
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs1800584 NC_000006.11:g.18131012C>T, NC_000006.12:g.18130781C>T, NG_012137.2:g.29363G>A, NM_000367.3:c.626-1G>A, XM_011514839.1:c.581-1G>A, XM_011514840.1:c.557-1G>A, rs386545588
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801131 NC_000001.10:g.11854476T>G, NC_000001.11:g.11794419T>G, NG_013351.1:g.16685A>C, NM_005957.4:c.1286A>C, NP_005948.3:p.Glu429Ala, XM_005263458.1:c.1409A>C, XM_005263458.2:c.1409A>C, XM_005263459.1:c.1355A>C, XM_005263460.1:c.1286A>C, XM_005263460.3:c.1286A>C, XM_005263461.1:c.1286A>C, XM_005263461.3:c.1286A>C, XM_005263462.1:c.1286A>C, XM_005263462.3:c.1286A>C, XM_005263463.1:c.1040A>C, XM_005263463.2:c.1040A>C, XM_011541495.1:c.1406A>C, XM_011541496.1:c.1409A>C, XP_005263515.1:p.Glu470Ala, XP_005263516.1:p.Glu452Ala, XP_005263517.1:p.Glu429Ala, XP_005263518.1:p.Glu429Ala, XP_005263519.1:p.Glu429Ala, XP_005263520.1:p.Glu347Ala, XP_011539797.1:p.Glu469Ala, XP_011539798.1:p.Glu470Ala, rs17367365, rs17857426, rs4134712
T > G
SNP
E429A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801133 NC_000001.10:g.11856378G>A, NC_000001.11:g.11796321G>A, NG_013351.1:g.14783C>T, NM_005957.4:c.665C>T, NP_005948.3:p.Ala222Val, XM_005263458.1:c.788C>T, XM_005263458.2:c.788C>T, XM_005263459.1:c.734C>T, XM_005263460.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263460.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263461.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263461.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263462.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263462.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263463.1:c.419C>T, XM_005263463.2:c.419C>T, XM_011541495.1:c.785C>T, XM_011541496.1:c.788C>T, XP_005263515.1:p.Ala263Val, XP_005263516.1:p.Ala245Val, XP_005263517.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263518.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263519.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263520.1:p.Ala140Val, XP_011539797.1:p.Ala262Val, XP_011539798.1:p.Ala263Val, rs386545618, rs4134713, rs59514310
G > A
SNP
A222V
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1805087 NC_000001.10:g.237048500A>G, NC_000001.11:g.236885200A>G, NG_008959.1:g.94920A>G, NM_000254.2:c.2756A>G, NM_001291939.1:c.2603A>G, NM_001291940.1:c.1535A>G, NP_000245.2:p.Asp919Gly, NP_001278868.1:p.Asp868Gly, NP_001278869.1:p.Asp512Gly, XM_005273140.1:c.2924A>G, XM_005273141.1:c.2753A>G, XM_005273141.3:c.2753A>G, XM_005273142.1:c.2666A>G, XM_005273143.1:c.2603A>G, XM_005273144.1:c.2318A>G, XM_005273145.1:c.1118A>G, XM_006711769.2:c.2756A>G, XM_006711770.1:c.1820A>G, XM_011544193.1:c.2567A>G, XM_011544194.1:c.2924A>G, XP_005273197.1:p.Asp975Gly, XP_005273198.1:p.Asp918Gly, XP_005273199.1:p.Asp889Gly, XP_005273200.1:p.Asp868Gly, XP_005273201.1:p.Asp773Gly, XP_005273202.1:p.Asp373Gly, XP_006711832.1:p.Asp919Gly, XP_006711833.1:p.Asp607Gly, XP_011542495.1:p.Asp856Gly, XP_011542496.1:p.Asp975Gly, rs17658739, rs56618494, rs61036243
A > G
SNP
D919G
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs197388 NC_000001.10:g.112297482A>T, NC_000001.11:g.111754860A>T, NM_007204.4:c.-1065A>T, NM_198926.2:c.12+841T>A, NR_125963.1:n.222+428T>A, XR_246395.1:n.249+428T>A, XR_246396.1:n.-1300T>A, rs59798432
A > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1979277 NC_000017.10:g.18232096G>A, NC_000017.11:g.18328782G>A, NG_017111.1:g.39761C>T, NM_001281786.1:c.1006C>T, NM_004169.4:c.1420C>T, NM_148918.2:c.1303C>T, NP_001268715.1:p.Leu336Phe, NP_004160.3:p.Leu474Phe, NP_683718.1:p.Leu435Phe, XM_005256767.1:c.1420C>T, XM_005256767.2:c.1420C>T, XM_005256768.1:c.1006C>T, XM_011523992.1:c.1180C>T, XP_005256824.1:p.Leu474Phe, XP_005256825.1:p.Leu336Phe, XP_011522294.1:p.Leu394Phe, rs17850285, rs2230025, rs3183766, rs57933897
G > A
SNP
L336F
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2114358 NC_000008.10:g.129021179G>A, NC_000008.11:g.128008933G>A, NR_003367.3:n.1212+19642G>A, NR_031611.1:n.36G>A, rs13269734, rs61088727
G > C
G > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2274407 NC_000013.10:g.95859035C>A, NC_000013.11:g.95206781C>A, NM_001105515.2:c.912G>T, NM_001301829.1:c.912G>T, NM_001301830.1:c.687G>T, NM_005845.4:c.912G>T, NP_001098985.1:p.Lys304Asn, NP_001288758.1:p.Lys304Asn, NP_001288759.1:p.Lys229Asn, NP_005836.2:p.Lys304Asn, XM_005254025.1:c.783G>T, XM_005254025.2:c.783G>T, XM_005254026.1:c.912G>T, XM_005254027.1:c.687G>T, XM_005254028.1:c.687G>T, XM_006719914.1:c.912G>T, XM_011521047.1:c.363G>T, XP_005254082.1:p.Lys261Asn, XP_005254083.1:p.Lys304Asn, XP_005254084.1:p.Lys229Asn, XP_005254085.1:p.Lys229Asn, XP_006719977.1:p.Lys304Asn, XP_011519349.1:p.Lys121Asn, rs117944872, rs52813831, rs58221897
C > A
SNP
K304N
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2278293 NC_000007.13:g.128040752C>T, NC_000007.14:g.128400698C>T, NG_009194.1:g.14285G>A, NM_000883.3:c.579+119G>A, NM_001102605.1:c.549+119G>A, NM_001142573.1:c.324+119G>A, NM_001142574.1:c.309+134G>A, NM_001142575.1:c.250-159G>A, NM_001142576.1:c.480+119G>A, NM_001304521.1:c.372+119G>A, NM_183243.2:c.471+119G>A, XM_005250313.1:c.372+119G>A, XM_005250314.1:c.348+119G>A, XM_005250315.1:c.324+119G>A, XM_005250316.1:c.-62+119G>A, XM_006715967.1:c.579+119G>A, XM_006715968.1:c.549+119G>A, XM_006715969.1:c.471+119G>A, XM_006715970.2:c.372+119G>A, XM_006715971.1:c.348+119G>A, XM_011516156.1:c.-220G>A, XM_011516157.1:c.-220G>A, rs10348032, rs60861084
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2287584 NC_000005.10:g.31422900T>C, NC_000005.9:g.31423007T>C, NM_001100412.1:c.3195A>G, NM_013235.4:c.3306A>G, NP_001093882.1:p.Pro1065=, NP_037367.3:p.Pro1102=, XM_005248291.1:c.3306A>G, XM_005248291.2:c.3306A>G, XM_005248292.1:c.3282A>G, XM_005248292.2:c.3282A>G, XM_005248293.1:c.3213A>G, XM_005248293.2:c.3213A>G, XM_005248294.1:c.3102A>G, XM_005248294.2:c.3102A>G, XM_011514033.1:c.3306A>G, XP_005248348.1:p.Pro1102=, XP_005248349.1:p.Pro1094=, XP_005248350.1:p.Pro1071=, XP_005248351.1:p.Pro1034=, XP_011512335.1:p.Pro1102=, rs57044049
T > C
SNP
P1065P
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2289030 NC_000012.11:g.95228286G>C, NC_000012.12:g.94834510G>C, NR_030171.1:n.113G>C, NR_036685.1:n.57G>C, rs59816854
G > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2368393 NC_000010.10:g.29833998A>G, NC_000010.11:g.29545069A>G, NG_033998.1:g.195733T>C, NM_003174.3:c.827+5528T>C, NM_021738.2:c.827+5528T>C, NR_030335.1:n.29T>C, XM_005252564.1:c.1061+5528T>C, XM_005252565.1:c.1061+5528T>C, XM_005252566.1:c.1061+5528T>C, XM_005252567.1:c.1061+5528T>C, XM_005252568.1:c.1061+5528T>C, XM_005252569.1:c.1061+5528T>C, XM_005252570.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_005252570.2:c.827+5528T>C, XM_005252571.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_005252571.2:c.827+5528T>C, XM_005252572.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_005252573.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_005252573.2:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519630.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519631.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519632.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519633.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519634.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519635.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519636.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519637.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519638.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519639.1:c.827+5528T>C, XM_011519640.1:c.827+5528T>C
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2413739 NC_000022.10:g.43397036C>T, NC_000022.11:g.43001030C>T, NM_001184970.1:c.-78+13991G>A, XM_005261319.1:c.-78+13991G>A, XM_005261319.3:c.-78+13991G>A, XM_011529846.1:c.-78+13991G>A, XM_011529852.1:c.-64+13991G>A, XM_011529853.1:c.-78+13991G>A
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2413775 NC_000015.10:g.45252090T>A, NC_000015.9:g.45544288T>A, NM_004212.3:c.-205T>A, NR_120335.1:n.181-18A>T, XM_011522198.1:c.-230T>A, XM_011522199.1:c.-205T>A, XM_011522200.1:c.-205T>A, XM_011522201.1:c.-205T>A, XR_243147.1:n.271-18A>T, rs3759897, rs59171024
T > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2518463 NC_000006.11:g.18143769A>G, NC_000006.12:g.18143538A>G, NG_012137.2:g.16606T>C, NM_000367.3:c.366+58T>C, XM_011514839.1:c.366+58T>C, XM_011514840.1:c.297+58T>C, rs386568705, rs56804132
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2647087 NC_000006.11:g.32681049A=, NC_000006.11:g.32681049A>C, NC_000006.12:g.32713272A=, NC_000006.12:g.32713272A>C, NT_113891.2:g.4126664A=, NT_113891.2:g.4126664A>C, NT_113891.3:g.4126558A=, NT_113891.3:g.4126558A>C, NT_167245.1:g.3962959C=, NT_167245.1:g.3962959C>A, NT_167245.2:g.3957374C=, NT_167245.2:g.3957374C>A, NT_167246.1:g.4138195C=, NT_167246.1:g.4138195C>A, NT_167246.2:g.4132575C=, NT_167246.2:g.4132575C>A, NT_167247.1:g.4017591A=, NT_167247.1:g.4017591A>C, NT_167247.2:g.4012006A=, NT_167247.2:g.4012006A>C, NT_167248.1:g.3913118A=, NT_167248.1:g.3913118A>C, NT_167248.2:g.3907522A=, NT_167248.2:g.3907522A>C, NT_167249.1:g.4112694A=, NT_167249.1:g.4112694A>C, NT_167249.2:g.4113396A=, NT_167249.2:g.4113396A>C, rs112058546, rs116333078, rs118168432, rs17219323, rs7745306
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2682818 NC_000012.11:g.81329536A>C, NC_000012.12:g.80935757A>C, NM_004664.2:c.82+1884T>G, NR_030349.1:n.77T>G, XM_005269212.1:c.82+1884T>G, XM_011538928.1:c.82+1884T>G, XM_011539062.1:c.-779A>C
A > G
A > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2842934 NC_000006.11:g.18139214G>A, NC_000006.12:g.18138983G>A, NG_012137.2:g.21161T=, NG_012137.2:g.21161T>C, NM_000367.3:c.474T=, NM_000367.3:c.474T>C, NP_000358.1:p.Ile158=, XM_011514839.1:c.474C>T, XM_011514840.1:c.405C>T, XP_011513141.1:p.Ile158=, XP_011513142.1:p.Ile135=, rs17850525, rs41332952, rs56622291, rs57191363, rs59455534, rs74291799
G > A
SNP
I158I
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2842949 NC_000006.11:g.18134021C>A, NC_000006.12:g.18133790C>A, NG_012137.2:g.26354G>T, NM_000367.3:c.580+14G>T, XM_011514839.1:c.580+14G>T, XM_011514840.1:c.511+14G>T, rs45475992
C > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2910164 NC_000005.10:g.160485411C>G, NC_000005.9:g.159912418C>G, NR_029701.1:n.60C>G, NR_132748.1:n.303C>G, rs56537094, rs57852408, rs61270459
C > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs34115976 NC_000004.11:g.115577997C>G, NC_000004.12:g.114656841C>G, NM_001128174.1:c.823-7154C>G, NM_003360.3:c.823-7154C>G, NR_030303.1:n.83C>G, XM_006714302.2:c.823-7154C>G, XM_006714303.2:c.823-7154C>G, XM_011532232.1:c.823-7154C>G, XR_244645.1:n.1052-7154C>G
C > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs34324334 NC_000006.11:g.43535018C>T, NC_000006.12:g.43567281C>T, NM_020750.2:c.722G>A, NP_065801.1:p.Ser241Asn
C > T
SNP
S241N
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3744741 NC_000017.10:g.649232C>T, NC_000017.11:g.745992C>T, NM_015721.2:c.2051G>A, NP_056536.2:p.Arg684Gln, XM_005256667.1:c.2063G>A, XM_005256667.3:c.2063G>A, XM_005256668.1:c.2063G>A, XM_005256668.3:c.2063G>A, XM_005256669.1:c.2018G>A, XM_005256670.1:c.2018G>A, XM_005256670.3:c.2018G>A, XM_011523910.1:c.2063G>A, XM_011523911.1:c.2063G>A, XM_011523912.1:c.2018G>A, XM_011523913.1:c.2018G>A, XP_005256724.1:p.Arg688Gln, XP_005256725.1:p.Arg688Gln, XP_005256726.1:p.Arg673Gln, XP_005256727.1:p.Arg673Gln, XP_011522212.1:p.Arg688Gln, XP_011522213.1:p.Arg688Gln, XP_011522214.1:p.Arg673Gln, XP_011522215.1:p.Arg673Gln, rs56482056, rs59343482
C > T
SNP
R684Q
No VIP available CA VA
rs3765534 NC_000013.10:g.95815415C>T, NC_000013.11:g.95163161C>T, NM_001105515.2:c.2269G>A, NM_001301829.1:c.2128G>A, NM_001301830.1:c.2044G>A, NM_005845.4:c.2269G>A, NP_001098985.1:p.Glu757Lys, NP_001288758.1:p.Glu710Lys, NP_001288759.1:p.Glu682Lys, NP_005836.2:p.Glu757Lys, XM_005254025.1:c.2140G>A, XM_005254025.2:c.2140G>A, XM_005254026.1:c.2128G>A, XM_005254027.1:c.2044G>A, XM_005254028.1:c.2044G>A, XM_006719914.1:c.2179G>A, XM_011521047.1:c.1720G>A, XP_005254082.1:p.Glu714Lys, XP_005254083.1:p.Glu710Lys, XP_005254084.1:p.Glu682Lys, XP_005254085.1:p.Glu682Lys, XP_006719977.1:p.Glu727Lys, XP_011519349.1:p.Glu574Lys, rs17235040, rs52814620, rs57150501
C > T
SNP
E757K
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3805500 NC_000005.10:g.31462870G>A, NC_000005.9:g.31462977G>A, NM_001100412.1:c.2463+1366C>T, NM_013235.4:c.2574+1366C>T, XM_005248291.1:c.2574+1366C>T, XM_005248291.2:c.2574+1366C>T, XM_005248292.1:c.2550+1366C>T, XM_005248292.2:c.2550+1366C>T, XM_005248293.1:c.2481+1366C>T, XM_005248293.2:c.2481+1366C>T, XM_005248294.1:c.2370+1366C>T, XM_005248294.2:c.2370+1366C>T, XM_011514033.1:c.2574+1366C>T, rs386586733
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs3824662 NC_000010.10:g.8104208C>A, NC_000010.11:g.8062245C>A, NG_015859.1:g.12542C>A, NM_001002295.1:c.779-1748C>A, NM_002051.2:c.779-1751C>A, XM_005252442.1:c.779-1748C>A, XM_005252442.2:c.779-1748C>A, XM_005252443.1:c.779-1748C>A, XM_005252443.3:c.779-1748C>A, rs11567915
C > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs3931660 NC_000006.11:g.18149105A>T, NC_000006.12:g.18148874A>T, NG_012137.2:g.11270T>A, NM_000367.3:c.140+114T>A, XM_011514839.1:c.140+114T>A, XM_011514840.1:c.71+100T>A
A > G
A > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4305983 NC_000009.11:g.86944451A>G, NC_000009.12:g.84329536A>G, NM_001199633.1:c.60+11038T>C, NM_022127.2:c.60+11038T>C, NR_037638.2:n.206+11038T>C, XM_011518905.1:c.60+11038T>C, XM_011518906.1:c.60+11038T>C, XM_011518907.1:c.-97-16082T>C, XM_011518909.1:c.60+11038T>C, XM_011518910.1:c.60+11038T>C, XR_929832.1:n.187+11038T>C, rs74305426
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4449636 NC_000006.11:g.18148019G>A, NC_000006.12:g.18147788G>A, NG_012137.2:g.12356C>T, NM_000367.3:c.233+35C>T, XM_011514839.1:c.233+35C>T, XM_011514840.1:c.164+35C>T
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs45445694 NC_000018.10:g.657646_657673CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NC_000018.9:g.657646_657673CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NG_028255.1:g.5043_5070CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NM_001012716.2:c.*34+169_*34+196CGGGACGGAGGCAGGCCAAGTGGCGCGG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NM_001071.2:c.-97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], XM_005258137.1:c.-97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], XM_005258138.1:c.-97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9]
CCGCGC(CACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)3 > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)2
CCGCGC(CACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)3 > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)4
CCGCGC(CACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)3 > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)7
CCGCGC(CACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)3 > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)8
CCGCGC(CACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)3 > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)9
microsatellite
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4588940 NC_000009.11:g.86941620A>G, NC_000009.12:g.84326705A>G, NM_001199633.1:c.61-13251T>C, NM_022127.2:c.61-13251T>C, NR_037638.2:n.207-13251T>C, XM_011518905.1:c.61-13251T>C, XM_011518906.1:c.61-13251T>C, XM_011518907.1:c.-97-13251T>C, XM_011518909.1:c.61-13251T>C, XM_011518910.1:c.61-13251T>C, XR_929832.1:n.188-13251T>C, rs17552068
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4731448 NC_000007.13:g.128041339A>G, NC_000007.14:g.128401285A>G, NG_009194.1:g.13698T>C, NM_000883.3:c.403-169T>C, NM_001102605.1:c.373-169T>C, NM_001142573.1:c.148-169T>C, NM_001142574.1:c.148-169T>C, NM_001142575.1:c.148-169T>C, NM_001142576.1:c.304-169T>C, NM_001304521.1:c.196-169T>C, NM_183243.2:c.295-169T>C, XM_005250313.1:c.196-169T>C, XM_005250314.1:c.172-169T>C, XM_005250315.1:c.148-169T>C, XM_005250316.1:c.-238-169T>C, XM_006715967.1:c.403-169T>C, XM_006715968.1:c.373-169T>C, XM_006715969.1:c.295-169T>C, XM_006715970.2:c.196-169T>C, XM_006715971.1:c.172-169T>C, XM_011516156.1:c.-807T>C, XM_011516157.1:c.-807T>C, rs59964737, rs60262971
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4867329 NC_000005.10:g.31435520A>C, NC_000005.9:g.31435627A>C, NM_001100412.1:c.2931+245T>G, NM_013235.4:c.3042+245T>G, XM_005248291.1:c.3042+245T>G, XM_005248291.2:c.3042+245T>G, XM_005248292.1:c.3018+245T>G, XM_005248292.2:c.3018+245T>G, XM_005248293.1:c.2949+245T>G, XM_005248293.2:c.2949+245T>G, XM_005248294.1:c.2838+245T>G, XM_005248294.2:c.2838+245T>G, XM_011514033.1:c.3042+245T>G, rs17485775
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs494852 NC_000002.11:g.31624836C>T, NC_000002.12:g.31401970C>T, NG_008871.1:g.17776G>A, NM_000379.3:c.198-642G>A, XM_011533095.1:c.198-642G>A, XM_011533096.1:c.198-642G>A, rs1429373, rs386596654, rs59544081
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs56103835 NC_000014.8:g.101522556T>C, NC_000014.9:g.101056219T>C, NR_036133.1:n.1T>C
T > A
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs595961 NC_000001.10:g.36367780A>G, NC_000001.11:g.35902179A>G, NM_001317122.1:c.1264-25A>G, NM_001317123.1:c.1039-25A>G, NM_012199.4:c.1264-25A>G, XM_005270746.1:c.1246-25A>G, XM_005270747.1:c.1039-25A>G, XM_011541236.1:c.1273-25A>G, XM_011541237.1:c.1048-25A>G, XM_011541238.1:c.1039-25A>G, XM_011541239.1:c.820-25A>G, rs59876085
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs61886492 NC_000011.10:g.49164722G>A, NC_000011.9:g.49186274G>A, NG_029170.1:g.48949C>T, NM_001014986.1:c.1423C>T, NM_001193471.1:c.1378C>T, NM_001193472.1:c.1378C>T, NM_001193473.1:c.499C>T, NM_004476.1:c.1423C>T, NP_001014986.1:p.His475Tyr, NP_001180400.1:p.His460Tyr, NP_001180401.1:p.His460Tyr, NP_001180402.1:p.His167Tyr, NP_004467.1:p.His475Tyr, XM_005252839.1:c.919C>T, XM_011519958.1:c.1378C>T, XP_005252896.1:p.His307Tyr, XP_011518260.1:p.His460Tyr
G > A
SNP
H475Y
No VIP available CA VA
rs639174 NC_000005.10:g.31433540C>T, NC_000005.9:g.31433647C>T, NM_001100412.1:c.2932-1862G>A, NM_013235.4:c.3043-1862G>A, XM_005248291.1:c.3043-1862G>A, XM_005248291.2:c.3043-1862G>A, XM_005248292.1:c.3019-1862G>A, XM_005248292.2:c.3019-1862G>A, XM_005248293.1:c.2950-1862G>A, XM_005248293.2:c.2950-1862G>A, XM_005248294.1:c.2839-1862G>A, XM_005248294.2:c.2839-1862G>A, XM_011514033.1:c.3043-1862G>A, rs57933113
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6497759 NC_000016.10:g.24790416G>A, NC_000016.9:g.24801737G>A, NM_014494.2:c.1774G>A, NP_055309.2:p.Ala592Thr, XM_005255253.1:c.1678G>A, XM_005255254.1:c.1774G>A, XM_005255254.2:c.1774G>A, XM_005255255.1:c.1678G>A, XM_005255256.1:c.1678G>A, XM_005255257.1:c.1015G>A, XM_005255257.3:c.1015G>A, XM_006721039.2:c.1348G>A, XM_011545791.1:c.1774G>A, XM_011545792.1:c.1774G>A, XM_011545793.1:c.1774G>A, XM_011545794.1:c.1774G>A, XM_011545795.1:c.1774G>A, XM_011545796.1:c.1774G>A, XP_005255310.1:p.Ala560Thr, XP_005255311.1:p.Ala592Thr, XP_005255312.1:p.Ala560Thr, XP_005255313.1:p.Ala560Thr, XP_005255314.1:p.Ala339Thr, XP_006721102.1:p.Ala450Thr, XP_011544093.1:p.Ala592Thr, XP_011544094.1:p.Ala592Thr, XP_011544095.1:p.Ala592Thr, XP_011544096.1:p.Ala592Thr, XP_011544097.1:p.Ala592Thr, XP_011544098.1:p.Ala592Thr, rs52832662, rs59562937
G > A
SNP
A592T
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6505162 NC_000017.10:g.28444183A>C, NC_000017.11:g.30117165A>C, NM_001261467.1:c.-49+302A>C, NM_032141.3:c.20+302A>C, NR_029945.1:n.87A>C, NR_036149.1:n.-5T>G, XM_005258042.1:c.20+302A>C, XM_011525345.1:c.21-137A>C, XR_934651.1:n.682+227T>G, rs56453081, rs61093106
A > C
A > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7035753 NC_000009.11:g.86955682C>T, NC_000009.12:g.84340767C>T, NM_001199633.1:c.-134G>A, NM_022127.2:c.-45-89G>A, NR_037638.2:n.13G>A, XM_011518905.1:c.-134G>A, XM_011518906.1:c.-45-89G>A, XM_011518907.1:c.-97-27313G>A, XM_011518909.1:c.-134G>A, XM_011518910.1:c.-134G>A, XR_929832.1:n.-7G>A, rs17343394, rs386606815, rs52791876
C > -
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7043257 NC_000009.11:g.86953674T>C, NC_000009.12:g.84338759T>C, NM_001199633.1:c.60+1815A>G, NM_022127.2:c.60+1815A>G, NR_037638.2:n.206+1815A>G, XM_011518905.1:c.60+1815A>G, XM_011518906.1:c.60+1815A>G, XM_011518907.1:c.-97-25305A>G, XM_011518909.1:c.60+1815A>G, XM_011518910.1:c.60+1815A>G, XR_929832.1:n.187+1815A>G, rs17428058, rs59384460
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7270101 NC_000020.10:g.3193893A>C, NC_000020.11:g.3213247A>C, NG_012093.1:g.8838A>C, NM_001267623.1:c.67-738A>C, NM_033453.3:c.124+21A>C, NM_181493.2:c.73+21A>C, NR_052000.1:n.224+21A>C, NR_052001.1:n.49-11A>C, NR_052002.1:n.316+21A>C, XM_006723564.2:c.124+21A>C, XM_006723565.2:c.67-738A>C, XM_011529234.1:c.124+21A>C, XM_011529235.1:c.124+21A>C
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs747199 NC_000006.11:g.44194345G>C, NC_000006.12:g.44226608G>C, NG_042893.1:g.12104G>C, NM_001078174.1:c.-54-652G>C, NM_001078175.2:c.-52+441G>C, NM_001078176.2:c.-51-655G>C, NM_001078177.1:c.-55+441G>C, NM_001304462.1:c.187-655G>C, NM_001304463.1:c.76-655G>C, NM_001304465.1:c.25-652G>C, NM_001304466.1:c.25-655G>C, NM_004955.2:c.-51-655G>C, XM_005248875.1:c.187-655G>C, XM_005248876.1:c.76-652G>C, XM_005248876.3:c.76-652G>C, XM_005248877.1:c.76-655G>C, XM_005248878.1:c.-52+441G>C, XM_005248878.3:c.-52+441G>C, XM_005248879.1:c.-52+441G>C, XM_005248879.3:c.-52+441G>C, XM_005248880.1:c.-55+441G>C, XM_005248880.3:c.-55+441G>C, XM_005248881.1:c.-483G>C, XM_005248881.3:c.-483G>C, XM_005248882.1:c.-486G>C, XM_005248882.3:c.-486G>C, XM_011514341.1:c.187-652G>C, rs3799961
G > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7911488 NC_000010.10:g.105154089A>G, NC_000010.11:g.103394332A>G, NM_001206426.1:c.-9-1866T>C, NM_001206427.1:c.-10+1414T>C, NM_032747.3:c.-143T>C, NR_031707.1:n.70T>C
A > -
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9611280 NC_000022.10:g.40552119G>A, NC_000022.11:g.40156115G>A, NM_001024843.1:c.46G>A, NP_001020014.1:p.Val16Met, XM_005261393.1:c.46G>A, XM_005261394.1:c.46G>A, XP_005261450.1:p.Val16Met, XP_005261451.1:p.Val16Met, rs52808489, rs61442552
G > A
SNP
V16M
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • 6 MP
  • 6-Mercaptopurine
  • MP
  • Mercaptopurine Monohydrate
  • Mercapurin
Trade Names
  • Ismipur
  • Leukerin
  • Leupurin
  • Mercaleukim
  • Mercaleukin
  • Mern
  • Puri-Nethol
  • Purimethol
  • Purinethol
  • Xaluprine
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA450379

Type(s):

Drug

Description

An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For remission induction and maintenance therapy of acute lymphatic leukemia.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Mercaptopurine competes with hypoxanthine and guanine for the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRTase) and is itself converted to thioinosinic acid (TIMP). This intracellular nucleotide inhibits several reactions involving inosinic acid (IMP), including the conversion of IMP to xanthylic acid (XMP) and the conversion of IMP to adenylic acid (AMP) via adenylosuccinate (SAMP). In addition, 6-methylthioinosinate (MTIMP) is formed by the methylation of TIMP. Both TIMP and MTIMP have been reported to inhibit glutamine-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase, the first enzyme unique to the de novo pathway for purine ribonucleotide synthesis. Experiments indicate that radiolabeled mercaptopurine may be recovered from the DNA in the form of deoxythioguanosine. Some mercaptopurine is converted to nucleotide derivatives of 6-thioguanine (6-TG) by the sequential actions of inosinate (IMP) dehydrogenase and xanthylate (XMP) aminase, converting TIMP to thioguanylic acid (TGMP).

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Mercaptopurine is one of a large series of purine analogues which interfere with nucleic acid biosynthesis and has been found active against human leukemias. It is an analogue of the purine bases adenine and hypoxanthine. It is not known exactly which of any one or more of the biochemical effects of mercaptopurine and its metabolites are directly or predominantly responsible for cell death.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Preferably on an empty stomach, drink plenty of liquids, avoid alcohol.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic. Degradation primarily by xanthine oxidase. The catabolism of mercaptopurine and its metabolites is complex. In humans, after oral administration of ^35^S-6-mercaptopurine, urine contains intact mercaptopurine, thiouric acid (formed by direct oxidation by xanthine oxidase, probably via 6-mercapto-8-hydroxypurine), and a number of 6-methylated thiopurines. The methylthiopurines yield appreciable amounts of inorganic sulfate.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Plasma protein binding averages 19% over the concentration range 10 to 50 microg/mL (a concentration only achieved by intravenous administration of mercaptopurine at doses exceeding 5 to 10 mg/kg).

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Clinical studies have shown that the absorption of an oral dose of mercaptopurine in humans is incomplete and variable, averaging approximately 50% of the administered dose. The factors influencing absorption are unknown.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Triphasic: 45 minutes, 2.5 hours, and 10 hours.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Signs and symptoms of overdosage may be immediate such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; or delayed such as myelosuppression, liver dysfunction, and gastroenteritis. The oral LD 50 of mercaptopurine was determined to be 480 mg/kg in the mouse and 425 mg/kg in the rat.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C5H4N4S

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

S=C1N=CNC2=C1NC=N2

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

S=C1N=CNC2=C1NC=N2

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

152.177

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

152.015666838

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

S=C1N=CNC2=C1NC=N2

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C5H4N4S/c10-5-3-4(7-1-6-3)8-2-9-5/h1-2H,(H2,6,7,8,9,10)

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCG2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABL1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABLIM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ACE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ACP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ACP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ADCY8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ADRA1D
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ADRA2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ADRB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ADSL
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
AGO1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
AHCY
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ALK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ALPL
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ANKRD12
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
AP1S2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
AP2B1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APEX1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APOB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APOE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ARF4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ARFGAP3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ARHGAP5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ARID5B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ARL4C
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ASNS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ATF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ATRN
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
AZU1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BAX
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BCL2L1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BCL2L11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BCR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BGLAP
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BMI1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BMP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRAF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRS3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BYSL
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
C18orf56
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
C5orf22
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CA3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CAMP
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CBR3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CCNA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CCND1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CD1B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CD33
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CD52
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CD97
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDC20
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDKL1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDKN2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CEBPE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CEP72
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CGB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CHST1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CKS2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CLK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CNOT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CNOT8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CNTNAP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
COMT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CP
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CREB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CRHR1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CRYZ
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CSH2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CST7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CTSG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CTSL
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CUL4B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CXCR4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1B1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DARS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
DDX20
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DEFA3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DEFA4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DHFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DHPS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DPYD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DPYSL2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DRD4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
DROSHA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DSG1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EFNB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EFR3A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EGFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EIF2AK2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EIF4A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ELANE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EML4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ERBB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ERCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ERCC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ETV5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
F5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FAM168B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FAM175B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FGF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FGF9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FLNA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
FOLH1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FRK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FZD2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FZD6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
G6PD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GALNT7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GATA3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GBE1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GBF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GCHFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GDF10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GDF11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GEMIN4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GGH
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GJA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GMPS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GNG10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GNMT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GOLGA2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GPR137B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GRIA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSTA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSTA2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSTM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSTT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GYS2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GZMM
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
H3F3B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HAS3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HAT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HDAC4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HHEX
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-C
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-DQA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-DQB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-DRB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HNMT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HPRT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IAPP
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ICAM3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IGFBP4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IKZF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL15
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL1R1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL1RL1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
IMPDH1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ITGAL
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ITPA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
JRKL
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
JUN
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KATNB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KDM5D
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIAA1467
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIF3A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KMT2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KRAS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KRT83
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LCN2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LDLR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LEPR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LRRC37A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LST1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MAN2B2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MAP2K1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MAPT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MAX
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MCCC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MGST3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MICA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR1206
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR1307
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR146A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR2053
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR300
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR423
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR449B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR492
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR577
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR604
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MIR618
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MPHOSPH9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MPO
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MRPL33
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MSH6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTHFD1
MTHFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTOR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MTR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MUSK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MYH15
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MYLK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NAIP
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NBPF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NFKB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NKG7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NMT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NPFF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NR3C1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NRXN2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NT5C2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NT5E
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NTAN1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NUDT15
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NUP98
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
OTC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
PACSIN2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PAIP2B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PARG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PCDH9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PDE4B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PDGFA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PF4V1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PFDN6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PIK3CA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PIP4K2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PLS1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PMVK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PNMT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
POLE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PPP1CB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PRAM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PRDM2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PRF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PRKCQ
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PRKY
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PROC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PTEN
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PTK7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PTPRC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PTPRG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PTPRJ
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RAB31
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RAB5C
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RAC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RAC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RALBP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RAPH1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RBBP8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RBM19
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RBMX
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RDX
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RNASE6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RPL5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RRM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
S100A12
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
S100A8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
S100A9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SACS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SAP18
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SEPT3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SERPINE1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SHMT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC12A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC15A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLC19A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC28A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLC28A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLC28A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLC29A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC29A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC35A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC6A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLCO1A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLCO1B1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SMCHD1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SRGN
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SS18
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SSX1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ST18
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
STK24
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
STK38
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SULT1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TCEB3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TCTN3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TERF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TESK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TGIF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
THOC5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TM9SF2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
TNRC6A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
TNRC6B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TOB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TOP2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TP53
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TP63
TPMT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TRA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TRB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TUBA4A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TWIST2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TXK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
TYMS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TYROBP
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
UGT2B15
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
UGT2B7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
VAV1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
VDR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
VKORC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
WIF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
XDH
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
XPO5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
XRCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
YY1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ZNF157

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ADSL (source: Drug Bank )
AMPD1 (source: Drug Bank )
AMPD2 (source: Drug Bank )
AMPD3 (source: Drug Bank )
GMPR (source: Drug Bank )
GMPR2 (source: Drug Bank )
GMPS (source: Drug Bank )
HPRT1 (source: Drug Bank )
IMPDH1 (source: Drug Bank )
IMPDH2 (source: Drug Bank )
PPAT (source: Drug Bank )

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDrug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
azathioprine

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
allopurinol - mercaptopurine Allopurinol increases the effect of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank )
allopurinol - mercaptopurine Allopurinol increases the effect of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank )
aminosalicylic acid - mercaptopurine The 5-ASA derivative increases the toxicity of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank )
aminosalicylic acid - mercaptopurine The 5-ASA derivative increases the toxicity of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - acenocoumarol Mercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol. (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - allopurinol Allopurinol increases the effect of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - anisindione Mercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant effect of anisindione. (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - atracurium The agent dereases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - dicumarol Mercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant effect of dicumarol. (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - doxacurium The agent dereases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - gallamine triethiodide The agent dereases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - mesalazine The 5-ASA derivative increases the toxicity of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - metocurine The agent dereases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - mivacurium The agent dereases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - olsalazine The 5-ASA derivative increases the toxicity of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - pancuronium The agent dereases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - sulfasalazine The 5-ASA derivative increases the toxicity of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - tubocurarine The agent dereases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - vecuronium The agent dereases the effect of the muscle relaxant (source: Drug Bank )
mercaptopurine - warfarin Mercaptopurine may decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank )
mesalazine - mercaptopurine The 5-ASA derivative increases the toxicity of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank )
mesalazine - mercaptopurine The 5-ASA derivative increases the toxicity of thiopurine (source: Drug Bank )
thioguanine - mercaptopurine Complete cross resistance may occur. (source: Drug Bank )
trastuzumab - mercaptopurine Trastuzumab may increase the risk of neutropenia and anemia. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of adverse events. (source: Drug Bank )

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDisease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Agranulocytosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Alcoholism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Alopecia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Asthma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Atrial Fibrillation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Autoimmune Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Bipolar Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Breast Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cardiovascular Abnormalities
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Colitis, Ulcerative
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Colonic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Colorectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Crohn Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Depression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Diarrhea
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
dose reduction
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Hypersensitivity
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy, Absence
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy, Generalized
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Esophagitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
event-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gilbert's syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Graft vs Host Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Failure
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hematologic Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hematologic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hemorrhage
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIV Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypercholesterolemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Infection
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Lymphoid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myeloid
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Nonlymphocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Leukopenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lung Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Migraine without Aura
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Muscular Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mycoses
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myelosuppression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myocardial Infarction
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasm Metastasis
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasms, Second Primary
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
nephrotoxicity
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neutropenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ocular Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pain
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pancreatitis
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Schizophrenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Seizures
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sjogren's Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sleep Disorders
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Stomatitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stroke
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thrombocytopenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thromboembolism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
tolerance
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Toxic liver disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
treatment interruptions
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
treatment modification
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tremor
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Urinary Incontinence
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
xanthinuria

Publications related to mercaptopurine: 266

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NUDT15 polymorphisms are better than thiopurine S-methyltransferase as predictor of risk for thiopurine-induced leukopenia in Chinese patients with Crohn's disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2016. Zhu X, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NUDT15 and TPMT genetic polymorphisms are related to 6-mercaptopurine intolerance in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at the Children's Cancer Center of Lebanon. Pediatric blood & cancer. 2016. Zgheib Nathalie K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Further evidence that a variant of the gene NUDT15 may be an important predictor of azathioprine-induced toxicity in Chinese subjects: a case report. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2016. Ailing Z, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nudt15 C415t Variant as a Predictor For Thiopurine Induced Toxicity in Indian Patients. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2016. Shah Swarup A V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genotyping NUDT15 can predict the dose reduction of 6-MP for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia especially at a preschool age. Journal of human genetics. 2016. Suzuki Hisato, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NUDT15 variant and thiopurine-induced leukopenia in Hong Kong. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine. 2016. Wong F Ck, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prospective Evaluation of Pharmacogenomics and Metabolite Measurements upon Azathioprine Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Observational Study. Medicine. 2016. Fangbin Zhang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NUDT15 polymorphisms alter thiopurine metabolism and hematopoietic toxicity. Nature genetics. 2016. Moriyama Takaya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NUDT15 variant is the most common variant associated with thiopurine-induced early leukopenia and alopecia in Korean pediatric patients with Crohn's disease. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. 2016. Lee Yeoun Joo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NUDT15 c.415C>T increases risk of 6-mercaptopurine induced myelosuppression during maintenance therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica. 2016. Chiengthong Kanhatai, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NUDT15 R139C-related thiopurine leukocytopenia is mediated by 6-thioguanine nucleotide-independent mechanism in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of gastroenterology. 2016. Asada Ayumi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
PACSIN2 polymorphism is associated with thiopurine-induced hematological toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia undergoing maintenance therapy. Scientific reports. 2016. Smid Alenka, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Susceptibility to 6-MP toxicity conferred by a NUDT15 variant in Japanese children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. British journal of haematology. 2015. Tanaka Yoichi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of Patients With Variants in TPMT and Dose Reduction Reduces Hematologic Events During Thiopurine Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology. 2015. Coenen Marieke J H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TPMT gene expression is increased during maintenance therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients in a TPMT gene promoter variable number of tandem repeat-dependent manner. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Kotur Nikola, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NUDT15 gene polymorphism related to mercaptopurine intolerance in Taiwan Chinese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. Liang D-C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Progress Through Collaboration. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2015. Pui Ching-Hon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inherited genetic variation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2015. Moriyama Takaya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NUDT15 R139C causes thiopurine-induced early severe hair loss and leukopenia in Japanese patients with IBD. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. Kakuta Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Inherited NUDT15 Variant Is a Genetic Determinant of Mercaptopurine Intolerance in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2015. Yang Jun J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for 6-mercpatopurine: exploring the role of genetic polymorphism in TPMT enzyme activity. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Ogungbenro Kayode, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myelotoxicity after high-dose methotrexate in childhood acute leukemia is influenced by 6-mercaptopurine dosing but not by intermediate thiopurine methyltransferase activity. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2015. Levinsen Mette, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Crystal structure, biochemical and cellular activities demonstrate separate functions of MTH1 and MTH2. Nature communications. 2015. Carter Megan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variants in 6-mercaptopurine pathway as potential factors of hematological toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Hareedy Mohammad Salem, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association between Thiopurine S-methyltransferase Polymorphisms and Thiopurine-Induced Adverse Drug Reactions in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis. PloS one. 2015. Liu Yue-Ping, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Model-Based Individualized Treatment of Chemotherapeutics: Bayesian Population Modeling and Dose Optimization. PloS one. 2015. Jayachandran Devaraj, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thiopurine dose intensity and treatment outcome in childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia: the influence of thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics. British journal of haematology. 2014. Lennard Lynne, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Surgeons and their tools: a history of surgical instruments and their innovators--part I: place the scissors on the Mayo stand. The American surgeon. 2014. El-Sedfy Abraham, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-DQA1-HLA-DRB1 variants confer susceptibility to pancreatitis induced by thiopurine immunosuppressants. Nature genetics. 2014. Heap Graham A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thiopurine monitoring in children with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Konidari Anastasia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A common missense variant in NUDT15 confers susceptibility to thiopurine-induced leukopenia. Nature genetics. 2014. Yang Suk-Kyun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
From pharmacogenetics to pharmacometabolomics: SAM modulates TPMT activity. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Karas-Kuželički Nataša, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lopez-Lopez Elixabet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Adherence to oral 6-mercaptopurine in African American and Asian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study. Blood. 2014. Bhatia Smita, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Host thiopurine methyltransferase status affects mercaptopurine antileukemic effectiveness in a murine model. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Ramsey Laura B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Implementation of TPMT testing. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Lennard Lynne. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of a novel thiopurine S-methyltransferase allele (TPMT*37). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Roberts Rebecca L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thiopurine pharmacogenomics: association of SNPs with clinical response and functional validation of candidate genes. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Matimba Alice, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of microRNAs and microRNAs biogenesis machinery in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PloS one. 2014. López-López Elixabet, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Inherited GATA3 variants are associated with Ph-like childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and risk of relapse. Nature genetics. 2013. Perez-Andreu Virginia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype-phenotype discordance and thiopurine active metabolite formation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Lennard Lynne, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Activating mutations in the NT5C2 nucleotidase gene drive chemotherapy resistance in relapsed ALL. Nature medicine. 2013. Tzoneva Gannie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nomenclature for alleles of the thiopurine methyltransferase gene. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Appell Malin L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics: a bridge to individualized cancer therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Weng Liming, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for Thiopurine Methyltransferase Genotype and Thiopurine Dosing: 2013 Update. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Relling M V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Optimising outcome on thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease by co-prescription of allopurinol. Journal of Crohn's & colitis. 2012. Smith Melissa A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A Clinician-Driven Automated System for Integration of Pharmacogenetic Interpretations Into an Electronic Medical Record. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2012. Hicks J K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic determinants of mercaptopurine disposition in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012. Adam de Beaumais Tiphaine, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
PACSIN2 polymorphism influences TPMT activity and mercaptopurine-related gastrointestinal toxicity. Human molecular genetics. 2012. Stocco Gabriele, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for GSTT1. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variants of thiopurine and folate metabolic pathways determine 6-MP-mediated hematological toxicity in childhood ALL. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Dorababu Patchva, et al. PubMed
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Nonadherence to Oral Mercaptopurine and Risk of Relapse in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2012. Bhatia Smita, et al. PubMed
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CDA deficiency as a possible culprit for life-threatening toxicities after cytarabine plus 6-mercaptopurine therapy: pharmacogenetic investigations. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Ciccolini Joseph, et al. PubMed
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6-mercaptopurine influences TPMT gene transcription in a TPMT gene promoter variable number of tandem repeats-dependent manner. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Kotur Nikola, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic analysis of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a possible association between survival rate and ITPA polymorphism. PloS one. 2012. Kim Hyery, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) polymorphisms in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and the need for reduction or cessation of 6-mercaptopurine doses during maintenance therapy: the Polish multicenter analysis. Pediatric blood & cancer. 2011. Peregud-Pogorzelski Jarosław, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyl-transferase activity and azathioprine metabolite concentrations do not predict clinical outcome in thiopurine-treated inflammatory bowel disease patients. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2011. González-Lama Y, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphism in Iranian kidney transplant recipients. Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. 2011. Aghdaie Mahdokht Hossein, et al. PubMed
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Azathioprine-related myelosuppression in a patient homozygous for TPMT*3A. Nature reviews. Nephrology. 2011. Budhiraja Pooja, et al. PubMed
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The pattern of gene expression and gene dose profiles of 6-Mercaptopurine- and 6-Thioguanine-resistant human leukemia cells. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2011. Karim Hazhar, et al. PubMed
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Cancer Pharmacogenomics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Paugh S W, et al. PubMed
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Prospective-retrospective biomarker analysis for regulatory consideration: white paper from the industry pharmacogenomics working group. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Patterson Scott D, et al. PubMed
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Novel thiopurine methyltransferase variant TPMT*28 results in a misdiagnosis of TPMT deficiency. Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2011. Landy J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and individualized therapy in children: immunosuppressants, antidepressants, anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Elie Valery, et al. PubMed
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Pediatric pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies: the current state and future perspectives. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Russo Roberta, et al. PubMed
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Determinants of mercaptopurine toxicity in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia maintenance therapy. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Adam de Beaumais Tiphaine, et al. PubMed
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Clinical pharmacogenetics implementation consortium guidelines for thiopurine methyltransferase genotype and thiopurine dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Relling M V, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics: From Bench to Byte- An Update of Guidelines. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Swen J J, et al. PubMed
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Practical recommendations for pharmacogenomics-based prescription: 2010 ESF-UB Conference on Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Becquemont Laurent, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic contribution to drug response. Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.). 2011. Watson Roshawn G, et al. PubMed
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Promoter Polymorphisms in the beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Are Associated With Drug-Induced Gene Expression Changes and Response in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Pottier N, et al. PubMed
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Ecto-5'-nucleotidase and thiopurine cellular circulation: association with cytotoxicity. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Li Fang, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase predicts the extent of cytotoxicty and DNA damage in astroglial cells after thioguanine exposure. PloS one. 2011. Hosni-Ahmed Amira, et al. PubMed
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Characterization of a novel sequence variant, TPMT*28, in the human thiopurine methyltransferase gene. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Appell Malin Lindqvist, et al. PubMed
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Identifying genomic and developmental causes of adverse drug reactions in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Becker Mara L, et al. PubMed
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Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
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Multivariate models to detect genomic signatures for a class of drugs: application to thiopurines pharmacogenomics. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Fridley B L, et al. PubMed
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The multidrug-resistance protein 4 polymorphism is a new factor accounting for thiopurine sensitivity in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of gastroenterology. 2010. Ban Hiromistu, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Zaza Gianluigi, et al. PubMed
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DNA incorporation of 6-thioguanine nucleotides during maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2010. Hedeland Rikke L, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and 6-mercaptopurine dose intensity in Indian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia research. 2010. Kapoor Gauri, et al. PubMed
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Influence of 5-aminosalicylic acid on 6-thioguanosine phosphate metabolite levels: a prospective study in patients under steady thiopurine therapy. British journal of pharmacology. 2010. de Graaf P, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphisms and thiopurine toxicity in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 2010. Dong Xian-Wen, et al. PubMed
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The association of reduced folate carrier 80G>A polymorphism to outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia interacts with chromosome 21 copy number. Blood. 2010. Gregers Jannie, et al. PubMed
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Very important pharmacogene summary: thiopurine S-methyltransferase. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Wang Liewei, et al. PubMed
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Drug transporter pharmacogenetics in nucleoside-based therapies. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Errasti-Murugarren Ekaitz, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: functional characterization of a novel rapidly degraded variant allozyme. Biochemical pharmacology. 2010. Feng Qiping, et al. PubMed
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Low-dose azathioprine or mercaptopurine in combination with allopurinol can bypass many adverse drug reactions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2010. Ansari A, et al. PubMed
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Human lymphoblastoid cell line panels: novel tools for assessing shared drug pathways. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Morag Ayelet, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Smith Melissa A, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotype and the use of thiopurines in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease Greek patients. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2010. Gazouli M, et al. PubMed
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Long-term results of NOPHO ALL-92 and ALL-2000 studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 2010. Schmiegelow K, et al. PubMed
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Are patients with intermediate TPMT activity at increased risk of myelosuppression when taking thiopurine medications?. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Higgs Jenny E, et al. PubMed
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Influences of thiopurine methyltransferase genotype and activity on thiopurine-induced leukopenia in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective cohort study. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. 2010. Kim Jae Hak, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics in a large-scale healthy Italian-Caucasian population: differences in enzyme activity. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Serpe Loredana, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in multidrug resistance-associated protein gene 4 is associated with outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2009. Ansari Marc, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase genetics is not a major risk factor for secondary malignant neoplasms after treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster protocols. Blood. 2009. Stanulla Martin, et al. PubMed
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TPMT*26 (208F-->L), a novel mutation detected in a Chinese. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Kham Shirley Kow Yin, et al. PubMed
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Clinically available pharmacogenomics tests. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Flockhart D A, et al. PubMed
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Impact of the heterozygous TPMT*1/*3C genotype on azathioprine-induced myelosuppression in kidney transplant recipients in Thailand. Clinical therapeutics. 2009. Vannaprasaht Suda, et al. PubMed
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Adverse reactions to azathioprine cannot be predicted by thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotype in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2009. Takatsu Noritaka, et al. PubMed
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Methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine maintenance therapy influences the risk of a second malignant neoplasm after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study. Blood. 2009. Schmiegelow Kjeld, et al. PubMed
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ADME pharmacogenetics: current practices and future outlook. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2009. Grossman Iris. PubMed
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Heterozygosity at the TPMT gene locus, augmented by mutated MTHFR gene, predisposes to 6-MP related toxicities in childhood ALL patients. Leukemia. 2009. Karas-Kuzelicki N, et al. PubMed
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Application of SNaPshot for analysis of thiopurine methyltransferase gene polymorphism. The Indian journal of medical research. 2009. Kapoor Gauri, et al. PubMed
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Relationships between thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphism and azathioprine-related adverse drug reactions in Chinese renal transplant recipients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2009. Xin Hua-Wen, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase activity is related to the risk of relapse of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 2009. Schmiegelow K, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism of inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase is a determinant of mercaptopurine metabolism and toxicity during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Stocco G, et al. PubMed
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TPMT genetic variations in populations of the Russian Federation. Pediatric blood & cancer. 2009. Samochatova Elena V, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics of anticancer agents. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2009. Huang R Stephanie, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene polymorphism in Brazilian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: association with clinical and laboratory data. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2008. Silva Marcilene Rezende, et al. PubMed
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Genome-wide copy number profiling reveals molecular evolution from diagnosis to relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2008. Yang Jun J, et al. PubMed
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Prospective evaluation of the pharmacogenetics of azathioprine in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2008. Ansari A, et al. PubMed
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Functional characterization of 23 allelic variants of thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene (TPMT*2 - *24). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Ujiie Shuta, et al. PubMed
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Long-term outcome of using allopurinol co-therapy as a strategy for overcoming thiopurine hepatotoxicity in treating inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2008. Ansari A, et al. PubMed
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Characterisation of novel defective thiopurine S-methyltransferase allelic variants. Biochemical pharmacology. 2008. Garat A, et al. PubMed
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Transporter-mediated protection against thiopurine-induced hematopoietic toxicity. Cancer research. 2008. Krishnamurthy Partha, et al. PubMed
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Creating and evaluating genetic tests predictive of drug response. Nature reviews. Drug discovery. 2008. Weiss Scott T, et al. PubMed
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Structural basis of substrate recognition in thiopurine s-methyltransferase. Biochemistry. 2008. Peng Yi, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine dose in intermediate and normal metabolizers of thiopurine methyltransferase may differ three-fold. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2008. Gardiner Sharon J, et al. PubMed
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6-mercaptopurine and 9-(2-phosphonyl-methoxyethyl) adenine (PMEA) transport altered by two missense mutations in the drug transporter gene ABCC4. Human mutation. 2008. Janke Daniel, et al. PubMed
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Influence of MTHFR and RFC1 polymorphisms on toxicities during maintenance chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoma. Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology : official journal of the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. 2008. Shimasaki Noriko, et al. PubMed
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Up-regulation of MRP4 and down-regulation of influx transporters in human leukemic cells with acquired resistance to 6-mercaptopurine. Leukemia research. 2008. Peng Xing-Xiang, et al. PubMed
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Trinucleotide repeat variants in the promoter of the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene of patients exhibiting ultra-high enzyme activity. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Roberts Rebecca L, et al. PubMed
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Functional characterization of human xanthine oxidase allelic variants. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Kudo Mutsumi, et al. PubMed
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Azathioprine-associated acute myeloid leukemia in a patient with Crohn's disease and thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency. American journal of hematology. 2008. Yenson Paul R, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) pharmacogenetics: three new mutations and haplotype analysis in the Estonian population. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC. 2008. Tamm Riin, et al. PubMed
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Analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotypes in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan). 2008. Ban Hiromitsu, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene (TMPT) polymorphisms in a Mexican population of healthy individuals and leukemic patients. Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England). 2008. Taja-Chayeb Lucia, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in chemotherapy. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2008. Bosch Tessa M. PubMed
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The low frequency of defective TPMT alleles in Turkish population: a study on pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. American journal of hematology. 2007. Tumer Tugba Boyunegmez, et al. PubMed
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Explaining TPMT genotype/phenotype discrepancy by haplotyping of TPMT*3A and identification of a novel sequence variant, TPMT*23. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Lindqvist Malin, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic significance of inosine triphosphatase. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Bierau Jörgen, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolic enzymes and toxicities of high dose methotrexate in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Annals of hematology. 2007. Pakakasama Samart, et al. PubMed
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Assessment of thiopurine methyltransferase enzyme activity is superior to genotype in predicting myelosuppression following azathioprine therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007. Winter J W, et al. PubMed
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Ancestry and pharmacogenetics of antileukemic drug toxicity. Blood. 2007. Kishi Shinji, et al. PubMed
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Differential effects of targeted disruption of thiopurine methyltransferase on mercaptopurine and thioguanine pharmacodynamics. Cancer research. 2007. Hartford Christine, et al. PubMed
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Using HapMap tools in pharmacogenomic discovery: the thiopurine methyltransferase polymorphism. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Jones T S, et al. PubMed
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Efficient screening method of the thiopurine methyltransferase polymorphisms for patients considering taking thiopurine drugs in a Chinese Han population in Henan Province (central China). Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2007. Zhang Li-Rong, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene polymorphism in Japanese patients with autoimmune liver diseases. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. 2007. Tamori Akihiro, et al. PubMed
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Monitoring of thiopurine methyltransferase activity in postsurgical patients with Crohn's disease during 1 year of treatment with azathioprine or mesalazine. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2007. Dilger Karin, et al. PubMed
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TPMT genotype and its clinical implication in renal transplant recipients with azathioprine treatment. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2006. Song D-K, et al. PubMed
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Adding pharmacogenetics information to drug labels: lessons learned. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2006. Haga Susanne B, et al. PubMed
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Analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphism in the population of Serbia and Montenegro and mercaptopurine therapy tolerance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2006. Dokmanovic Lidija, et al. PubMed
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The thiopurine methyltransferase genetic polymorphism is associated with thioguanine-related veno-occlusive disease of the liver in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Lennard Lynne, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics during standardised initiation of thiopurine treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 2006. Hindorf U, et al. PubMed
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Toxicity and efficacy of 6-thioguanine versus 6-mercaptopurine in childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2006. Vora Ajay, et al. PubMed
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Three novel thiopurine S-methyltransferase allelic variants (TPMT*20, *21, *22) - association with decreased enzyme function. Human mutation. 2006. Schaeffeler Elke, et al. PubMed
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Divergent activities of human glutathione transferases in the bioactivation of azathioprine. Molecular pharmacology. 2006. Eklund Birgitta I, et al. PubMed
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Adverse events leading to modification of therapy in a large cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2006. Hindorf U, et al. PubMed
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The frequency and significance of thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms in azathioprine-treated renal transplant recipients. The British journal of dermatology. 2006. Moloney F J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of thiopurine therapy in paediatric IBD patients. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2006. De Ridder L, et al. PubMed
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Involvement of the concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 and equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 in the resistance of T-lymphoblastic cell lines to thiopurines. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2006. Fotoohi Alan Kambiz, et al. PubMed
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Determination of intra-ethnic differences in the polymorphisms of thiopurine S-methyltransferase in Chinese. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2006. Zhang Jian-Ping, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: insights, challenges and future directions. Oncogene. 2006. Wang L, et al. PubMed
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Predictors of immunomodulator use as early therapy in pediatric Crohn's disease. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. 2006. Jacobstein Douglas A, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2006. Relling Mary V, et al. PubMed
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Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase and thiopurine s-methyltransferase genotypes relationship to azathioprine-induced myelosuppression. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2006. Zelinkova Zuzana, et al. PubMed
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Azathioprine suppresses ezrin-radixin-moesin-dependent T cell-APC conjugation through inhibition of Vav guanosine exchange activity on Rac proteins. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2006. Poppe Daniela, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics and individualized drug therapy. Annual review of medicine. 2006. Eichelbaum Michel, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: catechol O-methyltransferase to thiopurine S-methyltransferase. Cellular and molecular neurobiology. 2006. Weinshilboum Richard M. PubMed
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TPMT genotype and the use of thiopurines in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. 2005. Stocco G, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase phenotype-genotype correlation in hemodialyzed patients. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2006. Chrzanowska Maria, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: genotype to phenotype correlation in the Slovenian population. Pharmacology. 2006. Milek M, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype and phenotype status in Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2005. Okada Yuko, et al. PubMed
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Role of 5'-nucleotidase in thiopurine metabolism: enzyme kinetic profile and association with thio-GMP levels in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during 6-mercaptopurine treatment. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2005. Brouwer Connie, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: variant allele functional and comparative genomics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2005. Salavaggione Oreste E, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase and 6-thioguanine nucleotide measurement: early experience of use in clinical practice. Internal medicine journal. 2005. Gearry R B, et al. PubMed
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A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative disease management strategies in patients with Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2005. Dubinsky Marla C, et al. PubMed
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Gene expression and thioguanine nucleotide disposition in acute lymphoblastic leukemia after in vivo mercaptopurine treatment. Blood. 2005. Zaza Gianluigi, et al. PubMed
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Karyotypic abnormalities create discordance of germline genotype and cancer cell phenotypes. Nature genetics. 2005. Cheng Qing, et al. PubMed
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The impact of thiopurine s-methyltransferase polymorphism on azathioprine-induced myelotoxicity in renal transplant recipients. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2005. Kurzawski Mateusz, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic association with adverse drug reactions to azathioprine immunosuppressive therapy following liver transplantation. Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society. 2005. Breen David P, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2005. Rocha Jose Claudio C, et al. PubMed
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Azathioprine induced nodular regenerative hyperplasia in IBD patients. Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique. 2005. Daniel Fady, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) heterozygosity and enzyme activity as predictive tests for the development of azathioprine-related adverse events. Journal of the neurological sciences. 2005. Heckmann Jeannine M, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) genotype and early treatment response to mercaptopurine in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2005. Stanulla Martin, et al. PubMed
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Identification and functional analysis of two rare allelic variants of the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene, TPMT*16 and TPMT*19. Biochemical pharmacology. 2005. Hamdan-Khalil Rima, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphisms and the relationship between the mutant alleles and the adverse effects in systemic lupus erythematosus patients taking azathioprine. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. 2005. Jun J B, et al. PubMed
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Assessment of thiopurine methyltransferase and metabolite formation during thiopurine therapy: results from a large Swedish patient population. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2004. Hindorf Ulf, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotype predicts azathioprine-induced myelotoxicity in kidney transplant recipients. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. 2004. Formea Christine M, et al. PubMed
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Monitoring of long-term thiopurine therapy among adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2004. Hindorf U, et al. PubMed
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Allele frequency of inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase gene polymorphisms in a Japanese population. Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids. 2004. Marinaki A M, et al. PubMed
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The impact of thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphisms on azathioprine dose 1 year after renal transplantation. Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. 2004. Fabre Margarete A, et al. PubMed
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Comprehensive analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase phenotype-genotype correlation in a large population of German-Caucasians and identification of novel TPMT variants. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Schaeffeler Elke, et al. PubMed
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Methylated metabolites of 6-mercaptopurine are associated with hepatotoxicity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2004. Nygaard Ulrikka, et al. PubMed
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Phenotype and genotype for thiopurine methyltransferase activity in the French Caucasian population: impact of age. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2004. Ganiere-Monteil Catherine, et al. PubMed
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Analysis of variation in mouse TPMT genotype, expression and activity. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Watters James W, et al. PubMed
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Identification of two novel sequence variants affecting thiopurine methyltransferase enzyme activity. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Lindqvist Malin, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of thiopurine S-methyltransferase and thiopurine therapy. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2004. Evans William E. PubMed
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Pyrosequencing of TPMT alleles in a general Swedish population and in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical chemistry. 2004. Haglund Sofie, et al. PubMed
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Mistaken identity: misclassification of TPMT phenotype following blood transfusion. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. 2003. Cheung Seau-Tak, et al. PubMed
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In vitro characterization of four novel non-functional variants of the thiopurine S-methyltransferase. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2003. Hamdan-Khalil Rima, et al. PubMed
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Drug methylation in cancer therapy: lessons from the TPMT polymorphism. Oncogene. 2003. Krynetski Eugene, et al. PubMed
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Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of thiopurine s-methyltransferase polymorphism in the bulgarian population. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2003. Indjova Dessislava, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: chaperone protein association and allozyme degradation. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. Wang Liewei, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism of thiopurine S-methyltransferase in Argentina. Annals of clinical biochemistry. 2003. Laróvere L E, et al. PubMed
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Dose reduction of coadministered 6-mercaptopurine decreases myelotoxicity following high-dose methotrexate in childhood leukemia. Leukemia. 2003. Nygaard U, et al. PubMed
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A novel TPMT missense mutation associated with TPMT deficiency in a 5-year-old boy with ALL. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 2003. Schaeffeler E, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase phenotypes and genotypes in Brazilians. Pharmacogenetics. 2003. Reis Marcelo, et al. PubMed
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Treatment-specific changes in gene expression discriminate in vivo drug response in human leukemia cells. Nature genetics. 2003. Cheok Meyling H, et al. PubMed
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CD28-dependent Rac1 activation is the molecular target of azathioprine in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2003. Tiede Imke, et al. PubMed
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Safe treatment of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficient Crohn's disease patients with azathioprine. Gut. 2003. Kaskas B A, et al. PubMed
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Is thiopurine methyltransferase genetic polymorphism a major factor for withdrawal of azathioprine in rheumatoid arthritis patients?. Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2003. Corominas H, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine metabolism and identification of the thiopurine metabolites transported by MRP4 and MRP5 overexpressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Molecular pharmacology. 2002. Wielinga P R, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase activity and the use of azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2002. Ansari A, et al. PubMed
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Azathioprine therapy and adverse drug reactions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: impact of thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Schwab Matthias, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase polymorphisms in a multiracial asian population and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 2002. Kham S K Y, et al. PubMed
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Differing contribution of thiopurine methyltransferase to mercaptopurine versus thioguanine effects in human leukemic cells. Cancer research. 2001. Dervieux T, et al. PubMed
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Influence of the variable number of tandem repeats located in the promoter region of the thiopurine methyltransferase gene on enzymatic activity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2001. Alves S, et al. PubMed
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Rational dosing of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. Gut. 2001. Sandborn W J. PubMed
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Thiopurine pharmacogenetics: clinical and molecular studies of thiopurine methyltransferase. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001. Weinshilboum R. PubMed
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Genotype-phenotype correlation for thiopurine S-methyltransferase in healthy Italian subjects. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2001. Rossi A M, et al. PubMed
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Preponderance of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency and heterozygosity among patients intolerant to mercaptopurine or azathioprine. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2001. Evans W E, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of thiopurine S-methyltransferase and 6-mercaptopurine toxicity in Japanese children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Pharmacogenetics. 2001. Ando M, et al. PubMed
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6-mercaptopurine dosage and pharmacokinetics influence the degree of bone marrow toxicity following high-dose methotrexate in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 2001. Schmiegelow K, et al. PubMed
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Therapeutic drug monitoring of cytotoxic drugs. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2001. Lennard L. PubMed
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A multicenter trial of 6-mercaptopurine and prednisone in children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2000. Markowitz J, et al. PubMed
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Genotypic analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase in patients with Crohn's disease and severe myelosuppression during azathioprine therapy. Gastroenterology. 2000. Colombel J F, et al. PubMed
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Multidrug-resistance protein 5 is a multispecific organic anion transporter able to transport nucleotide analogs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2000. Wijnholds J, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics and metabolite measurement for 6-mercaptopurine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2000. Dubinsky M C, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphism of thiopurine methyltransferase and its clinical relevance for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 2000. McLeod H L, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene polymorphism is predictive of azathioprine-induced myelosuppression in heart transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2000. Sebbag L, et al. PubMed
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Severe 6-thioguanine-induced marrow aplasia in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and inherited thiopurine methyltransferase deficiency. Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 2000. McBride K L, et al. PubMed
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Mercaptopurine therapy intolerance and heterozygosity at the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene locus. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1999. Relling M V, et al. PubMed
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Enhanced proteasomal degradation of mutant human thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) in mammalian cells: mechanism for TPMT protein deficiency inherited by TPMT*2, TPMT*3A, TPMT*3B or TPMT*3C. Pharmacogenetics. 1999. Tai H L, et al. PubMed
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Possible carcinogenic effect of 6-mercaptopurine on bone marrow stem cells: relation to thiopurine metabolism. Cancer. 1999. Bo J, et al. PubMed
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High incidence of secondary brain tumours after radiotherapy and antimetabolites. Lancet. 1999. Relling M V, et al. PubMed
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Analysis of thiopurine methyltransferase variant alleles in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. British journal of haematology. 1999. McLeod H L, et al. PubMed
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Prognostic importance of 6-mercaptopurine dose intensity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 1999. Relling M V, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: alternative molecular diagnosis and preliminary data from Northern Portugal. Pharmacogenetics. 1999. Alves S, et al. PubMed
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Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimetabolic cytotoxic drugs. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1999. Lennard L. PubMed
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Polymorphism of the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene in African-Americans. Human molecular genetics. 1999. Hon Y Y, et al. PubMed
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The frequency and distribution of thiopurine methyltransferase alleles in Caucasian and Asian populations. Pharmacogenetics. 1999. Collie-Duguid E S, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype predicts therapy-limiting severe toxicity from azathioprine. Annals of internal medicine. 1998. Black A J, et al. PubMed
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Clinical implications of thiopurine methyltransferase--optimization of drug dosage and potential drug interactions. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 1998. Lennard L. PubMed
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Isolation of a human thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) complementary DNA with a single nucleotide transition A719G (TPMT*3C) and its association with loss of TPMT protein and catalytic activity in humans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1998. Loennechen T, et al. PubMed
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Etoposide and antimetabolite pharmacology in patients who develop secondary acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 1998. Relling M V, et al. PubMed
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Human thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics. Kindred with a terminal exon splice junction mutation that results in loss of activity. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1998. Otterness D M, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics, dose adjustments, and 6-mercaptopurine/methotrexate drug interactions in two patients with thiopurine methyltransferase deficiency. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 1998. Andersen J B, et al. PubMed
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Detection of known and new mutations in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Human mutation. 1998. Spire-Vayron de la Moureyre C, et al. PubMed
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Human thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: gene sequence polymorphisms. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1997. Otterness D, et al. PubMed
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Enhanced proteolysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) encoded by mutant alleles in humans (TPMT*3A, TPMT*2): mechanisms for the genetic polymorphism of TPMT activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1997. Tai H L, et al. PubMed
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Molecular diagnosis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency: genetic basis for azathioprine and mercaptopurine intolerance. Annals of internal medicine. 1997. Yates C R, et al. PubMed
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Individualizing therapy with 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine related to the thiopurine methyltransferase genetic polymorphism. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 1996. Lennard L, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency: two nucleotide transitions define the most prevalent mutant allele associated with loss of catalytic activity in Caucasians. American journal of human genetics. 1996. Tai H L, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: human gene cloning and characterization of a common polymorphism. DNA and cell biology. 1996. Szumlanski C, et al. PubMed
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Methylation of mercaptopurine, thioguanine, and their nucleotide metabolites by heterologously expressed human thiopurine S-methyltransferase. Molecular pharmacology. 1995. Krynetski E Y, et al. PubMed
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Sulphasalazine inhibition of thiopurine methyltransferase: possible mechanism for interaction with 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 1995. Szumlanski C L, et al. PubMed
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A single point mutation leading to loss of catalytic activity in human thiopurine S-methyltransferase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1995. Krynetski E Y, et al. PubMed
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Purine substrates for human thiopurine methyltransferase. Biochemical pharmacology. 1994. Deininger M, et al. PubMed
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Decrease in S-adenosylmethionine synthesis by 6-mercaptopurine and methylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside in Molt F4 human malignant lymphoblasts. The Biochemical journal. 1994. Stet E H, et al. PubMed
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Congenital thiopurine methyltransferase deficiency and 6-mercaptopurine toxicity during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Archives of disease in childhood. 1993. Lennard L, et al. PubMed
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