Chemical: Drug
etoposide

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.


1. FDA Label for etoposide

Full label available at DailyMed

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label


PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for etoposide

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA UGT1A1 *6 N/A N/A N/A
rs1045642 NC_000007.13:g.87138645A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87509329A>G, NG_011513.1:g.208920T>C, NM_000927.4:c.3435T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Ile1145=, rs10239679, rs11568726, rs117328163, rs17210003, rs2229108, rs386513066, rs60023214, rs9690664
A > G
SNP
I1145I
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10895256 NC_000011.10:g.102107673T>G, NC_000011.9:g.101978404T>G, NG_029530.1:g.2213T>G, rs57332716
T > G
SNP
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs1138272 NC_000011.10:g.67586108C>T, NC_000011.9:g.67353579C>T, NG_012075.1:g.7514C>T, NM_000852.3:c.341C>T, NP_000843.1:p.Ala114Val, XM_005273958.1:c.338C>T, XP_005274015.1:p.Ala113Val, rs11553894, rs17434783, rs1799811, rs1804665, rs3202011, rs4134657, rs52800258, rs61323549
C > T
SNP
A114V
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs1695 NC_000011.10:g.67585218A>G, NC_000011.9:g.67352689A>G, NG_012075.1:g.6624A>G, NM_000852.3:c.313A>G, NP_000843.1:p.Ile105Val, XM_005273958.1:c.313A>G, XP_005274015.1:p.Ile105Val, rs1138257, rs11553891, rs17353321, rs17856342, rs2230827, rs4609, rs56971933, rs947894
A > G
SNP
I105V
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800566 NC_000016.10:g.69711242G>A, NC_000016.9:g.69745145G>A, NG_011504.1:g.20389C>T, NM_000903.2:c.559C>T, NM_001025433.1:c.457C>T, NM_001025434.1:c.445C>T, NM_001286137.1:c.343C>T, NP_000894.1:p.Pro187Ser, NP_001020604.1:p.Pro153Ser, NP_001020605.1:p.Pro149Ser, NP_001273066.1:p.Pro115Ser, XM_005255830.1:c.343C>T, XP_005255887.1:p.Pro115Ser, rs4134727, rs4149351, rs57135274
G > A
SNP
P187S
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2032582 NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>C, NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>T, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>C, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>T, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>A, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>G, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>A, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>G, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Ala, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Thr, rs10228331, rs2229106, rs386553610, rs57135550, rs9641018
A > C
SNP
S893A
No VIP available CA VA
rs2291075 NC_000012.11:g.21331625C>T, NC_000012.12:g.21178691C>T, NG_011745.1:g.52498C>T, NM_006446.4:c.597C>T, NP_006437.3:p.Phe199=, rs59789518
C > T
SNP
F199F
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2740574 NC_000007.13:g.99382096C>T, NC_000007.14:g.99784473C>T, NG_008421.1:g.4713G>A, NM_001202855.2:c.-392G>A, NM_017460.5:c.-392G>A, XM_011515841.1:c.-392G>A, XM_011515842.1:c.-392G>A, rs3176920, rs36231114, rs59393892
C > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs2784917 NC_000010.10:g.98928942A>G, NC_000010.11:g.97169185A>G, NM_003061.2:c.198-4295T>C, NR_037909.1:n.1521-4295T>C
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3754446 NC_000001.10:g.110253241A>C, NC_000001.11:g.109710619A>C, NM_000851.3:c.-1694A>C, XM_005270784.1:c.-1229A>C, XM_005270784.3:c.-1229A>C, rs386585508, rs59602189
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4148405 NC_000017.10:g.48713568T>G, NC_000017.11:g.50636207T>G, NM_001144070.1:c.45+1226T>G, NM_003786.3:c.45+1226T>G, XM_005257763.1:c.45+1226T>G, XM_005257763.2:c.45+1226T>G, XM_011525422.1:c.45+1226T>G, XM_011525423.1:c.45+1226T>G, XR_934586.1:n.138+1226T>G
T > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs446112 NC_000020.10:g.45076909A>G, NC_000020.11:g.46448270A>G, rs60073445
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs45445694 NC_000018.10:g.657646_657673CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NC_000018.9:g.657646_657673CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NG_028255.1:g.5043_5070CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NM_001012716.2:c.*34+169_*34+196CGGGACGGAGGCAGGCCAAGTGGCGCGG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NM_001071.2:c.-97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], XM_005258137.1:c.-97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], XM_005258138.1:c.-97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9]
CCGCGC(CACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)3 > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)2
CCGCGC(CACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)3 > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)4
CCGCGC(CACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)3 > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)7
CCGCGC(CACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)3 > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)8
CCGCGC(CACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)3 > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)9
microsatellite
No VIP available CA VA
rs6539870 NC_000012.11:g.85243681A>G, NC_000012.12:g.84849902A>G
A > C
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs716274 NC_000011.10:g.103547430A>G, NC_000011.9:g.103418158A>G, rs56628356, rs57544138
A > G
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • (-)-Etoposide
  • Etoposidum [INN-Latin]
  • trans-Etoposide
Trade Names
  • Eposin
  • Etopophos
  • Lastet
  • Toposar
  • Vepesid
  • Vepesid J
  • Zuyeyidal
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA449552

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For use in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of refractory testicular tumors and as first line treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer. Also used to treat other malignancies such as lymphoma, non-lymphocytic leukemia, and glioblastoma multiforme.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Etoposide inhibits DNA topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA re-ligation. This causes critical errors in DNA synthesis at the premitotic stage of cell division and can lead to apoptosis of the cancer cell.. Etoposide is cell cycle dependent and phase specific, affecting mainly the S and G2 phases of cell division.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Etoposide is an antineoplastic agent and an epipodophyllotoxin (a semisynthetic derivative of the podophyllotoxins). It inhibits DNA topoisomerase II, thereby ultimately inhibiting DNA synthesis. Etoposide is cell cycle dependent and phase specific, affecting mainly the S and G2 phases. Two different dose-dependent responses are seen. At high concentrations (10 microg/mL or more), lysis of cells entering mitosis is observed. At low concentrations (0.3 to 10 microg/mL), cells are inhibited from entering prophase. It does not interfere with microtubular assembly. The predominant macromolecular effect of etoposide appears to be the induction of DNA strand breaks by an interaction with DNA-topoisomerase II or the formation of free radicals.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided throughout treatment as grapefruit can decrease serum levels of this product.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Primarily hepatic (through O-demethylation via the CYP450 3A4 isoenzyme pathway) with 40% excreted unchanged in the urine.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

97%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Absorbed well, time to peak plasma concentration is 1-1.5 hrs. Mean bioavailability is 50%.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

4-12 hours

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Side effects include alopecia, constipation, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting and secondary malignancies (leukemia).

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Etoposide is cleared by both renal and nonrenal processes, i.e., metabolism and biliary excretion. Glucuronide and/or sulfate conjugates of etoposide are also excreted in human urine. Biliary excretion of unchanged drug and/or metabolites is an important route of etoposide elimination as fecal recovery of radioactivity is 44% of the intravenous dose. Only 8% or less of an intravenous dose is excreted in the urine as radiolabeled metabolites of 14C-etoposide.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C29H32O13

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

C[C@@H]1OC[C@@H]2[C@@H](O1)[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H](O2)OC3c4cc5c(cc4[C@H]([C@@H]6C3COC6=O)c7cc(c(c(c7)OC)O)OC)OCO5)O)O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

COC1=CC(=CC(OC)=C1O)[C@H]1[C@@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

588.5566

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

588.18429111

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

[H][C@]12COC(=O)[C@]1([H])[C@H](C1=CC(OC)=C(O)C(OC)=C1)C1=CC3=C(OCO3)C=C1[C@H]2O[C@@H]1O[C@]2([H])CO[C@@H](C)O[C@@]2([H])[C@H](O)[C@H]1O

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C29H32O13/c1-11-36-9-20-27(40-11)24(31)25(32)29(41-20)42-26-14-7-17-16(38-10-39-17)6-13(14)21(22-15(26)8-37-28(22)33)12-4-18(34-2)23(30)19(5-12)35-3/h4-7,11,15,20-22,24-27,29-32H,8-10H2,1-3H3/t11-,15+,20-,21-,22+,24-,25-,26-,27-,29+/m1/s1

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Etoposide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Etoposide cellular disposition and effects.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
MAP2K7 (source: Drug Bank)
TOP2A (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
aprepitant - etoposide Aprepitant may change levels of the chemotherapy agent, etoposide. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - etoposide Increases the effect of etoposide (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - etoposide Increases the effect of etoposide (source: Drug Bank)
etoposide - aprepitant Aprepitant may change levels of the chemotherapy agent, etoposide. (source: Drug Bank)
etoposide - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect of etoposide (source: Drug Bank)
etoposide - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect of etoposide (source: Drug Bank)
etoposide - quinupristin This combination presents an increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
quinupristin - etoposide This combination presents an increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
telithromycin - etoposide Telithromycin may reduce clearance of Etoposide. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Etoposide if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
trastuzumab - etoposide Trastuzumab may increase the risk of neutropenia and anemia. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of adverse events. (source: Drug Bank)
voriconazole - etoposide Voriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of etoposide by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of etoposide if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to etoposide: 65

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Inherited variation in OATP1B1 is associated with treatment outcome in acute myeloid leukemia. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2016. Drenberg C D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Predictive value of cytokines and immune activation biomarkers in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with rituximab plus infusional EPOCH (AMC-034 trial). Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2015. Epeldegui Marta, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A1 *6 polymorphism predicts outcome in elderly patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with carboplatin, dexamethasone, etoposide and irinotecan. Annals of hematology. 2014. Yamasaki Satoshi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for UGT1A1. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Barbarino Julia M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide association and pharmacological profiling of 29 anticancer agents using lymphoblastoid cell lines. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Brown Chad C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of polymorphisms in drug pathway genes on disease-free survival in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Journal of human genetics. 2013. Yee Sook Wah, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of acute lymphoid leukemia: new insights into treatment toxicity and efficacy. Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program. 2013. Relling Mary V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for GSTT1. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1: a novel drug target in cancer development. Pharmacological reviews. 2012. Butcher Neville J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic characterization of US FDA-approved cytotoxic drugs. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Peters Eric J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The NQO1*2/*2 polymorphism is associated with poor overall survival in patients following resection of stages II and IIIa non-small cell lung cancer. Oncology reports. 2011. Kolesar Jill M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genome-wide interrogation identifies YAP1 variants associated with survival of small-cell lung cancer patients. Cancer research. 2010. Wu Chen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmocoepigenetics: a new approach to predicting individual drug responses and targeting new drugs. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2011. Baer-Dubowska Wanda, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification and Replication of Loci Involved in Camptothecin-Induced Cytotoxicity Using CEPH Pedigrees. PloS one. 2011. Watson Venita Gresham, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with survival and in vitro cytotoxicty in de novo acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Gréen H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Chemotherapeutic drug susceptibility associated SNPs are enriched in expression quantitative trait loci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2010. Gamazon Eric R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PACdb: a database for cell-based pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Gamazon Eric R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Long-term results of St Jude Total Therapy Studies 11, 12, 13A, 13B, and 14 for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 2010. Pui C H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics in acute myeloid leukemia. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Roumier Christophe, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Etoposide pathway. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Yang Jun, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacoepigenetics: its role in interindividual differences in drug response. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Gomez A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A novel human multidrug resistance gene MDR1 variant G571A (G191R) modulates cancer drug resistance and efflux transport. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2008. Yang Ziping, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Machine learning methods and docking for predicting human pregnane X receptor activation. Chemical research in toxicology. 2008. Khandelwal Akash, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypoxia-induced resistance to anticancer drugs is associated with decreased senescence and requires hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activity. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2008. Sullivan Richard, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP450 pharmacogenetics for personalizing cancer therapy. Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy. 2008. van Schaik Ron H N. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
A genome-wide approach to identify genetic variants that contribute to etoposide-induced cytotoxicity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007. Huang R Stephanie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ancestry and pharmacogenetics of antileukemic drug toxicity. Blood. 2007. Kishi Shinji, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Expression levels and activation of a PXR variant are directly related to drug resistance in osteosarcoma cell lines. Cancer. 2007. Mensah-Osman Edith J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of population and gender on chemotherapeutic agent-induced cytotoxicity. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2007. Huang Rong Stephanie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genomic signatures to guide the use of chemotherapeutics. Nature medicine. 2006. Potti Anil, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2005. Rocha Jose Claudio C, et al. PubMed
Effects of prednisone and genetic polymorphisms on etoposide disposition in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2004. Kishi Shinji, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase-1 is highly expressed in breast cancers and conveys enhanced growth and resistance to etoposide in vitro. Molecular cancer research : MCR. 2003. Adam Paul J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms in the MLL breakpoint cluster region (BCR). Human genetics. 2003. Echlin-Bell Deborah R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and the risk of secondary myeloid malignancy after etoposide treatment. Blood. 2003. Relling Mary V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glucuronidation of etoposide in human liver microsomes is specifically catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003. Watanabe Yuichiro, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A5, CYP3A4 and NQO1 in children who developed therapy-related myeloid malignancies. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Blanco Javier G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development of a real-time in vivo transcription assay: application reveals pregnane X receptor-mediated induction of CYP3A4 by cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Molecular pharmacology. 2002. Schuetz Erin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Prognostic significance of the null genotype of glutathione S-transferase-T1 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: increased early death after chemotherapy. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 2002. Naoe T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Characterization of drug transport by the human multidrug resistance protein 3 (ABCC3). The Journal of biological chemistry. 2001. Zelcer N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Reversal of multidrug resistance by the P-glycoprotein modulator, LY335979, from the bench to the clinic. Current medicinal chemistry. 2001. Dantzig A H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glutathione S-transferase genotypes in children who develop treatment-related acute myeloid malignancies. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 2000. Woo M H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of MRP1 in multidrug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 1999. Legrand O, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Merck Frosst Award Lecture 1998. Molecular dissection of the human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein. Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire. 1999. Loo T W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Secondary leukemias induced by topoisomerase-targeted drugs. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1998. Felix C A. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Coordinated action of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in antineoplastic drug detoxification. Mechanism of GST A1-1- and MRP1-associated resistance to chlorambucil in MCF7 breast carcinoma cells. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1998. Morrow C S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Etoposide and antimetabolite pharmacology in patients who develop secondary acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 1998. Relling M V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Higher frequency of glutathione S-transferase deletions in black children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 1997. Chen C L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glutathione and related enzymes in multidrug resistance. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 1996. O'Brien M L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Transport of glutathione, glucuronate, and sulfate conjugates by the MRP gene-encoded conjugate export pump. Cancer research. 1996. Jedlitschky G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Overexpression of the gene encoding the multidrug resistance-associated protein results in increased ATP-dependent glutathione S-conjugate transport. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1994. Müller M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacological characterization of multidrug resistant MRP-transfected human tumor cells. Cancer research. 1994. Cole S P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ATP-dependent transport of glutathione S-conjugates by the multidrug resistance-associated protein. Cancer research. 1994. Jedlitschky G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The human multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP is a plasma membrane drug-efflux pump. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1994. Zaman G J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
O-demethylation of epipodophyllotoxins is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A4. Molecular pharmacology. 1994. Relling M V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Overexpression of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) increases resistance to natural product drugs. Cancer research. 1994. Grant C E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Repair of oxidative damage to DNA: enzymology and biology. Annual review of biochemistry. 1994. Demple B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of the semi-quinone free radical of the anti-tumour agent etoposide (VP-16-213) in the inactivation of single- and double-stranded phi X174 DNA. British journal of cancer. 1990. Mans D R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of the ortho-quinone and catechol of the antitumor drug VP-16-213 on the biological activity of single-stranded and double-stranded phi X174 DNA. Biochemical pharmacology. 1988. van Maanen J M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Semi-quinone formation from the catechol and ortho-quinone metabolites of the antitumor agent VP-16-213. Free radical research communications. 1988. van Maanen J M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P-450-mediated O-demethylation: a route in the metabolic activation of etoposide (VP-16-213). Cancer research. 1987. van Maanen J M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In vitro metabolism of etoposide (VP-16-213) by liver microsomes and irreversible binding of reactive intermediates to microsomal proteins. Biochemical pharmacology. 1987. Haim N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inactivation of phi X174 DNA by the ortho-quinone derivative or its reduction product of the antitumor agent VP 16-213. European journal of cancer & clinical oncology. 1985. van Maanen J M, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0015-3091-45
DrugBank:
DB00773
ChEBI:
4911
KEGG Compound:
C01576
KEGG Drug:
D00125
PubChem Compound:
36462
PubChem Substance:
177966
46505434
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2241182
ChemSpider:
33510
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000786

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention etoposide and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.