Chemical: Drug
flunisolide

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for flunisolide

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA
rs2305089 NC_000006.11:g.166579270C>T, NC_000006.12:g.166165782C>T, NG_012135.1:g.7862G>A, NM_001270484.1:c.530G>A, NM_003181.3:c.530G>A, NP_001257413.1:p.Gly177Asp, NP_003172.1:p.Gly177Asp, XM_011536080.1:c.530G>A, XM_011536081.1:c.530G>A, XP_011534382.1:p.Gly177Asp, XP_011534383.1:p.Gly177Asp, rs52793205, rs61421018
C > T
SNP
G177D
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs37973 NC_000007.13:g.8007876G=, NC_000007.13:g.8007876G>A, NC_000007.14:g.7968245G=, NC_000007.14:g.7968245G>A, NG_032073.1:g.4503G=, NG_032073.1:g.4503G>A, NM_138426.3:c.-1106G=, NM_138426.3:c.-1106G>A, NR_110018.1:n.209+299C=, NR_110018.1:n.209+299C>T, XM_005249606.1:c.-1106G=, XM_005249606.1:c.-1106G>A, XM_005249607.1:c.-1106G=, XM_005249607.1:c.-1106G>A, XM_005249608.1:c.-1106G=, XM_005249608.1:c.-1106G>A, XR_927011.1:n.585G=, XR_927011.1:n.585G>A, XR_927012.1:n.991G=, XR_927012.1:n.991G>A, rs10350539, rs58886078
G > A
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Flunisolide [anhydrous]
  • flunisolide
Trade Names
  • Aerobid
  • Bronalide
  • Lunis
  • Nasalide
  • Nasarel
  • Rhinalar
  • Synaclyn
  • Syntaris
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA449661

Type(s):

Drug

Description

Flunisolide (marketed as AeroBid, Nasalide, Nasarel) is a corticosteroid often prescribed as treatment for allergic rhinitis.

The principle mechanism of action of flunisolide is to activate glucocorticoid receptors. It also has anti-inflammatory action.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the maintenance treatment of asthma as a prophylactic therapy.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Flunisolide is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. The antiinflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve lipocortins, phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins which, through inhibition arachidonic acid, control the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The immune system is suppressed by corticosteroids due to a decrease in the function of the lymphatic system, a reduction in immunoglobulin and complement concentrations, the precipitation of lymphocytopenia, and interference with antigen-antibody binding. Flunisolide binds to plasma transcortin, and it becomes active when it is not bound to transcortin.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Flunisolide is a synthetic corticosteroid. It is administered either as an oral metered-dose inhaler for the treatment of asthma or as a nasal spray for treating allergic rhinitis. Corticosteroids are naturally occurring hormones that prevent or suppress inflammation and immune responses. When given as an intranasal spray, flunisolide reduces watery nasal discharge (rhinorrhea), nasal congestion, postnasal drip, sneezing, and itching oat the back of the throat that are common allergic symptoms.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Primarily hepatic, converted to the S beta-OH metabolite.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Approximately 40% after oral inhalation

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Absorbed rapidly

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

1.8 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C24H31FO6

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

C[C@]12C[C@@H]([C@H]3[C@H]([C@@H]1C[C@@H]4[C@]2(OC(O4)(C)C)C(=O)CO)C[C@@H](C5=CC(=O)C=C[C@]35C)F)O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CC1(C)O[C@@H]2C[C@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

434.4977

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

434.210466929

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

[H][C@@]12C[C@@]3([H])[C@]4([H])C[C@H](F)C5=CC(=O)C=C[C@]5(C)[C@@]4([H])[C@@H](O)C[C@]3(C)[C@@]1(OC(C)(C)O2)C(=O)CO

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C24H31FO6/c1-21(2)30-19-9-14-13-8-16(25)15-7-12(27)5-6-22(15,3)20(13)17(28)10-23(14,4)24(19,31-21)18(29)11-26/h5-7,13-14,16-17,19-20,26,28H,8-11H2,1-4H3/t13-,14-,16-,17-,19+,20+,22-,23-,24+/m0/s1

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

PharmGKB contains no curated pathways for this drug. If you would like to volunteer to work on a pathway, please let us know.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

  1. chromatin remodeling by hswi/snf atp-dependent complexes - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)
  2. corticosteroids and cardioprotection - (BioCarta via Pathway Interaction Database)

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CRHR1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FCER2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GLCCI1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NR3C1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
T

Drug Targets

Gene Description
NR3C1 (source: Drug Bank)
PLA2G4A (source: Drug Bank)
SERPINA6 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
telithromycin - flunisolide Telithromycin may reduce clearance of Flunisolide. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Flunisolide if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
voriconazole - flunisolide Voriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of flunisolide by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of flunisolide if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDisease
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Asthma

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
May Prevent
Contraindicated With

Publications related to flunisolide: 3

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide association identifies the T gene as a novel asthma pharmacogenetic locus. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2012. Tantisira Kelan G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genomewide association between GLCCI1 and response to glucocorticoid therapy in asthma. The New England journal of medicine. 2011. Tantisira Kelan G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Corticosteroid pharmacogenetics: association of sequence variants in CRHR1 with improved lung function in asthmatics treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Human molecular genetics. 2004. Tantisira Kelan G, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0456-0672-99
DrugBank:
DB00180
ChEBI:
5106
KEGG Drug:
D00324
PubChem Compound:
82153
PubChem Substance:
46507894
659083
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2239288
ChemSpider:
74144
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP001046
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
77104557-087c-4bc5-9bea-521843b83e07

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention flunisolide and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials found.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.