Chemical: Drug
diazepam

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.


last updated 10/25/2013

1. FDA Label for diazepam and CYP2C19

Actionable PGx

Summary

The FDA-approved drug label for diazepam (Diastat) notes that the drug is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, and that inter-individual variation in clearance of the drug is likely attributable to CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 genetic variability.

Annotation

Diazepam (Diastat) is drug intended for treatment of breakthrough seizures. It is primarily metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, and genetic variability in either gene may lead to changes in clearance of the drug.

Excerpts from the diazepam (Diastat) drug label:

The metabolism of diazepam...involves demethylation (involving primarily CYP2C19 and CYP3A4) and 3-hydroxylation (involving primarily CYP3A4)...The marked inter-individual variability in clearance of diazepam reported in the literature is probably attributable to variability of CYP2C19...and CYP3A4.

For the complete drug label text with sections containing pharmacogenetic information highlighted, see the diazepam drug label.

*Disclaimer: The contents of this page have not been endorsed by the FDA and are the sole responsibility of PharmGKB.

Full label available at DailyMed

Genes and/or phenotypes found in this label

  • Epilepsy
    • Indications & usage section, Warnings section, Adverse reactions section, Precautions section
    • source: PHONT
  • CYP1A2
    • Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP2A6
    • Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP2C19
    • metabolism/PK, Clinical pharmacology section, Precautions section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP2C9
    • Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP2D6
    • Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP2E1
    • Clinical pharmacology section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • CYP3A4
    • metabolism/PK, Clinical pharmacology section, Precautions section
    • source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for diazepam

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA CYP2C19 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C9 *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs28399504 NC_000010.10:g.96522463A>G, NC_000010.11:g.94762706A>G, NG_008384.2:g.5001A>G, NM_000769.1:c.1A>G, NM_000769.2:c.1A>G, NP_000760.1:p.Met1Val
A > G
SNP
M1V
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs776746 NC_000007.13:g.99270539C>T, NC_000007.14:g.99672916T>C, NG_007938.1:g.12083G=, NG_007938.1:g.12083G>A, NM_000777.4:c.219-237A>G, NM_000777.4:c.219-237G>A, NM_001190484.2:c.219-237A>G, NM_001190484.2:c.219-237G>A, NM_001291829.1:c.-253-1A>G, NM_001291829.1:c.-253-1G>A, NM_001291830.1:c.189-237A>G, NM_001291830.1:c.189-237G>A, NR_033807.2:n.717-1A>G, NR_033807.2:n.717-1G>A, NR_033808.1:n.689-1G>A, NR_033809.1:n.581-237G>A, NR_033810.1:n.689-1G>A, NR_033811.1:n.321-1G>A, NR_033812.1:n.321-1G>A, XM_005250169.1:c.189-237G>A, XM_005250170.1:c.-357-1G>A, XM_005250171.1:c.-253-1G>A, XM_005250172.1:c.-254G>A, XM_005250173.1:c.-331-237G>A, XM_005250198.1:c.806-4288C>T, XM_006715859.2:c.219-237A>G, XM_011515843.1:c.-254A>G, XM_011515844.1:c.-229-237A>G, XM_011515845.1:c.-463-1A>G, XM_011515846.1:c.-331-237A>G, XM_011515847.1:c.-571-1A>G, XR_927383.1:n.344-237A>G, XR_927402.1:n.1466+48736T>C, rs10361242, rs11266830, rs386613022, rs58244770
C > T
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • DAP
  • Methyldiazepinone
Trade Names
  • Alboral
  • Aliseum
  • Alupram
  • Amiprol
  • An-Ding
  • Ansiolin
  • Ansiolisina
  • Apaurin
  • Apo-Diazepam
  • Apozepam
  • Armonil
  • Assival
  • Atensine
  • Atilen
  • Bensedin
  • Bialzepam
  • Calmocitene
  • Calmpose
  • Cercine
  • Ceregulart
  • Diacepan
  • Dialag
  • Dialar
  • Diapam
  • Diastat
  • Diazemuls
  • Diazemulus
  • Diazepam Intensol
  • Diazepan
  • Diazetard
  • Dienpax
  • Dipam
  • Dipezona
  • Dizac
  • Domalium
  • Duksen
  • Duxen
  • E-Pam
  • Eridan
  • Eurosan
  • Evacalm
  • Faustan
  • Faustan,
  • Freudal
  • Frustan
  • Gewacalm
  • Gihitan
  • Kabivitrum
  • Kiatrium
  • LA III
  • La-Iii
  • Lamra
  • Lembrol
  • Levium
  • Liberetas
  • Mandrozep
  • Morosan
  • Neurolytril
  • Noan
  • Novazam
  • Novo-Dipam
  • Paceum
  • Pacitran
  • Paranten
  • Paxate
  • Paxel
  • Plidan
  • Pms-Diazepam
  • Pro-Pam
  • Q-Pam
  • Q-Pam Relanium
  • Quetinil
  • Quiatril
  • Quievita
  • Relaminal
  • Relanium
  • Renborin
  • Ruhsitus
  • Saromet
  • Sedapam
  • Sedipam
  • Seduksen
  • Seduxen
  • Serenack
  • Serenamin
  • Serenzin
  • Servizepam
  • Setonil
  • Sibazon
  • Sibazone
  • Solis
  • Sonacon
  • Stesolid
  • Stesolin
  • Tensopam
  • Tranimul
  • Tranqdyn
  • Tranquase
  • Tranquirit
  • Tranquo-Puren
  • Tranquo-Tablinen
  • Umbrium
  • Unisedil
  • Usempax Ap
  • Valaxona
  • Valeo
  • Valiquid
  • Valitran
  • Valium
  • Valrelease
  • Vatran
  • Velium
  • Vival
  • Vivol
  • Zetran
  • Zipan
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA449283

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid activity. It is used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p589)

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Benzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors which mediate sleep, affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA A) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Diazepam, a benzodiazepine, generates the same active metabolite as chlordiazepoxide and clorazepate. In animals, diazepam appears to act on parts of the limbic system, the thalamus and hypothalamus, and induces calming effects. Diazepam, unlike chlorpromazine and reserpine, has no demonstrable peripheral autonomic blocking action, nor does it produce extrapyramidal side effects; however, animals treated with diazepam do have a transient ataxia at higher doses. Diazepam was found to have transient cardiovascular depressor effects in dogs. Long-term experiments in rats revealed no disturbances of endocrine function. Injections into animals have produced localized irritation of tissue surrounding injection sites and some thickening of veins after intravenous use.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Avoid alcohol.|Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (caffeine).|Avoid taking with grapefruit or grapefruit juice as grapefruit can significantly increase serum levels of this product.|Take with food.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic via the Cytochrome P450 enzyme system. The main active metabolite is desmethyldiazepam, in addition to minor active metabolites including temazepam and oxazepam.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

98.5%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Essentially complete, with a bioavailability of 93%.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Biphasic 1-2 days and 2-5 days, active metabolites with long half lives.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include somnolence, confusion, coma, and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored.

Source: Drug Bank

Clearance

  • 20-30 mL/min

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Diazepam and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine, predominantly as their glucuronide conjugates.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C16H13ClN2O

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CN1c2ccc(cc2C(=NCC1=O)c3ccccc3)Cl

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CN1C2=C(C=C(Cl)C=C2)C(=NCC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

284.74

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

284.071640755

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

CN1C2=C(C=C(Cl)C=C2)C(=NCC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C16H13ClN2O/c1-19-14-8-7-12(17)9-13(14)16(18-10-15(19)20)11-5-3-2-4-6-11/h2-9H,10H2,1H3

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
GABRA1 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA2 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA3 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA5 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRB1 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRB2 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRB3 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRD (source: Drug Bank)
GABRE (source: Drug Bank)
GABRG1 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRG2 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRG3 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRP (source: Drug Bank)
GABRQ (source: Drug Bank)
GABRR1 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRR2 (source: Drug Bank)
GABRR3 (source: Drug Bank)
TSPO (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
amprenavir - diazepam Increases the effect and toxicity of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
amprenavir - diazepam Increases the effect and toxicity of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
cimetidine - diazepam Increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
cimetidine - diazepam Increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
clarithromycin - diazepam The macrolide increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
clarithromycin - diazepam The macrolide increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
clozapine - diazepam Increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
clozapine - diazepam Increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - amprenavir Amprenavir increases the effect and toxicity of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - amprenavir Amprenavir increases the effect and toxicity of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - cimetidine Cimetidine increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - cimetidine Cimetidine increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - clarithromycin The macrolide increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - clarithromycin The macrolide increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - clozapine Increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - clozapine Increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - digoxin The benzodiazepine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - digoxin The benzodiazepine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - erythromycin The macrolide increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - erythromycin The macrolide increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - ethotoin Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - fluconazole Fluconazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - fluconazole Fluconazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - fosamprenavir Amprenavir increases the effect and toxicity of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - fosamprenavir Amprenavir increases the effect and toxicity of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - fosphenytoin Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - indinavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - indinavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - itraconazole The imidazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - itraconazole The imidazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - josamycin The macrolide increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - ketoconazole The imidazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - ketoconazole The imidazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - mephenytoin Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - mephenytoin Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - nelfinavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - nelfinavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - omeprazole Omeprazole increases the effect of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - omeprazole Omeprazole increases the effect of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - phenytoin Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - phenytoin Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - quinupristin This combination presents an increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - rifampin Rifampin decreases the effect of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - rifampin Rifampin decreases the effect of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - ritonavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - ritonavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - saquinavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - saquinavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - voriconazole The imidazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
diazepam - voriconazole The imidazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
digoxin - diazepam The benzodiazepine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
digoxin - diazepam The benzodiazepine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
erythromycin - diazepam The macrolide increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
erythromycin - diazepam The macrolide increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
fluconazole - diazepam Increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
fluconazole - diazepam Increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
fosamprenavir - diazepam Amprenavir increases the effect and toxicity of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
fosamprenavir - diazepam Amprenavir increases the effect and toxicity of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
fosphenytoin - diazepam Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir - diazepam The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir - diazepam The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole - diazepam The imidazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole - diazepam The imidazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
ketoconazole - diazepam The imidazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
ketoconazole - diazepam The imidazole increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
nelfinavir - diazepam The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
nelfinavir - diazepam The protease inhibitor increases the effect of the benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
omeprazole - diazepam Omeprazole increases the effect of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
omeprazole - diazepam Omeprazole increases the effect of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin - diazepam Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin - diazepam Possible increased levels of the hydantoin, decrease of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
quinupristin - diazepam This combination presents an increased risk of toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin - diazepam Rifampin decreases the effect of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin - diazepam Rifampin decreases the effect of benzodiazepine (source: Drug Bank)
telithromycin - diazepam Telithromycin may reduce clearance of Diazepam. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Diazepam if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
ticlopidine - diazepam Ticlopidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Diazepam. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for adverse/toxic effects of Diazepam if Ticlopidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tipranavir - diazepam Tipranavir may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Diazepam. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for Diazepam toxic effects if Tipranavir is initiated or dose increased. (source: Drug Bank)
triprolidine - diazepam The CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Diazepam, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
triprolidine - diazepam The CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Diazepam, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
voriconazole - diazepam Voriconazole may increase the serum concentration of diazepam by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for diazepam toxicity if voriconazole is initiated or dose increased. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to diazepam: 29

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Role of CYP2C19 gene polymorphism in acute alcohol withdrawal treatment with loading dose of diazepam in a South Indian population. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Jose Manu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Antidotes to coumarins, isoniazid, methotrexate and thyroxine; toxins that work via metabolic processes. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Bateman D Nicholas, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in the brain. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. 2012. Miksys Sharon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP3A5. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Lamba Jatinder, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neurological toxicity after phenytoin infusion in a pediatric patient with epilepsy: influence of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Dorado P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Systematic review of pharmacoeconomic studies of pharmacogenomic tests. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Beaulieu Mathieu, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP2B6. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ADME pharmacogenetics: current practices and future outlook. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2009. Grossman Iris. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2008. Zanger Ulrich M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Current drug metabolism. 2008. Mandrioli Roberto, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The antidepressant fluoxetine restores plasticity in the adult visual cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2008. Maya Vetencourt José Fernando, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of benzodiazepines. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2007. Fukasawa T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB1 polymorphisms influence the response to antiepileptic drugs in Japanese epilepsy patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2006. Seo Takayuki, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19 genotype affects diazepam pharmacokinetics and emergence from general anesthesia. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2005. Inomata Shinichi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor: an old target with new potential?. Sleep medicine. 2004. Bateson Alan N. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The role of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) in CNS pathophysiology. Current medicinal chemistry. 2002. Lang Senyang. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mapping of the benzodiazepine recognition site on GABA(A) receptors. Current topics in medicinal chemistry. 2002. Sigel Erwin. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
New insights into the role of the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor in psychiatric disorder. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. 2001. Nutt D J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical relevance of genetic polymorphisms in the human CYP2C subfamily. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2001. Goldstein J A. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effect of the gene dosage of CgammaP2C19 on diazepam metabolism in Chinese subjects. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1999. Qin X P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Relationship between a GABAA alpha 6 Pro385Ser substitution and benzodiazepine sensitivity. The American journal of psychiatry. 1999. Iwata N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inhibition of human hepatic cytochrome P4502E1 by azole antifungals, CNS-active drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 1998. Tassaneeyakul W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The benzodiazepine binding site of GABAA receptors. Trends in pharmacological sciences. 1997. Sigel E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Benzodiazepines, anxiety and immunity. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 1997. Zavala F. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and CNS drug interactions. A critical review of the evidence. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 1997. Sproule B A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Incidence of S-mephenytoin hydroxylation deficiency in a Korean population and the interphenotypic differences in diazepam pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1992. Sohn D R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Importance of genetic factors in the regulation of diazepam metabolism: relationship to S-mephenytoin, but not debrisoquin, hydroxylation phenotype. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 1989. Bertilsson L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Cloning and expression of cDNA for human diazepam binding inhibitor, a natural ligand of an allosteric regulatory site of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1986. Gray P W, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0140-0005-01
DrugBank:
DB00829
PDB:
DZP
ChEBI:
4494
49575
KEGG Compound:
C06948
KEGG Drug:
D00293
PubChem Compound:
3016
PubChem Substance:
153142
46505210
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
2247176
ChemSpider:
2908
HET:
DZP
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DNC000549
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
554baee5-b171-4452-a50a-41a0946f956c

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention diazepam and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials found.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.