Chemical: Drug

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Generic Names
  • 2-Aminoacetic acid
  • Aminoacetic acid
  • Aminoethanoic acid
  • Gly
Trade Names
  • Aciport
  • Glicoamin
  • Glycocoll
  • Glycolixir
  • Glycosthene
  • Gyn-Hydralin
  • Padil
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id





A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Source: Drug Bank


Supplemental glycine may have antispastic activity. Very early findings suggest it may also have antipsychotic activity as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

In the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission. The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia. <br/>Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS.

Source: Drug Bank


Helps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process; Important in the manufacturing of hormones responsible for a strong immune system.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity



Source: Drug Bank


Absorbed from the small intestine via an active transport mechanism.

Source: Drug Bank


ORL-RAT LD 50 7930 mg/kg, SCU-RAT LD 50 5200 mg/kg, IVN-RAT LD 50 2600 mg/kg, ORL-MUS LD 50 4920 mg/kg; Doses of 1 gram daily are very well tolerated. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms are infrequently noted. In one study doses of 90 grams daily were also well tole.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula


Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES


Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES


Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank



Source: Drug Bank

InChI String


Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

PharmGKB contains no curated pathways for this drug. If you would like to volunteer to work on a pathway, please let us know.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. Amino acid transport across the plasma membrane - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  2. Amino acid uptake across the plasma membrane - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  3. Carnitine synthesis - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  4. Conjugation of benzoate with glycine - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  5. Conjugation of salicylate with glycine - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  6. Creatine metabolism - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  7. Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  8. De novo synthesis of IMP - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  9. Glyoxylate metabolism - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  10. Heme biosynthesis - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  11. hemoglobins chaperone - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)
  12. Leukotriene synthesis - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  13. Metabolism of folate and pterines - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  14. Mitochondrial tRNA aminoacylation - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  15. Recycling of bile acids and salts - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)
  16. Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol - (Reactome via Pathway Interaction Database)


Web Resource:
National Drug Code Directory:
KEGG Compound:
KEGG Drug:
PubChem Compound:
PubChem Substance:
IUPHAR Ligand:
Therapeutic Targets Database:
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention glycine and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials found.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.