Chemical: Drug
epirubicin

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for epirubicin

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C8 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C8 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C8 *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1042858 NC_000011.10:g.4138236G>A, NC_000011.9:g.4159466G>A, NG_027992.2:g.48543G>A, NM_001033.3:c.2232G>A, NM_001033.4:c.2232G>A, NM_001318064.1:c.1941G>A, NM_001318065.1:c.1218G>A, NP_001024.1:p.Ala744=, NP_001304993.1:p.Ala647=, NP_001304994.1:p.Ala406=, XM_005253058.1:c.1989G>A, XM_005253059.1:c.1941G>A, XM_011520277.1:c.1941G>A, XM_011520278.1:c.1566G>A, XM_011520279.1:c.1218G>A, XP_005253115.1:p.Ala663=, XP_005253116.1:p.Ala647=, XP_011518579.1:p.Ala647=, XP_011518580.1:p.Ala522=, XP_011518581.1:p.Ala406=, rs17850107, rs2229195, rs2584873, rs3168060, rs57259172
G > A
SNP
A744A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1045642 NC_000007.13:g.87138645A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87509329A>G, NG_011513.1:g.208920T>C, NM_000927.4:c.3435T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Ile1145=, rs10239679, rs11568726, rs117328163, rs17210003, rs2229108, rs386513066, rs60023214, rs9690664
A > G
SNP
I1145I
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10517 NC_000016.10:g.69709857A>G, NC_000016.9:g.69743760A>G, NG_011504.1:g.21774T>C, NM_000903.2:c.*1119T>C, NM_001025433.1:c.*1119T>C, NM_001025434.1:c.*1119T>C, NM_001286137.1:c.*1119T>C, XM_005255830.1:c.*1119T>C, rs1131357, rs3191227, rs386514164, rs60683463
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1056836 NC_000002.11:g.38298203C>G, NC_000002.12:g.38071060G=, NG_008386.2:g.10042C=, NG_008386.2:g.10042C>G, NM_000104.3:c.1294C=, NM_000104.3:c.1294C>G, NP_000095.2:p.Leu432=, NP_000095.2:p.Leu432Val, rs17405323, rs3731848, rs52802961, rs59494749
C > G
SNP
L432V
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11615 NC_000019.10:g.45420395A>G, NC_000019.9:g.45923653A>G, NG_015839.2:g.63434T>C, NM_001166049.1:c.354T>C, NM_001983.3:c.354T>C, NM_202001.2:c.354T>C, NP_001159521.1:p.Asn118=, NP_001974.1:p.Asn118=, NP_973730.1:p.Asn118=, XM_005258634.1:c.354T>C, XM_005258635.1:c.354T>C, XM_005258635.2:c.354T>C, XM_005258636.1:c.354T>C, XM_005258636.3:c.354T>C, XM_005258637.1:c.354T>C, XM_005258638.1:c.138T>C, XM_011526610.1:c.354T>C, XP_005258691.1:p.Asn118=, XP_005258692.1:p.Asn118=, XP_005258693.1:p.Asn118=, XP_005258694.1:p.Asn118=, XP_005258695.1:p.Asn46=, XP_011524912.1:p.Asn118=, rs1130005, rs17285882, rs17359303, rs17845191, rs17858003, rs17859564, rs2228629, rs3177700, rs3188446, rs3752251, rs59923575
A > G
SNP
N118N
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs13181 NC_000019.10:g.45351661T>G, NC_000019.9:g.45854919T>G, NG_007067.2:g.23927A>C, NM_000400.3:c.2251A>C, NM_177417.2:c.*304T>G, NP_000391.1:p.Lys751Gln, XM_005258536.1:c.*128T>G, XM_005258536.3:c.*128T>G, XM_005258537.1:c.*128T>G, XM_005258538.1:c.*304T>G, XM_005258539.1:c.*304T>G, XM_005258639.1:c.2179A>C, XM_005258640.1:c.2017A>C, XM_005258641.1:c.1513A>C, XM_011526611.1:c.2173A>C, XP_005258696.1:p.Lys727Gln, XP_005258697.1:p.Lys673Gln, XP_005258698.1:p.Lys505Gln, XP_011524913.1:p.Lys725Gln, rs1052559, rs17285142, rs17355147, rs17359310, rs3170171, rs3859422, rs60606175
T > G
SNP
K751Q
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1374749 NC_000002.11:g.46596433G>A, NC_000002.12:g.46369294G>A, NG_016000.1:g.76893G>A, NM_001430.4:c.780-533G>A, XM_011532698.1:c.819-533G>A, rs58613482
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1563828 NC_000001.10:g.204516577A>G, NC_000001.11:g.204547449A>G, NG_029367.1:g.36071A>G, NM_001204171.1:c.753+572A>G, NM_001204172.1:c.79-1817A>G, NM_001278516.1:c.*412+572A>G, NM_001278517.1:c.609+572A>G, NM_001278518.1:c.*73+572A>G, NM_001278519.1:c.234+572A>G, NM_002393.4:c.903+572A>G, XM_005245168.1:c.957+572A>G, XM_006711328.1:c.888+572A>G, XM_011509565.1:c.903+572A>G, XM_011509566.1:c.*412+572A>G, XR_241079.1:n.1026+572A>G, XR_241080.1:n.1001+572A>G, XR_241081.1:n.851+572A>G, rs3789049
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1629140 NC_000014.8:g.34413826A>G, NC_000014.9:g.33944620A>G, NM_001308103.1:c.75+6058T>C, NM_022073.3:c.357+5776T>C, XM_006720015.2:c.75+6058T>C, rs17506218, rs60386310
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs163182 NC_000011.10:g.2822986G>C, NC_000011.9:g.2844216G>C, NG_008935.1:g.382996G>C, NM_000218.2:c.1795-24781G>C, NM_181798.1:c.1414-24781G>C, NR_040711.2:n.1688-24781G>C, NT_187585.1:g.55173G>C, rs1176403, rs1182258, rs1182263, rs776659, rs800638
G > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1695 NC_000011.10:g.67585218A>G, NC_000011.9:g.67352689A>G, NG_012075.1:g.6624A>G, NM_000852.3:c.313A>G, NP_000843.1:p.Ile105Val, XM_005273958.1:c.313A>G, XP_005274015.1:p.Ile105Val, rs1138257, rs11553891, rs17353321, rs17856342, rs2230827, rs4609, rs56971933, rs947894
A > G
SNP
I105V
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17222723 NC_000010.10:g.101595996T>A, NC_000010.11:g.99836239T>A, NG_011798.1:g.58534T>A, NM_000392.4:c.3563T>A, NP_000383.1:p.Val1188Glu, XM_005269536.1:c.3284T>A, XM_006717630.2:c.2867T>A, XP_005269593.1:p.Val1095Glu, XP_006717693.1:p.Val956Glu, XR_945604.1:n.3752T>A, XR_945605.1:n.3754T>A, rs52837755, rs59106280
T > A
SNP
V1188E
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799793 NC_000019.10:g.45364001C>T, NC_000019.9:g.45867259C>T, NG_007067.2:g.11587G>A, NM_000400.3:c.934G>A, NM_001130867.1:c.862G>A, NP_000391.1:p.Asp312Asn, NP_001124339.1:p.Asp288Asn, XM_005258639.1:c.862G>A, XM_005258640.1:c.700G>A, XM_005258641.1:c.196G>A, XM_005258642.1:c.934G>A, XM_011526611.1:c.856G>A, XP_005258696.1:p.Asp288Asn, XP_005258697.1:p.Asp234Asn, XP_005258698.1:p.Asp66Asn, XP_005258699.1:p.Asp312Asn, XP_011524913.1:p.Asp286Asn, XR_935763.1:n.981G>A, rs3916814, rs58989209
C > T
SNP
D312N
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799895 NC_000004.11:g.24801834C>G, NC_000004.12:g.24800212C>G, NG_012213.1:g.9750C>G, NM_003102.2:c.691C>G, NP_003093.2:p.Arg231Gly, XR_427488.1:n.881C>G, XR_925483.1:n.1189G>C, rs8192292
C > G
SNP
R231G
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799983 NC_000007.13:g.150696111T>G, NC_000007.14:g.150999023T>G, NG_011992.1:g.12965T>G, NM_000603.4:c.894T>G, NM_001160109.1:c.894T>G, NM_001160110.1:c.894T>G, NM_001160111.1:c.894T>G, NP_000594.2:p.Asp298Glu, NP_001153581.1:p.Asp298Glu, NP_001153582.1:p.Asp298Glu, NP_001153583.1:p.Asp298Glu, XM_006716002.2:c.894T>G, XP_006716065.1:p.Asp298Glu, rs11266811, rs13238975, rs13305983, rs13308813, rs17173672, rs3730304, rs57135373
T > G
SNP
D298E
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800440 NC_000002.11:g.38298139T>C, NC_000002.12:g.38070996T>C, NG_008386.2:g.10106A>G, NM_000104.3:c.1358A>G, NP_000095.2:p.Asn453Ser, rs17405302, rs386545580, rs4134586, rs4986886, rs56879535
T > C
SNP
N453S
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800566 NC_000016.10:g.69711242G>A, NC_000016.9:g.69745145G>A, NG_011504.1:g.20389C>T, NM_000903.2:c.559C>T, NM_001025433.1:c.457C>T, NM_001025434.1:c.445C>T, NM_001286137.1:c.343C>T, NP_000894.1:p.Pro187Ser, NP_001020604.1:p.Pro153Ser, NP_001020605.1:p.Pro149Ser, NP_001273066.1:p.Pro115Ser, XM_005255830.1:c.343C>T, XP_005255887.1:p.Pro115Ser, rs4134727, rs4149351, rs57135274
G > A
SNP
P187S
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801133 NC_000001.10:g.11856378G>A, NC_000001.11:g.11796321G>A, NG_013351.1:g.14783C>T, NM_005957.4:c.665C>T, NP_005948.3:p.Ala222Val, XM_005263458.1:c.788C>T, XM_005263458.2:c.788C>T, XM_005263459.1:c.734C>T, XM_005263460.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263460.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263461.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263461.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263462.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263462.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263463.1:c.419C>T, XM_005263463.2:c.419C>T, XM_011541495.1:c.785C>T, XM_011541496.1:c.788C>T, XP_005263515.1:p.Ala263Val, XP_005263516.1:p.Ala245Val, XP_005263517.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263518.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263519.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263520.1:p.Ala140Val, XP_011539797.1:p.Ala262Val, XP_011539798.1:p.Ala263Val, rs386545618, rs4134713, rs59514310
G > A
SNP
A222V
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2032582 NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>C, NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>T, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>C, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>T, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>A, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>G, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>A, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>G, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Ala, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Thr, rs10228331, rs2229106, rs386553610, rs57135550, rs9641018
A > C
SNP
S893A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2072671 NC_000001.10:g.20915701A>C, NC_000001.11:g.20589208A>C, NM_001785.2:c.79A>C, NP_001776.1:p.Lys27Gln, rs57221291
A > C
SNP
K27Q
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2266637 NC_000022.10:g.24376845C>T, NM_000853.3:c.505G>A, NM_001293807.1:c.463G>A, NM_001293808.1:c.151G>A, NM_001293809.1:c.151G>A, NM_001293810.1:c.151G>A, NM_001293811.1:c.151G>A, NM_001293812.1:c.151G>A, NM_001293813.1:c.201-228G>A, NM_001293814.1:c.113-228G>A, NP_000844.2:p.Val169Ile, NP_001280736.1:p.Val155Ile, NP_001280737.1:p.Val51Ile, NP_001280738.1:p.Val51Ile, NP_001280739.1:p.Val51Ile, NP_001280740.1:p.Val51Ile, NP_001280741.1:p.Val51Ile, NT_187633.1:g.271020C>T, XM_005261587.1:c.652G>A, XM_005261587.2:c.652G>A, XM_005261588.1:c.151G>A, XM_005261589.1:c.151G>A, XP_005261644.1:p.Val218Ile, XP_005261645.1:p.Val51Ile, XP_005261646.1:p.Val51Ile, rs56671512, rs762585649
C > T
SNP
V169I
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs25487 NC_000019.10:g.43551574T>C, NC_000019.9:g.44055726T>C, NG_033799.1:g.29005A>G, NM_006297.2:c.1196A>G, NP_006288.2:p.Gln399Arg, rs11553658, rs17435395, rs3817410, rs386493716, rs57378728
T > C
SNP
Q399R
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2740574 NC_000007.13:g.99382096C>T, NC_000007.14:g.99784473C>T, NG_008421.1:g.4713G>A, NM_001202855.2:c.-392G>A, NM_017460.5:c.-392G>A, XM_011515841.1:c.-392G>A, XM_011515842.1:c.-392G>A, rs3176920, rs36231114, rs59393892
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs301927 NC_000003.11:g.97346618G>A, NC_000003.12:g.97627774G>A, NM_001080448.2:c.2575-10099G>A, NM_001278300.1:c.751-10099G>A, NM_173655.3:c.751-10099G>A, XM_006713592.2:c.2623-10099G>A, XR_924127.1:n.1030-10099G>A, rs1684641, rs61169431
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3025030 NC_000006.11:g.43750587G>C, NC_000006.12:g.43782850G>C, NG_008732.1:g.17635G>C, NM_001025366.2:c.1217+763G>C, NM_001025367.2:c.1148+763G>C, NM_001025368.2:c.1094+763G>C, NM_001025369.2:c.1059+798G>C, NM_001025370.2:c.963-1691G>C, NM_001033756.2:c.1094+763G>C, NM_001171622.1:c.933-1691G>C, NM_001171623.1:c.677+763G>C, NM_001171624.1:c.626+763G>C, NM_001171625.1:c.608+763G>C, NM_001171626.1:c.554+763G>C, NM_001171627.1:c.519+798G>C, NM_001171628.1:c.423-1691G>C, NM_001171629.1:c.554+763G>C, NM_001171630.1:c.393-1691G>C, NM_001204384.1:c.495-1691G>C, NM_001204385.1:c.1035-1691G>C, NM_001287044.1:c.470+763G>C, NM_001317010.1:c.554+763G>C, NM_003376.5:c.1166+763G>C, XM_005249363.1:c.470+763G>C, rs16896816, rs3799959, rs61356923
G > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3025033 NC_000006.11:g.43751075A>G, NC_000006.12:g.43783338A>G, NG_008732.1:g.18123A>G, NM_001025366.2:c.1218-1203A>G, NM_001025367.2:c.1149-1203A>G, NM_001025368.2:c.1095-1203A>G, NM_001025369.2:c.1060-1203A>G, NM_001025370.2:c.963-1203A>G, NM_001033756.2:c.1094+1251A>G, NM_001171622.1:c.933-1203A>G, NM_001171623.1:c.678-1203A>G, NM_001171624.1:c.627-1203A>G, NM_001171625.1:c.609-1203A>G, NM_001171626.1:c.555-1203A>G, NM_001171627.1:c.520-1203A>G, NM_001171628.1:c.423-1203A>G, NM_001171629.1:c.554+1251A>G, NM_001171630.1:c.393-1203A>G, NM_001204384.1:c.495-1203A>G, NM_001204385.1:c.1035-1203A>G, NM_001287044.1:c.471-1203A>G, NM_001317010.1:c.555-1203A>G, NM_003376.5:c.1167-1203A>G, XM_005249363.1:c.471-1203A>G, rs3778502, rs59547322
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3025039 NC_000006.11:g.43752536C>T, NC_000006.12:g.43784799C>T, NG_008732.1:g.19584C>T, NM_001025366.2:c.*237C>T, NM_001025367.2:c.*237C>T, NM_001025368.2:c.*237C>T, NM_001025369.2:c.*253C>T, NM_001025370.2:c.*237C>T, NM_001033756.2:c.*171C>T, NM_001171622.1:c.*237C>T, NM_001171623.1:c.*237C>T, NM_001171624.1:c.*237C>T, NM_001171625.1:c.*237C>T, NM_001171626.1:c.*237C>T, NM_001171627.1:c.*253C>T, NM_001171628.1:c.*237C>T, NM_001171629.1:c.*171C>T, NM_001171630.1:c.*237C>T, NM_001204384.1:c.*237C>T, NM_001204385.1:c.*237C>T, NM_001287044.1:c.*237C>T, NM_001317010.1:c.*171C>T, NM_003376.5:c.*237C>T, XM_005249363.1:c.*237C>T, rs11575898
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3213619 NC_000007.13:g.87230193A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87600877A>G, NG_011513.1:g.117372T>C, NM_000927.4:c.-129T>C, rs17249446, rs60679736
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3768728 NC_000002.11:g.46590791T>C, NC_000002.12:g.46363652T>C, NG_016000.1:g.71251T>C, NM_001430.4:c.779+2562T>C, XM_011532698.1:c.818+2562T>C, rs60273833
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3829306 NC_000012.11:g.21292280C>T, NC_000012.12:g.21139346C>T, NG_011745.1:g.13153C>T, NM_006446.4:c.-61-2168C>T, rs52794315, rs59551499
C > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs4149056 NC_000012.11:g.21331549T>C, NC_000012.12:g.21178615T>C, NG_011745.1:g.52422T>C, NM_006446.4:c.521T>C, NP_006437.3:p.Val174Ala, rs52816141, rs60037639
T > C
SNP
V174A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4402960 NC_000003.11:g.185511687G>T, NC_000003.12:g.185793899G>T, NG_011602.1:g.36141C>A, NM_001007225.1:c.239+29254C>A, NM_001291869.1:c.239+29254C>A, NM_001291872.1:c.50+27113C>A, NM_001291873.1:c.50+27113C>A, NM_001291874.1:c.50+27113C>A, NM_001291875.1:c.-106+27113C>A, NM_006548.4:c.239+29254C>A, XM_005247073.1:c.50+27113C>A, XM_005247074.1:c.50+27113C>A, XM_005247075.1:c.50+27113C>A, XM_011512338.1:c.239+29254C>A, XM_011512339.1:c.239+29254C>A, XM_011512341.1:c.239+29254C>A, XR_427358.2:n.318+29254C>A, rs58419650
G > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs4646 NC_000015.10:g.51210647A>C, NC_000015.9:g.51502844A>C, NG_007982.1:g.132952T>G, NM_000103.3:c.*161T>G, NM_031226.2:c.*161T>G, XM_005254190.1:c.*161T>G, XM_005254191.1:c.*161T>G, XM_005254192.1:c.*161T>G, XR_932222.1:n.99-67336A>C, rs16964193, rs3191019, rs58335330
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4880 NC_000006.11:g.160113872A>G, NC_000006.12:g.159692840A>G, NG_008729.1:g.5482T>C, NM_000636.2:c.47T>C, NM_001024465.1:c.47T>C, NM_001024466.1:c.47T>C, NP_000627.2:p.Val16Ala, NP_001019636.1:p.Val16Ala, NP_001019637.1:p.Val16Ala, rs1141717, rs11551083, rs116851270, rs17362379, rs17405198, rs17856520, rs1799725, rs3205539, rs386596107
A > G
SNP
V16A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4953344 NC_000002.11:g.46552458T>C, NC_000002.12:g.46325319T>C, NG_016000.1:g.32918T>C, NM_001430.4:c.27-21554T>C, XM_011532698.1:c.-493T>C, XR_940055.1:n.2355+10465A>G, rs17746007, rs56802594
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6473187 NC_000008.10:g.48483958G>A, NC_000008.11:g.47571396G>A, NM_001080394.3:c.1098-24415G>A, NM_001282916.1:c.888-24415G>A, NM_001282919.1:c.918-24415G>A, NR_104581.1:n.827-24415G>A, XM_005251189.1:c.1098-24415G>A, XM_005251189.2:c.1098-24415G>A, XM_005251190.1:c.918-24415G>A, XM_005251191.1:c.1098-24415G>A, XM_005251191.2:c.1098-24415G>A, XM_005251192.1:c.888-24415G>A, XM_005251193.1:c.1098-24415G>A, XM_005251193.2:c.1098-24415G>A, XM_005251194.1:c.627-24415G>A, XM_005251195.1:c.606-24415G>A, XM_005251195.3:c.606-24415G>A, XM_005251196.1:c.579-24415G>A, XM_005251197.1:c.576-24415G>A, XM_005251197.3:c.576-24415G>A, XM_005251198.1:c.348-24415G>A, XM_005251198.3:c.348-24415G>A, XM_005251199.1:c.165-24415G>A, XM_005251199.3:c.165-24415G>A, XM_005251200.1:c.30-24415G>A, XM_006716443.2:c.918-24415G>A, XM_006716444.2:c.348-24415G>A, XM_006716445.2:c.12-24415G>A, XM_011517497.1:c.1098-24415G>A, XM_011517498.1:c.1098-24415G>A, XM_011517499.1:c.1098-24415G>A, XM_011517500.1:c.978-24415G>A, XM_011517501.1:c.663-24415G>A, XM_011517502.1:c.627-24415G>A, XM_011517503.1:c.600-24415G>A, XM_011517504.1:c.45-24415G>A, XM_011517505.1:c.30-24415G>A, XM_011517506.1:c.-151-24415G>A, XR_242455.1:n.1121-24415G>A, rs59757374
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs662 NC_000007.13:g.94937446T>C, NC_000007.14:g.95308134T>C, NG_008779.1:g.21439A>G, NM_000446.5:c.575A>G, NP_000437.3:p.Gln192Arg, rs11567868, rs13306697, rs17773773, rs386603940, rs60480675
T > C
SNP
Q192R
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6769511 NC_000003.11:g.185530290T>C, NC_000003.12:g.185812502T>C, NG_011602.1:g.17538A>G, NM_001007225.1:c.239+10651A>G, NM_001291869.1:c.239+10651A>G, NM_001291872.1:c.50+8510A>G, NM_001291873.1:c.50+8510A>G, NM_001291874.1:c.50+8510A>G, NM_001291875.1:c.-106+8510A>G, NM_006548.4:c.239+10651A>G, XM_005247073.1:c.50+8510A>G, XM_005247074.1:c.50+8510A>G, XM_005247075.1:c.50+8510A>G, XM_011512338.1:c.239+10651A>G, XM_011512339.1:c.239+10651A>G, XM_011512341.1:c.239+10651A>G, XR_427358.2:n.318+10651A>G, rs17436166, rs57496207
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs699947 NC_000006.11:g.43736389A>C, NC_000006.12:g.43768652A>C, NG_008732.1:g.3437A>C, NM_001025366.2:c.-2055A>C, NM_001025367.2:c.-2055A>C, NM_001025368.2:c.-2055A>C, NM_001025369.2:c.-2055A>C, NM_001025370.2:c.-2055A>C, NM_001033756.2:c.-2055A>C, NM_001171622.1:c.-2055A>C, NM_001171623.1:c.-2595A>C, NM_001171624.1:c.-2595A>C, NM_001171625.1:c.-2595A>C, NM_001171626.1:c.-2595A>C, NM_001171627.1:c.-2595A>C, NM_001171628.1:c.-2595A>C, NM_001171629.1:c.-2595A>C, NM_001171630.1:c.-2595A>C, NM_001204384.1:c.-2595A>C, NM_001204385.1:c.-2055A>C, NM_001317010.1:c.-2595A>C, NM_003376.5:c.-2055A>C, rs1310065, rs36208051, rs61399354
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs780093 NC_000002.11:g.27742603T>C, NC_000002.12:g.27519736T>C, NG_028024.1:g.27898T>C, NM_001486.3:c.1572+799T>C, XM_005264256.1:c.1566+799T>C, XM_005264257.1:c.1503+799T>C, XM_005264258.1:c.1002+799T>C, XM_011532761.1:c.1419+799T>C, XM_011532762.1:c.1002+799T>C, rs386613274, rs61268282, rs8179238
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs780094 NC_000002.11:g.27741237T>C, NC_000002.12:g.27518370T>C, NG_028024.1:g.26532T>C, NM_001486.3:c.1423-418T>C, XM_005264256.1:c.1417-418T>C, XM_005264257.1:c.1354-418T>C, XM_005264258.1:c.853-418T>C, XM_011532761.1:c.1270-418T>C, XM_011532762.1:c.853-418T>C, rs17705107, rs386613275, rs59441336
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7995976 NC_000013.10:g.28941060A>C, NC_000013.11:g.28366923A>C, NG_012003.1:g.133206T>G, NM_002019.4:c.2117-9238T>G, rs61179897, rs9513092
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8110536 NC_000019.10:g.756985T>G, NC_000019.9:g.756985T>G, NM_173481.2:c.39T>G, NP_775752.1:p.Pro13=, XM_005259493.1:c.39T>G, XM_011527685.1:c.39T>G, XM_011527686.1:c.39T>G, XP_005259550.1:p.Pro13=, XP_011525987.1:p.Pro13=, XP_011525988.1:p.Pro13=, rs12979335, rs17762604, rs60374394
T > G
SNP
P13P
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8187710 NC_000010.10:g.101611294G>A, NC_000010.11:g.99851537G>A, NG_011798.1:g.73832G>A, NM_000392.4:c.4544G>A, NP_000383.1:p.Cys1515Tyr, XM_005269536.1:c.4265G>A, XM_006717630.2:c.3848G>A, XP_005269593.1:p.Cys1422Tyr, XP_006717693.1:p.Cys1283Tyr, XR_945605.1:n.4608G>A, rs17222568, rs52804507, rs58135906
G > A
SNP
C1515Y
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs833058 NC_000006.11:g.43731854C>T, NC_000006.12:g.43764117C>T, rs58522910
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs854560 NC_000007.13:g.94946084A>T, NC_000007.14:g.95316772A>T, NG_008779.1:g.12801T>A, NM_000446.5:c.163T>A, NP_000437.3:p.Leu55Met, rs1138340, rs11567862, rs117860432, rs17434839, rs1801051, rs2228157, rs3179555, rs3202100, rs57937067
A > T
SNP
L55M
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9501929 NC_000006.11:g.3157854T>C, NC_000006.12:g.3157620T>C, NG_042223.1:g.4930A>G, NM_001069.2:c.-157A>G, NM_001310315.1:c.-544A>G, XM_005249359.1:c.-544A>G, XR_926395.1:n.-56T>C
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9937 NC_000011.10:g.4138227A>G, NC_000011.9:g.4159457A>G, NG_027992.2:g.48534A>G, NM_001033.3:c.2223A>G, NM_001033.4:c.2223A>G, NM_001318064.1:c.1932A>G, NM_001318065.1:c.1209A>G, NP_001024.1:p.Thr741=, NP_001304993.1:p.Thr644=, NP_001304994.1:p.Thr403=, XM_005253058.1:c.1980A>G, XM_005253059.1:c.1932A>G, XM_011520277.1:c.1932A>G, XM_011520278.1:c.1557A>G, XM_011520279.1:c.1209A>G, XP_005253115.1:p.Thr660=, XP_005253116.1:p.Thr644=, XP_011518579.1:p.Thr644=, XP_011518580.1:p.Thr519=, XP_011518581.1:p.Thr403=, rs1042857, rs17295553, rs17349998, rs17398272, rs17850106, rs2228120, rs3177016, rs59628733
A > G
SNP
T741T
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
Trade Names
  • 4'-Epiadriamycin
  • 4'-Epidoxorubicin
  • Ellence
  • Epi-Dx
  • Epiadriamycin
  • Epidoxorubicin
  • Epirubicina [INN-Spanish]
  • Epirubicina [Spanish]
  • Epirubicine [French]
  • Epirubicine [INN-French]
  • Epirubicinum [INN-Latin]
  • Epirubicinum [Latin]
  • IMI 28
  • Pharmorubicin Pfs
  • Pidorubicina [INN-Spanish]
  • Pidorubicine [INN-French]
  • Pidorubicinum [INN-Latin]
  • Ridorubicin
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA449476

Type(s):

Drug

Description

An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For use as a component of adjuvant therapy in patients with evidence of axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Epirubicin has antimitotic and cytotoxic activity. It inhibits nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) and protein synthesis through a number of proposed mechanisms of action: Epirubicin forms complexes with DNA by intercalation between base pairs, and it inhibits topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the DNA-topoisomerase II complex, preventing the religation portion of the ligation-religation reaction that topoisomerase II catalyzes. It also interferes with DNA replication and transcription by inhibiting DNA helicase activity.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Epirubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. Epirubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. Epirubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. The anthracyclines are cell cycle-nonspecific.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Liberal fluid intake to increase urine output and help the excretion of uric acid.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Extensively and rapidly metabolized in the liver. Epirubicin is also metabolized by other organs and cells, including red blood cells. The four main metabolic routes are: (1) reduction of the C-13 keto-group with the formation of the 13(S)-dihydro derivative, epirubicinol; (2) conjugation of both the unchanged drug and epirubicinol with glucuronic acid; (3) loss of the amino sugar moiety through a hydrolytic process with the formation of the doxorubicin and doxorubicinol aglycones; and (4) loss of the amino sugar moiety through a redox process with the formation of the 7-deoxy-doxorubicin aglycone and 7-deoxy-doxorubicinol aglycone. Epirubicinol exhibits in vitro cytoxic activity (~10% that of epirubicin), but it is unlikely to reach sufficient concentrations in vivo to produce cytotoxic effects.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

77%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

100%

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Half-lives for the alpha, beta, and gamma phases of about 3 minutes, 2.5 hours and 33 hours, respectively

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

bone marrow aplasia, grade 4 mucositis, and gastrointestinal bleeding

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Epirubicin and its major metabolites are eliminated through biliary excretion and, to a lesser extent, by urinary excretion.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C27H29NO11

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

C[C@H]1[C@@H]([C@H](C[C@@H](O1)O[C@H]2C[C@@](Cc3c2c(c4c(c3O)C(=O)c5cccc(c5C4=O)OC)O)(C(=O)CO)O)N)O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

COC1=CC=CC2=C1C(=O)C1=C(O)C3=C(C[C@](O)(C[C@@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

543.5193

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

543.174060775

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

COC1=CC=CC2=C1C(=O)C1=C(O)C3=C(C[C@](O)(C[C@@H]3O[C@H]3C[C@H](N)[C@@H](O)[C@H](C)O3)C(=O)CO)C(O)=C1C2=O

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C27H29NO11/c1-10-22(31)13(28)6-17(38-10)39-15-8-27(36,16(30)9-29)7-12-19(15)26(35)21-20(24(12)33)23(32)11-4-3-5-14(37-2)18(11)25(21)34/h3-5,10,13,15,17,22,29,31,33,35-36H,6-9,28H2,1-2H3/t10-,13-,15-,17-,22-,27-/m0/s1

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
CHD1 (source: Drug Bank )
TOP2A (source: Drug Bank )

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
cimetidine - epirubicin Cimetidine can increase epirubicin levels (source: Drug Bank )
cimetidine - epirubicin Cimetidine can increase epirubicin levels (source: Drug Bank )
epirubicin - cimetidine Cimetidine can increase epirubicin levels (source: Drug Bank )
epirubicin - cimetidine Cimetidine can increase epirubicin levels (source: Drug Bank )
trastuzumab - epirubicin Trastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxicity of Epirubicin. Signs and symptoms of cardiac dysfunction should be monitored for frequently. Increased risk of heart failure. Trastuzumab may increase the risk of neutropenia and anemia. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of adverse events. (source: Drug Bank )

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to epirubicin: 39

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLCO1B1*5 polymorphism (rs4149056) is associated with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women with breast cancer: a prospective cohort study. BMC cancer. 2016. Reimer Toralf, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variants in VEGF pathway genes in neoadjuvant breast cancer patients receiving bevacizumab: Results from the randomized phase III GeparQuinto study. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2015. Hein Alexander, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship of MTHFR and NQO1 Pharmacogenetics and Chemotherapy Clinical Outcomes in Breast Cancer Patients. Biochemical genetics. 2015. Chaturvedi Pankaj, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms upon the effectiveness of standard treatment for acute myeloid leukemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. Megías-Vericat J E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Germline TYMS genotype is highly predictive in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2015. Joerger M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of SNPs associated with response of breast cancer patients to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the EORTC-10994 randomized phase III trial. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. Le Morvan V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with prognostic outcomes of anthracycline and cytarabine in Chinese patients with acute myeloid leukemia. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. He Hui, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
S4646 polymorphism in CYP19A1 gene is associated with the efficacy of hormone therapy in early breast cancer. International journal of clinical and experimental pathology. 2015. Shao Xiying, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of IGF2BP2, KCNQ1 and GCKR polymorphisms on clinical outcome in metastatic gastric cancer treated with EOF regimen. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Liu Xin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
The CYP19 RS4646 Polymorphism IS Related to the Prognosis of Stage I-II and Operable Stage III Breast Cancer. PloS one. 2015. Shao Xiying, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Replication of genetic polymorphisms reported to be associated with taxane-related sensory neuropathy in patients with early breast cancer treated with Paclitaxel. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2014. Abraham Jean E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic Factors Affecting Gene Transcription and Catalytic Activity of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases in Human Liver. Human molecular genetics. 2014. Liu Wanqing, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Oxidative stress-related genetic polymorphisms are associated with the prognosis of metastatic gastric cancer patients treated with epirubicin, oxaliplatin and 5-Fluorouracil combination chemotherapy. PloS one. 2014. Geng Ruixuan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Common variants in genes coding for chemotherapy metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and targets: a case-control study of contralateral breast cancer risk in the WECARE Study. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2013. Brooks Jennifer D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Implications of Genome-Wide Association Studies in Cancer Therapeutics. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Patel Jai N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics as a risk mitigation strategy for chemotherapeutic cardiotoxicity. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Jensen Brian C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association between DNA-repair polymorphisms and survival in pancreatic cancer patients treated with combination chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Giovannetti Elisa, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Anthracycline-Related Cardiomyopathy After Childhood Cancer: Role of Polymorphisms in Carbonyl Reductase Genes--A report From the Children's Oncology Group. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2011. Blanco Javier G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomic characterization of US FDA-approved cytotoxic drugs. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Peters Eric J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms of GSTP1 is associated with differences of chemotherapy response and toxicity in breast cancer. Chinese medical journal. 2011. Zhang Bai-Lin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The temporal relationship between ABCB1 promoter hypomethylation, ABCB1 expression and acquisition of drug resistance. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Reed K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with survival and in vitro cytotoxicty in de novo acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Gréen H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Host genetic variants in the IGF binding protein-3 impact on survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with palliative chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Graziano Francesco, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Predictive markers of anthracycline benefit: a prospectively planned analysis of the UK National Epirubicin Adjuvant Trial (NEAT/BR9601). The lancet oncology. 2010. Bartlett John M S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MDR1 (C3435T) polymorphism: relation to the risk of breast cancer and therapeutic outcome. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Cizmarikova M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Different anthracycline derivates for reducing cardiotoxicity in cancer patients. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). 2010. van Dalen Elvira C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and chemotherapy response in locally advanced breast cancer. Genetics and molecular research : GMR. 2010. Oliveira A L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Nitric oxide synthase variants and disease-free survival among treated and untreated breast cancer patients in a Southwest Oncology Group clinical trial. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2009. Choi Ji-Yeob, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 NQO1*2 genotype (P187S) is a strong prognostic and predictive factor in breast cancer. Nature genetics. 2008. Fagerholm Rainer, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms in the carbonyl reductase 3 gene CBR3 and the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene NQO1 in patients who developed anthracycline-related congestive heart failure after childhood cancer. Cancer. 2008. Blanco Javier G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HER2/neu in systemic therapy for women with breast cancer: a systematic review. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2008. Dhesy-Thind Bindi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of epirubicin and Paclitaxel in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced primary breast cancer. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2007. Hunz M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical relevance of different dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene single nucleotide polymorphisms on 5-fluorouracil tolerance. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2006. Morel Alain, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cancer and leukemia group B gastrointestinal cancer committee. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2006. Goldberg Richard M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Multidrug resistance-1 gene polymorphisms associated with treatment outcomes in de novo acute myeloid leukemia. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2006. Kim Dong Hwan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Med-psych drug-drug interactions update. Psychosomatics. 2002. Armstrong Scott C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epirubicin glucuronidation is catalyzed by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001. Innocenti F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase in protection of mesothelioma cells against hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin toxicity. British journal of cancer. 1998. Kinnula K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacological characterization of multidrug resistant MRP-transfected human tumor cells. Cancer research. 1994. Cole S P, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
61703-347-35
DrugBank:
DB00445
ChEBI:
47898
KEGG Compound:
C11230
PubChem Compound:
41867
PubChem Substance:
182518
46507282
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2069512
ChemSpider:
38201
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000193
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
fcca49a1-8009-4375-47b3-543a4f437e02

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention epirubicin and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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NURSA Datasets

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No NURSA datasets available.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.