Chemical: Drug

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PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

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The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for flunisolide

Gene ? Variant?
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
No VIP available CA VA
rs2305089 NC_000006.11:g.166579270C>T, NC_000006.12:g.166165782C>T, NG_012135.1:g.7862G>A, NM_001270484.1:c.530G>A, NM_003181.3:c.530G>A, NP_001257413.1:p.Gly177Asp, NP_003172.1:p.Gly177Asp, XM_011536080.1:c.530G>A, XM_011536081.1:c.530G>A, XP_011534382.1:p.Gly177Asp, XP_011534383.1:p.Gly177Asp, rs52793205, rs61421018
C > T
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs37973 NC_000007.13:g.8007876G=, NC_000007.13:g.8007876G>A, NC_000007.14:g.7968245G=, NC_000007.14:g.7968245G>A, NG_032073.1:g.4503G=, NG_032073.1:g.4503G>A, NM_138426.3:c.-1106G=, NM_138426.3:c.-1106G>A, NR_110018.1:n.209+299C=, NR_110018.1:n.209+299C>T, XM_005249606.1:c.-1106G=, XM_005249606.1:c.-1106G>A, XM_005249607.1:c.-1106G=, XM_005249607.1:c.-1106G>A, XM_005249608.1:c.-1106G=, XM_005249608.1:c.-1106G>A, XR_927011.1:n.585G=, XR_927011.1:n.585G>A, XR_927012.1:n.991G=, XR_927012.1:n.991G>A, rs10350539, rs58886078
G > A
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147


Generic Names
  • Flunisolide [anhydrous]
  • flunisolide
Trade Names
  • Aerobid
  • Bronalide
  • Lunis
  • Nasalide
  • Nasarel
  • Rhinalar
  • Synaclyn
  • Syntaris
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id





Flunisolide (marketed as AeroBid, Nasalide, Nasarel) is a corticosteroid often prescribed as treatment for allergic rhinitis. The principle mechanism of action of flunisolide is to activate glucocorticoid receptors. It also has anti-inflammatory action.

Source: Drug Bank


For the maintenance treatment of asthma as a prophylactic therapy.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Flunisolide is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. The antiinflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve lipocortins, phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins which, through inhibition arachidonic acid, control the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The immune system is suppressed by corticosteroids due to a decrease in the function of the lymphatic system, a reduction in immunoglobulin and complement concentrations, the precipitation of lymphocytopenia, and interference with antigen-antibody binding. Flunisolide binds to plasma transcortin, and it becomes active when it is not bound to transcortin.

Source: Drug Bank


Flunisolide is a synthetic corticosteroid. It is administered either as an oral metered-dose inhaler for the treatment of asthma or as a nasal spray for treating allergic rhinitis. Corticosteroids are naturally occurring hormones that prevent or suppress inflammation and immune responses. When given as an intranasal spray, flunisolide reduces watery nasal discharge (rhinorrhea), nasal congestion, postnasal drip, sneezing, and itching oat the back of the throat that are common allergic symptoms.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity


Primarily hepatic, converted to the S beta-OH metabolite.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Approximately 40% after oral inhalation

Source: Drug Bank


Absorbed rapidly

Source: Drug Bank


1.8 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula


Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES


Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES


Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank



Source: Drug Bank

InChI String


Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
NR3C1 (source: Drug Bank )
PLA2G4A (source: Drug Bank )
SERPINA6 (source: Drug Bank )

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
telithromycin - flunisolide Telithromycin may reduce clearance of Flunisolide. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Flunisolide if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank )
voriconazole - flunisolide Voriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of flunisolide by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of flunisolide if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank )

Curated Information ?

No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to flunisolide: 4

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CMTR1 is associated with increased asthma exacerbations in patients taking inhaled corticosteroids. Immunity, inflammation and disease. 2015. Dahlin Amber, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide association identifies the T gene as a novel asthma pharmacogenetic locus. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2012. Tantisira Kelan G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genomewide association between GLCCI1 and response to glucocorticoid therapy in asthma. The New England journal of medicine. 2011. Tantisira Kelan G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Corticosteroid pharmacogenetics: association of sequence variants in CRHR1 with improved lung function in asthmatics treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Human molecular genetics. 2004. Tantisira Kelan G, et al. PubMed


Web Resource:
National Drug Code Directory:
KEGG Drug:
PubChem Compound:
PubChem Substance:
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
Therapeutic Targets Database:
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention flunisolide and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials loaded.

NURSA Datasets

provided by

No NURSA datasets available.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.