Chemical: Drug
cyclosporine

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for cyclosporine

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C8 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP2C8 *3 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A4 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A4 *18B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A4 *22 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A5 *1A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA CYP3A5 *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA TPMT *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA TPMT *2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA TPMT *3A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA TPMT *3B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA TPMT *3C N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1017860 NC_000018.10:g.79412206T>C, NC_000018.9:g.77172206T>C, NG_029226.1:g.21435T>C, NM_001278669.1:c.1226+705T>C, NM_001278670.1:c.1226+705T>C, NM_001278672.1:c.1187+705T>C, NM_001278673.1:c.-191+11727T>C, NM_001278675.1:c.1187+705T>C, NM_006162.4:c.1226+705T>C, NM_172387.2:c.1187+705T>C, NM_172388.2:c.-191+15855T>C, NM_172389.2:c.1187+705T>C, NM_172390.2:c.1226+705T>C, XM_005266701.1:c.1193+705T>C, XM_005266702.1:c.1226+705T>C, rs59239647
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10264272 NC_000007.13:g.99262835C>T, NC_000007.14:g.99665212C>T, NG_007938.1:g.19787G>A, NM_000777.4:c.624G>A, NM_001291829.1:c.285G>A, NM_001291830.1:c.594G>A, NP_000768.1:p.Lys208=, NP_001278758.1:p.Lys95=, NP_001278759.1:p.Lys198=, NR_033807.2:n.1273G>A, NR_033808.1:n.1226G>A, NR_033809.1:n.986G>A, NR_033810.1:n.1226G>A, NR_033811.1:n.975G>A, NR_033812.1:n.867G>A, XM_005250169.1:c.594G>A, XM_005250170.1:c.285G>A, XM_005250171.1:c.285G>A, XM_005250172.1:c.285G>A, XM_005250173.1:c.84G>A, XM_005250198.1:c.806-11992C>T, XM_006715859.2:c.624G>A, XM_011515843.1:c.285G>A, XM_011515844.1:c.285G>A, XM_011515845.1:c.84G>A, XM_011515846.1:c.84G>A, XM_011515847.1:c.84G>A, XM_011515909.1:c.806-3883C>T, XP_005250226.1:p.Lys198=, XP_005250227.1:p.Lys95=, XP_005250228.1:p.Lys95=, XP_005250229.1:p.Lys95=, XP_005250230.1:p.Lys28=, XP_006715922.1:p.Lys208=, XP_011514145.1:p.Lys95=, XP_011514146.1:p.Lys95=, XP_011514147.1:p.Lys28=, XP_011514148.1:p.Lys28=, XP_011514149.1:p.Lys28=, XR_927402.1:n.1466+41032C>T, rs58867275
C > -
C > T
SNP
K208K
No VIP available CA VA
rs1042597 NC_000002.11:g.234526871C>G, NC_000002.12:g.233618225C>G, NG_002601.2:g.33482C>G, NM_019076.4:c.518C>G, NP_061949.3:p.Ala173Gly, rs117092283, rs13387262, rs17862843, rs2071043, rs56696602
C > G
SNP
A173G
No VIP available CA VA
rs1045642 NC_000007.13:g.87138645A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87509329A>G, NG_011513.1:g.208920T>C, NM_000927.4:c.3435T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Ile1145=, rs10239679, rs11568726, rs117328163, rs17210003, rs2229108, rs386513066, rs60023214, rs9690664
A > G
SNP
I1145I
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1051266 NC_000021.8:g.46957794T>C, NC_000021.9:g.45537880T>C, NG_028278.1:g.9592A>G, NM_001205206.1:c.80A>G, NM_194255.2:c.80A>G, NP_001192135.1:p.His27Arg, NP_919231.1:p.His27Arg, XM_005261163.1:c.80A>G, XM_005261164.1:c.-279A>G, XM_005261164.2:c.-279A>G, XM_011529696.1:c.371A>G, XM_011529697.1:c.371A>G, XM_011529698.1:c.146A>G, XM_011529699.1:c.-1639A>G, XM_011529700.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529701.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529702.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529703.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529704.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529705.1:c.371A>G, XM_011529707.1:c.371A>G, XM_011529708.1:c.80A>G, XM_011529709.1:c.-279A>G, XM_011529710.1:c.-165-5732A>G, XP_005261220.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011527998.1:p.His124Arg, XP_011527999.1:p.His124Arg, XP_011528000.1:p.His49Arg, XP_011528002.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011528003.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011528004.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011528005.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011528006.1:p.His27Arg, XP_011528007.1:p.His124Arg, XP_011528009.1:p.His124Arg, XP_011528010.1:p.His27Arg, rs17844977, rs17857726, rs3171496, rs386514057, rs61510559
T > C
SNP
H27R
No VIP available CA VA
rs1057868 NC_000007.13:g.75615006C>T, NC_000007.14:g.75985688C>T, NG_008930.1:g.75587C>T, NM_000941.2:c.1508C>T, NP_000932.3:p.Ala503Val, NW_003871064.1:g.3514924C>T, XM_005250459.1:c.1508C>T, XM_005250460.1:c.1205C>T, XM_005250461.1:c.932C>T, XM_005277600.1:c.1508C>T, XM_005277601.1:c.1205C>T, XM_005277602.1:c.932C>T, XP_005250516.1:p.Ala503Val, XP_005250517.1:p.Ala402Val, XP_005250518.1:p.Ala311Val, XP_005277657.1:p.Ala503Val, XP_005277658.1:p.Ala402Val, XP_005277659.1:p.Ala311Val, rs17840495, rs17846082, rs17859083, rs3198400, rs57699079
C > T
SNP
A503V
rs1128503 NC_000007.13:g.87179601A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87550285A>G, NG_011513.1:g.167964T>C, NM_000927.4:c.1236T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Gly412=, rs116989428, rs17276907, rs2032587, rs2229105, rs28365046, rs386518005, rs58257317
A > G
SNP
G412G
No VIP available CA VA
rs11706052 NC_000003.11:g.49064110A>G, NC_000003.12:g.49026677A>G, NG_012091.1:g.7766T>C, NM_000884.2:c.819+10T>C, XM_006713128.2:c.1029+10T>C
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17222723 NC_000010.10:g.101595996T>A, NC_000010.11:g.99836239T>A, NG_011798.1:g.58534T>A, NM_000392.4:c.3563T>A, NP_000383.1:p.Val1188Glu, XM_005269536.1:c.3284T>A, XM_006717630.2:c.2867T>A, XP_005269593.1:p.Val1095Glu, XP_006717693.1:p.Val956Glu, XR_945604.1:n.3752T>A, XR_945605.1:n.3754T>A, rs52837755, rs59106280
T > A
SNP
V1188E
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17264736 NC_000016.10:g.16022699G=, NC_000016.10:g.16022699G>T, NC_000016.9:g.16116556G>T, NG_028268.1:g.78123G=, NG_028268.1:g.78123G>T, NM_004996.3:c.615+6078G>T, NM_004996.3:c.615+6078T>G, NT_187607.1:g.1680578T=, NT_187607.1:g.1680578T>G, XM_005255326.1:c.615+6078G>T, XM_005255327.1:c.489+8071G>T, XM_005255328.1:c.477+6078G>T, XM_005255329.1:c.615+6078G>T, XM_011522497.1:c.591+6078G>T, XM_011522497.1:c.591+6078T>G, XM_011522498.1:c.669+6078G>T, XM_011522498.1:c.669+6078T>G, rs386543216, rs60563196
G > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17514110 NC_000002.11:g.216205484C>T, NC_000002.12:g.215340761C>T, NG_013002.1:g.33806C>T, NM_004044.6:c.1227+1854C>T, rs60876088
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800470 NC_000019.10:g.41353016G>A, NC_000019.9:g.41858921G>A, NG_013091.1:g.16158C>T, NG_013364.1:g.5911C>T, NM_000660.5:c.29C>T, NP_000651.3:p.Pro10Leu, XM_005259150.1:c.-30+1814G>A, XM_005259187.1:c.29C>T, XM_011527242.1:c.29C>T, XP_005259244.1:p.Pro10Leu, XP_011525544.1:p.Pro10Leu, rs17849267, rs17849435, rs17851976, rs1982073, rs3745293, rs60195696
G > A
SNP
P10L
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800471 NC_000019.10:g.41352971C>G, NC_000019.9:g.41858876C>G, NG_013091.1:g.16203G>C, NG_013364.1:g.5956G>C, NM_000660.5:c.74G>C, NP_000651.3:p.Arg25Pro, XM_005259150.1:c.-30+1769C>G, XM_005259187.1:c.74G>C, XM_011527242.1:c.74G>C, XP_005259244.1:p.Arg25Pro, XP_011525544.1:p.Arg25Pro, rs4987231
C > G
SNP
R25P
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800629 NC_000006.11:g.31543031G=, NC_000006.11:g.31543031G>A, NC_000006.12:g.31575254G=, NC_000006.12:g.31575254G>A, NG_007462.1:g.4682G=, NG_007462.1:g.4682G>A, NG_012010.1:g.8156G=, NG_012010.1:g.8156G>A, NM_000594.3:c.-488A>G, NM_000594.3:c.-488G>A, NT_113891.2:g.3052647A=, NT_113891.2:g.3052647A>G, NT_113891.3:g.3052541A=, NT_113891.3:g.3052541A>G, NT_167245.1:g.2828572G=, NT_167245.1:g.2828572G>A, NT_167245.2:g.2822987G=, NT_167245.2:g.2822987G>A, NT_167246.1:g.2885915G=, NT_167246.1:g.2885915G>A, NT_167246.2:g.2880295G=, NT_167246.2:g.2880295G>A, NT_167247.1:g.2922737G=, NT_167247.1:g.2922737G>A, NT_167247.2:g.2917152G=, NT_167247.2:g.2917152G>A, NT_167248.1:g.2836669G=, NT_167248.1:g.2836669G>A, NT_167248.2:g.2831073G=, NT_167248.2:g.2831073G>A, NT_167249.1:g.2873832G=, NT_167249.1:g.2873832G>A, NT_167249.2:g.2874534G=, NT_167249.2:g.2874534G>A, rs116610137, rs117441802, rs148958203, rs3091256, rs36205298, rs4134777, rs59729336
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800871 NC_000001.10:g.206946634A>G, NC_000001.11:g.206773289A>G, NG_012088.1:g.4206T>C, NM_000572.2:c.-854T>C, XM_011509506.1:c.-854T>C, rs3021097, rs36213473, rs52832962
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800872 NC_000001.10:g.206946407T>G, NC_000001.11:g.206773062T>G, NG_012088.1:g.4433A>C, NM_000572.2:c.-627A>C, XM_011509506.1:c.-627A>C, rs36213471, rs61491075
T > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800894 NC_000001.10:g.206946666C>T, NC_000001.11:g.206773321C>T, NG_012088.1:g.4174G>A, NM_000572.2:c.-886G>A, XM_011509506.1:c.-886G>A, rs36213834, rs56600828, rs60165533
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1800896 NC_000001.10:g.206946897T>C, NC_000001.11:g.206773552T>C, NG_012088.1:g.3943A>G, NM_000572.2:c.-1117A>G, XM_011509506.1:c.-1001-116A>G, rs36213835, rs386545607, rs59915840
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801133 NC_000001.10:g.11856378G>A, NC_000001.11:g.11796321G>A, NG_013351.1:g.14783C>T, NM_005957.4:c.665C>T, NP_005948.3:p.Ala222Val, XM_005263458.1:c.788C>T, XM_005263458.2:c.788C>T, XM_005263459.1:c.734C>T, XM_005263460.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263460.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263461.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263461.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263462.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263462.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263463.1:c.419C>T, XM_005263463.2:c.419C>T, XM_011541495.1:c.785C>T, XM_011541496.1:c.788C>T, XP_005263515.1:p.Ala263Val, XP_005263516.1:p.Ala245Val, XP_005263517.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263518.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263519.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263520.1:p.Ala140Val, XP_011539797.1:p.Ala262Val, XP_011539798.1:p.Ala263Val, rs386545618, rs4134713, rs59514310
G > A
SNP
A222V
rs2032582 NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>C, NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>T, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>C, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>T, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>A, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>G, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>A, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>G, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Ala, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Thr, rs10228331, rs2229106, rs386553610, rs57135550, rs9641018
A > C
SNP
S893A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2066844 NC_000016.10:g.50712015C>T, NC_000016.9:g.50745926C>T, NG_007508.1:g.19877C>T, NM_001293557.1:c.2023C>T, NM_022162.1:c.2104C>T, NM_022162.2:c.2104C>T, NP_001280486.1:p.Arg675Trp, NP_071445.1:p.Arg702Trp, XM_005256084.1:c.2023C>T, XM_005256084.2:c.2023C>T, XM_006721242.2:c.2023C>T, XM_006721243.2:c.2023C>T, XM_011523257.1:c.1600C>T, XM_011523258.1:c.1600C>T, XM_011523259.1:c.1438C>T, XM_011523260.1:c.2023C>T, XM_011523261.1:c.2023C>T, XP_005256141.1:p.Arg675Trp, XP_006721305.1:p.Arg675Trp, XP_006721306.1:p.Arg675Trp, XP_011521559.1:p.Arg534Trp, XP_011521560.1:p.Arg534Trp, XP_011521561.1:p.Arg480Trp, XP_011521562.1:p.Arg675Trp, XP_011521563.1:p.Arg675Trp, XR_429725.2:n.2113C>T, XR_429726.2:n.2113C>T, XR_933387.1:n.2113C>T, rs17221641, rs17860491, rs58650267
C > T
SNP
R675W
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2069762 NC_000004.11:g.123377980A>C, NC_000004.12:g.122456825A>C, NG_016779.1:g.4671T>G, NM_000586.3:c.-385T>G, rs36215458, rs386556267
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2069763 NC_000004.11:g.123377482C>A, NC_000004.12:g.122456327C>A, NG_016779.1:g.5169G>T, NM_000586.3:c.114G>T, NP_000577.2:p.Leu38=, rs117267315, rs386556268, rs58787434
C > A
SNP
L38L
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2167270 NC_000007.13:g.127881349G>A, NC_000007.14:g.128241296G>A, NG_007450.1:g.5019G>A, NM_000230.2:c.-39G>A, XM_005250340.1:c.-39G>A, XM_005250340.3:c.-39G>A, rs17533430, rs36219625, rs56514852
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2177735 NC_000002.11:g.216207875G>A, NC_000002.12:g.215343152G>A, NG_013002.1:g.36197G>A, NM_004044.6:c.1228-1627G>A, rs4499424
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2228075 NC_000007.13:g.128034629C>T, NC_000007.14:g.128394575C>T, NG_009194.1:g.20408G>A, NM_000883.3:c.1575G>A, NM_001102605.1:c.1545G>A, NM_001142573.1:c.1320G>A, NM_001142574.1:c.1305G>A, NM_001142575.1:c.1245G>A, NM_001142576.1:c.1476G>A, NM_001304521.1:c.1368G>A, NM_183243.2:c.1467G>A, NP_000874.2:p.Ala525=, NP_001096075.1:p.Ala515=, NP_001136045.1:p.Ala440=, NP_001136046.1:p.Ala435=, NP_001136047.1:p.Ala415=, NP_001136048.1:p.Ala492=, NP_001291450.1:p.Ala456=, NP_899066.1:p.Ala489=, XM_005250313.1:c.1368G>A, XM_005250314.1:c.1344G>A, XM_005250315.1:c.1320G>A, XM_005250316.1:c.957G>A, XM_006715967.1:c.1575G>A, XM_006715968.1:c.1545G>A, XM_006715969.1:c.1467G>A, XM_006715970.2:c.1368G>A, XM_006715971.1:c.1344G>A, XM_011516156.1:c.957G>A, XM_011516157.1:c.957G>A, XP_005250370.1:p.Ala456=, XP_005250371.1:p.Ala448=, XP_005250372.1:p.Ala440=, XP_005250373.1:p.Ala319=, XP_006716030.1:p.Ala525=, XP_006716031.1:p.Ala515=, XP_006716032.1:p.Ala489=, XP_006716033.1:p.Ala456=, XP_006716034.1:p.Ala448=, XP_011514458.1:p.Ala319=, XP_011514459.1:p.Ala319=, rs10954182, rs11549799, rs117662562, rs58983339
C > T
SNP
A525A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2229109 NC_000007.13:g.87179809C>T, NC_000007.14:g.87550493C>T, NG_011513.1:g.167756G>A, NM_000927.4:c.1199G>A, NP_000918.2:p.Ser400Asn, rs17276921, rs2235031, rs386561706, rs59635509
C > T
SNP
S400N
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2274976 NC_000001.10:g.11850927C>T, NC_000001.11:g.11790870C>T, NG_013351.1:g.20234G>A, NM_005957.4:c.1781G>A, NP_005948.3:p.Arg594Gln, XM_005263458.1:c.1904G>A, XM_005263458.2:c.1904G>A, XM_005263459.1:c.1822-154G>A, XM_005263460.1:c.1781G>A, XM_005263460.3:c.1781G>A, XM_005263461.1:c.1781G>A, XM_005263461.3:c.1781G>A, XM_005263462.1:c.1781G>A, XM_005263462.3:c.1781G>A, XM_005263463.1:c.1535G>A, XM_005263463.2:c.1535G>A, XM_011541495.1:c.1901G>A, XM_011541496.1:c.1876-154G>A, XP_005263515.1:p.Arg635Gln, XP_005263517.1:p.Arg594Gln, XP_005263518.1:p.Arg594Gln, XP_005263519.1:p.Arg594Gln, XP_005263520.1:p.Arg512Gln, XP_011539797.1:p.Arg634Gln, rs17854807, rs386563247, rs52829200, rs58316272
C > T
SNP
R594Q
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2276707 NC_000003.11:g.119534153C>T, NC_000003.12:g.119815306C>T, NG_011856.1:g.39823C>T, NM_003889.3:c.938-17C>T, NM_022002.2:c.1055-17C>T, NM_033013.2:c.827-17C>T, XM_005247866.1:c.773-17C>T, rs60905954
C > G
C > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs231775 NC_000002.11:g.204732714A>G, NC_000002.12:g.203867991A>G, NG_011502.1:g.5206A>G, NM_001037631.2:c.49A>G, NM_005214.4:c.49A>G, NP_001032720.1:p.Thr17Ala, NP_005205.2:p.Thr17Ala, XR_241294.1:n.189A>G, rs57563726
A > G
SNP
T17A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2740574 NC_000007.13:g.99382096C>T, NC_000007.14:g.99784473C>T, NG_008421.1:g.4713G>A, NM_001202855.2:c.-392G>A, NM_017460.5:c.-392G>A, XM_011515841.1:c.-392G>A, XM_011515842.1:c.-392G>A, rs3176920, rs36231114, rs59393892
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2804402 NC_000010.10:g.101541583A>G, NC_000010.11:g.99781826A>G, NG_011798.1:g.4121A>G, NM_000392.4:c.-1019A>G, XM_005269536.1:c.-1019A>G, XM_006717631.2:c.-1019A>G, XM_011539291.1:c.-1019A>G, XR_945604.1:n.-830A>G, XR_945605.1:n.-828A>G, rs17222526, rs60149027
A > G
SNP
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs28371759 NC_000007.13:g.99361626A>G, NC_000007.14:g.99764003A>G, NG_008421.1:g.25183T>C, NM_001202855.2:c.875T>C, NM_017460.5:c.878T>C, NP_001189784.1:p.Leu292Pro, NP_059488.2:p.Leu293Pro, XM_011515841.1:c.878T>C, XM_011515842.1:c.875T>C, XP_011514143.1:p.Leu293Pro, XP_011514144.1:p.Leu292Pro, rs386574775, rs60608883
A > G
SNP
L292P
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3213619 NC_000007.13:g.87230193A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87600877A>G, NG_011513.1:g.117372T>C, NM_000927.4:c.-129T>C, rs17249446, rs60679736
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs34965641 NC_000005.10:g.80646557G>A, NC_000005.9:g.79942376G>A, NG_023304.1:g.13425C>T, NM_000791.3:c.242+2832C>T, NM_001290354.1:c.86+2832C>T, NM_001290357.1:c.242+2832C>T, NR_110936.1:n.684+2832C>T, XM_005248455.1:c.131+2832C>T, XM_005248456.1:c.86+2832C>T, rs386583121
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs35599367 NC_000007.13:g.99366316G>A, NC_000007.14:g.99768693G>A, NG_008421.1:g.20493C>T, NM_001202855.2:c.522-191C>T, NM_017460.5:c.522-191C>T, XM_011515841.1:c.522-191C>T, XM_011515842.1:c.522-191C>T, rs45581939, rs62471940
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3737967 NC_000001.10:g.11847449G>A, NC_000001.11:g.11787392G>A, NG_013351.1:g.23712C>T, NM_001010881.1:c.3572G>A, NM_005957.4:c.*3288C>T, NP_001010881.1:p.Arg1191His, XM_003118845.3:c.3572G>A, XM_005263458.1:c.*3288C>T, XM_005263459.1:c.*3148C>T, XM_005263460.1:c.*3288C>T, XM_005263461.1:c.*3288C>T, XM_005263462.1:c.*3288C>T, XM_005263463.1:c.*3288C>T, XM_006711078.2:c.3572G>A, XM_011541267.1:c.3707G>A, XM_011541268.1:c.3707G>A, XM_011541269.1:c.3707G>A, XM_011541270.1:c.3707G>A, XM_011541271.1:c.3653G>A, XM_011541272.1:c.3707G>A, XM_011541273.1:c.3572G>A, XM_011541274.1:c.3572G>A, XM_011541275.1:c.3572G>A, XM_011541276.1:c.3707G>A, XM_011541277.1:c.3707G>A, XM_011541278.1:c.3707G>A, XM_011541279.1:c.3299G>A, XM_011541280.1:c.1988G>A, XM_011541281.1:c.1988G>A, XP_003118893.3:p.Arg1191His, XP_006711141.1:p.Arg1191His, XP_011539569.1:p.Arg1236His, XP_011539570.1:p.Arg1236His, XP_011539571.1:p.Arg1236His, XP_011539572.1:p.Arg1236His, XP_011539573.1:p.Arg1218His, XP_011539574.1:p.Arg1236His, XP_011539575.1:p.Arg1191His, XP_011539576.1:p.Arg1191His, XP_011539577.1:p.Arg1191His, XP_011539578.1:p.Arg1236His, XP_011539579.1:p.Arg1236His, XP_011539580.1:p.Arg1236His, XP_011539581.1:p.Arg1100His, XP_011539582.1:p.Arg663His, XP_011539583.1:p.Arg663His, rs386585099
G > A
G > T
SNP
R1191H
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3740065 NC_000010.10:g.101605693A>G, NC_000010.11:g.99845936A>G, NG_011798.1:g.68231A>G, NM_000392.4:c.4146+154A>G, XM_005269536.1:c.3867+154A>G, XM_006717630.2:c.3450+154A>G, XR_945604.1:n.4276+154A>G, XR_945605.1:n.4210+154A>G, rs386585170, rs61012324
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3740066 NC_000010.10:g.101604207C>T, NC_000010.11:g.99844450C>T, NG_011798.1:g.66745C>T, NM_000392.4:c.3972C>T, NP_000383.1:p.Ile1324=, XM_005269536.1:c.3693C>T, XM_006717630.2:c.3276C>T, XP_005269593.1:p.Ile1231=, XP_006717693.1:p.Ile1092=, XR_945604.1:n.4161C>T, XR_945605.1:n.4036C>T, rs12780340, rs17216303, rs59292214
C > T
SNP
I1324I
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3787186 NC_000020.10:g.50153344T>C, NC_000020.11:g.51536805T>C, NM_001136021.2:c.71-12695A>G, NM_001258292.1:c.71-12695A>G, NM_001258294.1:c.-13-13209A>G, NM_001258295.1:c.-13-13209A>G, NM_001258296.1:c.-14+5565A>G, NM_001258297.1:c.-14+5565A>G, NM_012340.4:c.130+5565A>G, NM_173091.3:c.130+5565A>G, XM_005260413.1:c.130+5565A>G, XM_011528824.1:c.130+5565A>G, XM_011528825.1:c.71-12695A>G, XM_011528826.1:c.-13-13209A>G, rs56471074, rs56739286, rs61514015
T > C
SNP
rs3814055 NC_000003.11:g.119500035C>T, NC_000003.12:g.119781188C>T, NG_011856.1:g.5705C>T, NM_003889.3:c.-1135C>T, NM_022002.2:c.-1570C>T, NM_033013.2:c.-1135C>T, XM_005247866.1:c.-1300C>T, rs60667929
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs41303343 NC_000007.13:g.99250393_99250394insA, NC_000007.14:g.99652770_99652771insA, NG_007938.1:g.32228_32229insT, NM_000777.4:c.1035_1036insT, NM_001291829.1:c.696_697insT, NM_001291830.1:c.1005_1006insT, NP_000768.1:p.Thr346Tyrfs, NP_001278758.1:p.Thr233Tyrfs, NP_001278759.1:p.Thr336Tyrfs, NR_033807.2:n.2769_2770insT, NR_033808.1:n.1637_1638insT, NR_033809.1:n.1397_1398insT, XM_005250169.1:c.1005_1006insT, XM_005250170.1:c.696_697insT, XM_005250171.1:c.696_697insT, XM_005250172.1:c.696_697insT, XM_005250173.1:c.495_496insT, XM_005250198.1:c.806-24434_806-24433insA, XM_011515843.1:c.696_697insT, XM_011515844.1:c.696_697insT, XM_011515845.1:c.495_496insT, XM_011515846.1:c.495_496insT, XM_011515847.1:c.495_496insT, XM_011515909.1:c.806-16325_806-16324insA, XP_005250226.1:p.Thr336Tyrfs, XP_005250227.1:p.Thr233Tyrfs, XP_005250228.1:p.Thr233Tyrfs, XP_005250229.1:p.Thr233Tyrfs, XP_005250230.1:p.Thr166Tyrfs, XP_011514145.1:p.Thr233Tyrfs, XP_011514146.1:p.Thr233Tyrfs, XP_011514147.1:p.Thr166Tyrfs, XP_011514148.1:p.Thr166Tyrfs, XP_011514149.1:p.Thr166Tyrfs, XR_927402.1:n.1466+28590_1466+28591insA, rs146933882, rs371634789, rs57622522
- > -
- > A
indel
T346Y
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4253728 NC_000022.10:g.46610067G>A, NC_000022.11:g.46214170G>A, NG_012204.1:g.68569G>A, NM_001001928.2:c.209-1003G>A, NM_005036.4:c.209-1003G>A, XM_005261653.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_005261654.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_005261655.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_005261655.2:c.209-1003G>A, XM_005261656.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_005261656.2:c.209-1003G>A, XM_005261657.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_005261658.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_006724269.2:c.209-1003G>A, XM_006724270.2:c.209-1003G>A, XM_011530239.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_011530240.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_011530241.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_011530242.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_011530243.1:c.209-1003G>A, XM_011530244.1:c.-198-1003G>A, XM_011530245.1:c.-198-1003G>A, XR_244379.1:n.432-1003G>A, XR_937869.1:n.524-1003G>A, XR_937870.1:n.523-1003G>A, rs17242080, rs56473198, rs56722050
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs4646437 NC_000007.13:g.99365083G>A, NC_000007.14:g.99767460G>A, NG_008421.1:g.21726C>T, NM_001202855.2:c.671-205C>T, NM_017460.5:c.671-202C>T, XM_011515841.1:c.671-202C>T, XM_011515842.1:c.671-205C>T, rs386594232, rs57997883
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4781712 NC_000016.10:g.16009375A=, NC_000016.10:g.16009375A>G, NC_000016.9:g.16103232A>G, NG_028268.1:g.64799A=, NG_028268.1:g.64799A>G, NM_004996.3:c.226-401A>G, NM_004996.3:c.226-401G>A, NT_187607.1:g.1667251G=, NT_187607.1:g.1667251G>A, XM_005255326.1:c.226-401A>G, XM_005255327.1:c.226-401A>G, XM_005255328.1:c.226-401A>G, XM_005255329.1:c.226-401A>G, XM_011522497.1:c.202-401A>G, XM_011522497.1:c.202-401G>A, XM_011522498.1:c.280-401A>G, XM_011522498.1:c.280-401G>A, rs17264542, rs58943181
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4818789 NC_000021.8:g.46948827G>T, NC_000021.9:g.45528913G>T, NG_028278.1:g.18559C>A, NM_001205206.1:c.1151+1857C>A, NM_001205207.1:c.1031+1857C>A, NM_194255.2:c.1151+1857C>A, XM_005261163.1:c.1151+1857C>A, XM_005261164.1:c.797+1857C>A, XM_005261164.2:c.797+1857C>A, XM_011529696.1:c.1442+1857C>A, XM_011529697.1:c.1442+1857C>A, XM_011529698.1:c.1217+1857C>A, XM_011529699.1:c.1178+1857C>A, XM_011529700.1:c.1151+1857C>A, XM_011529701.1:c.1151+1857C>A, XM_011529702.1:c.1151+1857C>A, XM_011529703.1:c.1151+1857C>A, XM_011529704.1:c.1151+1857C>A, XM_011529705.1:c.1442+1857C>A, XM_011529706.1:c.1013+1857C>A, XM_011529707.1:c.1442+1857C>A, XM_011529708.1:c.1151+1857C>A, XM_011529709.1:c.797+1857C>A, XM_011529710.1:c.797+1857C>A, rs58521338
G > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4819128 NC_000021.8:g.46949649C>T, NC_000021.9:g.45529735C>T, NG_028278.1:g.17737G>A, NM_001205206.1:c.1151+1035G>A, NM_001205207.1:c.1031+1035G>A, NM_194255.2:c.1151+1035G>A, XM_005261163.1:c.1151+1035G>A, XM_005261164.1:c.797+1035G>A, XM_005261164.2:c.797+1035G>A, XM_011529696.1:c.1442+1035G>A, XM_011529697.1:c.1442+1035G>A, XM_011529698.1:c.1217+1035G>A, XM_011529699.1:c.1178+1035G>A, XM_011529700.1:c.1151+1035G>A, XM_011529701.1:c.1151+1035G>A, XM_011529702.1:c.1151+1035G>A, XM_011529703.1:c.1151+1035G>A, XM_011529704.1:c.1151+1035G>A, XM_011529705.1:c.1442+1035G>A, XM_011529706.1:c.1013+1035G>A, XM_011529707.1:c.1442+1035G>A, XM_011529708.1:c.1151+1035G>A, XM_011529709.1:c.797+1035G>A, XM_011529710.1:c.797+1035G>A, rs111154961, rs111213124, rs36138260, rs58322235
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4823613 NC_000022.10:g.46598307A>G, NC_000022.11:g.46202410A>G, NG_012204.1:g.56809A>G, NM_001001928.2:c.208+3819A>G, NM_005036.4:c.208+3819A>G, XM_005261653.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_005261654.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_005261655.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_005261655.2:c.208+3819A>G, XM_005261656.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_005261656.2:c.208+3819A>G, XM_005261657.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_005261658.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_006724269.2:c.208+3819A>G, XM_006724270.2:c.208+3819A>G, XM_011530239.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_011530240.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_011530241.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_011530242.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_011530243.1:c.208+3819A>G, XM_011530244.1:c.-199+3819A>G, XM_011530245.1:c.-199+3819A>G, XR_244379.1:n.431+3819A>G, XR_937869.1:n.523+3819A>G, XR_937870.1:n.522+3819A>G, rs5767571, rs58091507, rs74281148
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4986914 NC_000007.13:g.99382233A>G, NC_000007.14:g.99784610A>G, NG_008421.1:g.4576T>C, NM_001202855.2:c.-529T>C, NM_017460.5:c.-529T>C, XM_011515841.1:c.-529T>C, XM_011515842.1:c.-529T>C
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6123048 NC_000020.10:g.50147400A>G, NC_000020.11:g.51530861A>G, NM_001136021.2:c.71-6751T>C, NM_001258292.1:c.71-6751T>C, NM_001258294.1:c.-13-7265T>C, NM_001258295.1:c.-13-7265T>C, NM_001258296.1:c.-13-7265T>C, NM_001258297.1:c.-13-7265T>C, NM_012340.4:c.131-6751T>C, NM_173091.3:c.131-6751T>C, XM_005260413.1:c.131-6754T>C, XM_011528824.1:c.131-6751T>C, XM_011528825.1:c.71-6751T>C, XM_011528826.1:c.-13-7265T>C, rs59847809
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6822844 NC_000004.11:g.123509421G>T, NC_000004.12:g.122588266G>T, rs61272394
G > T
SNP
rs776746 NC_000007.13:g.99270539C>T, NC_000007.14:g.99672916T>C, NG_007938.1:g.12083G=, NG_007938.1:g.12083G>A, NM_000777.4:c.219-237A>G, NM_000777.4:c.219-237G>A, NM_001190484.2:c.219-237A>G, NM_001190484.2:c.219-237G>A, NM_001291829.1:c.-253-1A>G, NM_001291829.1:c.-253-1G>A, NM_001291830.1:c.189-237A>G, NM_001291830.1:c.189-237G>A, NR_033807.2:n.717-1A>G, NR_033807.2:n.717-1G>A, NR_033808.1:n.689-1G>A, NR_033809.1:n.581-237G>A, NR_033810.1:n.689-1G>A, NR_033811.1:n.321-1G>A, NR_033812.1:n.321-1G>A, XM_005250169.1:c.189-237G>A, XM_005250170.1:c.-357-1G>A, XM_005250171.1:c.-253-1G>A, XM_005250172.1:c.-254G>A, XM_005250173.1:c.-331-237G>A, XM_005250198.1:c.806-4288C>T, XM_006715859.2:c.219-237A>G, XM_011515843.1:c.-254A>G, XM_011515844.1:c.-229-237A>G, XM_011515845.1:c.-463-1A>G, XM_011515846.1:c.-331-237A>G, XM_011515847.1:c.-571-1A>G, XR_927383.1:n.344-237A>G, XR_927402.1:n.1466+48736T>C, rs10361242, rs11266830, rs386613022, rs58244770
C > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs7903146 NC_000010.10:g.114758349C>T, NC_000010.11:g.112998590C>T, NG_012631.1:g.53341C>T, NM_001146274.1:c.450+33966C>T, NM_001146283.1:c.382-41435C>T, NM_001146284.1:c.382-41435C>T, NM_001146285.1:c.382-41435C>T, NM_001146286.1:c.382-41435C>T, NM_001198525.1:c.382-41435C>T, NM_001198526.1:c.382-41435C>T, NM_001198527.1:c.382-41435C>T, NM_001198528.1:c.382-41435C>T, NM_001198529.1:c.382-41435C>T, NM_001198530.1:c.381+46983C>T, NM_001198531.1:c.450+33966C>T, NM_030756.4:c.382-41435C>T, XM_005270071.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270072.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270073.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270074.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270075.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270076.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270077.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270078.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270079.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270080.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_005270081.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_005270082.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270083.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270084.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270085.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270086.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_005270087.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_005270088.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_005270089.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_005270090.1:c.381+46983C>T, XM_005270091.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270091.2:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270092.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270093.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270094.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270095.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270096.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270100.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270101.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_005270102.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_005270103.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_005270104.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_006717956.2:c.-10+33966C>T, XM_011540109.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_011540110.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_011540111.1:c.382-41435C>T, XM_011540112.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_011540113.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_011540114.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_011540115.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_011540116.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_011540117.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_011540118.1:c.450+33966C>T, XM_011540119.1:c.450+33966C>T, rs60693287
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8058040 NC_000016.10:g.16013855A>G, NC_000016.9:g.16107712A>G, NG_028268.1:g.69279A>G, NM_004996.3:c.352-636A>G, NT_187607.1:g.1671731A>G, XM_005255326.1:c.352-636A>G, XM_005255327.1:c.352-636A>G, XM_005255328.1:c.352-2641A>G, XM_005255329.1:c.352-636A>G, XM_011522497.1:c.328-636A>G, XM_011522498.1:c.406-636A>G, rs56942501
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8090560 NC_000018.10:g.79453155G>A, NC_000018.9:g.77213155G>A, NG_029226.1:g.62384G>A, NM_001278669.1:c.1903+1339G>A, NM_001278670.1:c.1903+1339G>A, NM_001278672.1:c.1864+1339G>A, NM_001278673.1:c.487+1339G>A, NM_001278675.1:c.1864+1339G>A, NM_006162.4:c.1903+1339G>A, NM_172387.2:c.1864+1339G>A, NM_172388.2:c.487+1339G>A, NM_172389.2:c.1864+1339G>A, NM_172390.2:c.1903+1339G>A, XM_005266701.1:c.1870+1339G>A, XM_005266702.1:c.1903+1339G>A, rs60596973
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9282564 NC_000007.13:g.87229440T>C, NC_000007.14:g.87600124T>C, NG_011513.1:g.118125A>G, NM_000927.4:c.61A>G, NP_000918.2:p.Asn21Asp, rs13234342, rs202032114, rs61615398
T > C
SNP
N21D
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Ciclosporin
  • Cyclosporin
  • Cyclosporin A
  • cyclosporine
Trade Names
  • Gengraf (Abbott labs)
  • Neoral (Novartis)
  • Restasis
  • Restasis (Allergan Inc)
  • Sandimmune (Novartis)
  • Sangcya
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA449167

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For treatment of transplant rejection, rheumatoid arthritis, severe psoriasis

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Cyclosporine binds to cyclophilin. The complex then inhibits calcineurin which is normally responsible for activating transcription of interleukin 2. Cyclosporine also inhibits lymphokine production and interleukin release. In ophthalmic applications, the precise mechanism of action is not known. Cyclosporine emulsion is thought to act as a partial immunomodulator in patients whose tear production is presumed to be suppressed due to ocular inflammation associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Used in immunosuppression for prophylactic treatment of organ transplants, cyclosporine exerts specific and reversible inhibition of immunocompetent lymphocytes in the G0-or G1-phase of the cell cycle. T-lymphocytes are preferentially inhibited. The T1-helper cell is the main target, although the T1-suppressor cell may also be suppressed. Sandimmune (cyclosporine) also inhibits lymphokine production and release including interleukin-2.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Red wine may reduce cyclosporine levels due to increased metabolism, therefore it appears prudent to avoid red wine (white wine does not appear to affect cyclosporine metabolism).|Avoid taking with grapefruit or grapefruit juice as grapefruit can significantly increase serum levels of this product.|Avoid salt substitutes containing potassium.|Take without regard to meals.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic, extensively metabolized.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Approximately 90% is bound to proteins, primarily lipoproteins.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

The absorption of cyclosporine from the gastrointestinal tract is incomplete and variable. Compared to an intravenous infusion, the absolute bioavailability of the oral solution is approximately 30% based upon the results in 2 patients.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Biphasic and variable, approximately 7 hours (range 7 to 19 hours) in children and approximately 19 hours (range 10 to 27 hours) in adults.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

The oral LD 50 is 2329 mg/kg in mice, 1480 mg/kg in rats, and > 1000 mg/kg in rabbits. The I.V. LD 50 is 148 mg/kg in mice, 104 mg/kg in rats, and 46 mg/kg in rabbits.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Elimination is primarily biliary with only 6% of the dose excreted in the urine. Only 0.1% of the dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C62H111N11O12

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CC[C@H]1C(=O)N(CC(=O)N([C@H](C(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)N([C@H](C(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)N[C@@H](C(=O)N([C@H](C(=O)N([C@H](C(=O)N([C@H](C(=O)N([C@H](C(=O)N1)[C@@H]([C@H](C)C/C=C/C)O)C)C(C)C)C)CC(C)C)C)CC(C)C)C)C)C)CC(C)C)C)C(C)C)CC(C)C)C)C

Source: OpenEye

Average Molecular Weight

1202.6112

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

CCC1NC(=O)C(C(O)C(C)C\C=C\C)N(C)C(=O)C(C(C)C)N(C)C(=O)C(CC(C)C)N(C)C(=O)C(CC(C)C)N(C)C(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)N(C)C(=O)C(NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)N(C)C(=O)CN(C)C1=O)C(C)C

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1/C62H111N11O12/c1-25-27-28-40(15)52(75)51-56(79)65-43(26-2)58(81)67(18)33-48(74)68(19)44(29-34(3)4)55(78)66-49(38(11)12)61(84)69(20)45(30-35(5)6)54(77)63-41(16)53(76)64-42(17)57(80)70(21)46(31-36(7)8)59(82)71(22)47(32-37(9)10)60(83)72(23)50(39(13)14)62(85)73(51)24/h25,27,34-47,49-52,75H,26,28-33H2,1-24H3,(H,63,77)(H,64,76)(H,65,79)(H,66,78)/b27-25+

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Tacrolimus/Cyclosporine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Stylized cell depicting the mechanism of action of tacrolimus and cyclosporine, as well as the candidate genes believed to interact with the two drugs.
  1. Tacrolimus/Cyclosporine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Schematic representation of tacrolimus and cyclosporine metabolism

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ABCB1 (source: Drug Bank)
CAMLG (source: Drug Bank)
PPIA (source: Drug Bank)
PPP3R2 (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDrug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
imatinib

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
acetazolamide - cyclosporine Acetazolamide increases the effect of toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
acetazolamide - cyclosporine Acetazolamide increases the effect of toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
allopurinol - cyclosporine Allopurinol increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
allopurinol - cyclosporine Allopurinol increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
amiodarone - cyclosporine Increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
amiodarone - cyclosporine Increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
amprenavir - cyclosporine The protease inhibitor increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
amprenavir - cyclosporine The protease inhibitor, amprenavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
atazanavir - cyclosporine Increases the effect and toxicity of immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
atazanavir - cyclosporine Increases the effect and toxicity of immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin - cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
atorvastatin - cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
azithromycin - cyclosporine The macrolide increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
azithromycin - cyclosporine The macrolide, azithromycin, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
bosentan - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect and toxicity of bosentan (source: Drug Bank)
bosentan - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect and toxicity of bosentan (source: Drug Bank)
bupropion - cyclosporine Decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
bupropion - cyclosporine Decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
carbamazepine - cyclosporine Decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
carbamazepine - cyclosporine Decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
carvedilol - cyclosporine Increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
carvedilol - cyclosporine Increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cerivastatin - cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cerivastatin - cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - cyclosporine Increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - cyclosporine Increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
chloroquine - cyclosporine Increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
chloroquine - cyclosporine Increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
ciprofloxacin - cyclosporine The quinolone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
ciprofloxacin - cyclosporine The quinolone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
clarithromycin - cyclosporine The macrolide increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
clarithromycin - cyclosporine The macrolide, clarithromycin, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
clindamycin - cyclosporine Decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
clindamycin - cyclosporine Decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
colchicine - cyclosporine Increased toxicity of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
colchicine - cyclosporine Increased toxicity of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - acetazolamide Acetazolamide increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - acetazolamide Acetazolamide increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - allopurinol Allopurinol increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - allopurinol Allopurinol increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - amiodarone Amiodarone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - amiodarone Amiodarone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - amobarbital The barbiturate increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - amobarbital The barbiturate, amobarbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - amphotericin b Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - amphotericin b Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - amprenavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - amprenavir The protease inhibitor, amprenavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - aprobarbital The barbiturate, aprobarbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - atazanavir Atazanavir increases the effect and toxicity of immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - atazanavir Atazanavir increases the effect and toxicity of immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - atorvastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - atorvastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - azithromycin The macrolide increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - azithromycin The macrolide, azithromycin, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - bosentan Increases the effect and toxicity of bosentan (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - bosentan Increases the effect and toxicity of bosentan (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - bupropion Bupropion decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - bupropion Bupropion decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - butabarbital The barbiturate, butabarbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - butalbital The barbiturate increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - butalbital The barbiturate, butalbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - butethal The barbiturate, butethal, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - carbamazepine Carbamazepine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - carbamazepine Carbamazepine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - carvedilol Carvedilol increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - carvedilol Carvedilol increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - caspofungin Cyclosporine increases the effect and toxicity of caspofungin (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - cerivastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - cerivastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - chloroquine Chloroquine increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - chloroquine Chloroquine increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - cilastatin Imipenem increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - cilastatin Imipenem increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ciprofloxacin The quinolone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ciprofloxacin The quinolone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - clarithromycin The macrolide increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - clarithromycin The macrolide, clarithromycin, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - clindamycin Clindamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - clindamycin Clindamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - colchicine Increased toxicity of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - colchicine Increased toxicity of both drugs (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - danazol The androgen, danazol, may increase the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - diclofenac Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - diclofenac Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - digoxin Increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - digoxin Increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - diltiazem Diltiazem increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - diltiazem Diltiazem increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - efavirenz Efavirenz decreases the levels of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - efavirenz Efavirenz decreases the levels of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - erythromycin The macrolide increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - erythromycin The macrolide, erythromycin, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ethinyl estradiol The contraceptive increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ethotoin The hydantoin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - etodolac Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - etodolac Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - etoposide Increases the effect of etoposide (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - etoposide Increases the effect of etoposide (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ezetimibe Increases the effect and toxicity of ezetimibe (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ezetimibe Increases the effect and toxicity of ezetimibe (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fenoprofen Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fenoprofen Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fluconazole Fluconazole increases the effect of the immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fluconazole Fluconazole increases the effect of the immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fluoxetine The antidepressant increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fluoxetine The antidepressant increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - flurbiprofen Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - flurbiprofen Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fluvastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fluvastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fosamprenavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fosamprenavir The protease inhibitor, fosamprenavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - foscarnet Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - foscarnet Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - fosphenytoin The hydantoin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - glibenclamide The sulfonylurea increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - glibenclamide The sulfonylurea increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - glimepiride The sulfonylurea increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - glimepiride The sulfonylurea increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - glipizide The sulfonylurea increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - glipizide The sulfonylurea increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - griseofulvin Griseofulvin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - griseofulvin Griseofulvin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - heptabarbital The barbiturate, heptabarbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - hexobarbital The barbiturate increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - hexobarbital The barbiturate, hexobarbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ibuprofen Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ibuprofen Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - imatinib Imatinib increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - imatinib Imatinib increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - imipenem Imipenem increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - imipenem Imipenem increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - indinavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - indinavir The protease inhibitor, indinavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - indomethacin Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - indomethacin Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - itraconazole The imidazole increases the effect of immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - itraconazole The imidazole increases the effect of immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - josamycin The macrolide, josamycin, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ketoconazole The imidazole increases the effect of immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ketoconazole The imidazole increases the effect of immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ketoprofen Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ketoprofen Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - lovastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - lovastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - meclofenamic acid Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - mefenamic acid Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - melphalan Melphalan increases toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - melphalan Melphalan increases toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - mephenytoin The hydantoin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - mephenytoin The hydantoin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - mestranol The contraceptive increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - mestranol The contraceptive increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - methohexital The barbiturate, methohexital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - methotrexate Increases the effect and toxicity of methotrexate (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - methotrexate Increases the effect and toxicity of methotrexate (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - methylphenidate Methylphenidate increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - methylphenidate Methylphenidate increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - methylphenobarbital The barbiturate increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - methylphenobarbital The barbiturate, methylphenobarbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - metoclopramide Metoclopramide increases serum levels of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - metoclopramide Metoclopramide increases serum levels of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - modafinil Modafinil decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - modafinil Modafinil decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - muromonab Muromonab increases the levels of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nabumetone Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nabumetone Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nafcillin Nafcillin alters serum levels of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nafcillin Nafcillin alters serum levels of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - naproxen Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - naproxen Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nefazodone The antidepressant increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nefazodone The antidepressant increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nelfinavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nelfinavir The protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nicardipine Nicardipine increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nicardipine Nicardipine increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nifedipine Increased risk of gingivitis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - nifedipine Increased risk of gingivitis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - norfloxacin The quinolone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - norfloxacin The quinolone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - octreotide Octreotide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - octreotide Octreotide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - omeprazole Omeprazole increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - omeprazole Omeprazole increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - orlistat Orlistat decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - oxaprozin Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - oxaprozin Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - oxcarbazepine Oxcarbazepine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - oxcarbazepine Oxcarbazepine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - pentobarbital The barbiturate increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - pentobarbital The barbiturate, pentobarbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - phenobarbital The barbiturate increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - phenobarbital The barbiturate, phenobarbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - phenytoin The hydantoin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - phenytoin The hydantoin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - piroxicam Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - piroxicam Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - posaconazole Increased level of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - posaconazole Increased level of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - pravastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - pravastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - primidone The barbiturate increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - primidone The barbiturate, primidone, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - probucol Probucol decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - probucol Probucol decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - propafenone Propafenone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - propafenone Propafenone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - pyrazinamide Pyrazinamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - pyrazinamide Pyrazinamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - quinidine The barbiturate, quinidine barbiturate, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - quinupristin Synercid increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - repaglinide Increases repaglinide's effect (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - repaglinide Increases repaglinide's effect (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - rifabutin The rifamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - rifabutin The rifamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - rifampin The rifamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - rifampin The rifamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ritonavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ritonavir The protease inhibitor, ritonavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - rosuvastatin Increases the effect and toxicity of rosuvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - rosuvastatin Increases the effect and toxicity of rosuvastatin (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - roxithromycin The macrolide, roxithromycin, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - saquinavir The protease inhibitor increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - saquinavir The protease inhibitor, saquinavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - secobarbital The barbiturate, secobarbital, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sevelamer Sevelamer decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sibutramine Sibutramine increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sibutramine Sibutramine increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - simvastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - simvastatin Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sirolimus Increases the effect and toxicity of sirolimus (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sirolimus Increases the effect and toxicity of sirolimus (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulfadiazine The sulfonamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulfadiazine The sulfonamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulfamethazine The sulfonamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulfamethazine The sulfonamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulfamethoxazole The sulfonamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulfamethoxazole The sulfonamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulfasalazine The sulfonamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulfasalazine The sulfonamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulfinpyrazone Sulfinpyrazone decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulfinpyrazone Sulfinpyrazone decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulindac Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - sulindac Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - tacrolimus Additive toxicities for these agents (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - tacrolimus Additive toxicities for these agents (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - talbutal The sulfonamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - telithromycin Telithromycin may possibly increase this agent effect/toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - telithromycin Telithromycin may possibly increase this agent effect/toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - tenoxicam Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - tenoxicam Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - terbinafine Terbinafine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - terbinafine Terbinafine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ticlopidine Ticlopidine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ticlopidine Ticlopidine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - tolmetin Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - tolmetin Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - troglitazone Troglitazone decreases the effect of the immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - troglitazone Troglitazone decreases the effect of the immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - troleandomycin The macrolide increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - troleandomycin The macrolide, troleandomycin, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - ursodeoxycholic acid Ursodiol increases the levels of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - verapamil Verapamil increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - voriconazole Voriconazole increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - voriconazole Voriconazole increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
diclofenac - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
diclofenac - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
digoxin - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
digoxin - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect of digoxin (source: Drug Bank)
diltiazem - cyclosporine Increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
diltiazem - cyclosporine Increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
erythromycin - cyclosporine The macrolide increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
erythromycin - cyclosporine The macrolide, erythromycin, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
ethinyl estradiol - cyclosporine The contraceptive increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
ethinyl estradiol - cyclosporine The contraceptive increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
etodolac - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
etodolac - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
etoposide - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect of etoposide (source: Drug Bank)
etoposide - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect of etoposide (source: Drug Bank)
ezetimibe - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect and toxicity of ezetimibe (source: Drug Bank)
ezetimibe - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect and toxicity of ezetimibe (source: Drug Bank)
fenoprofen - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
fenoprofen - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
fluconazole - cyclosporine Increases the effect of the immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
fluconazole - cyclosporine Increases the effect of the immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
fluoxetine - cyclosporine The antidepressant increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
fluoxetine - cyclosporine The antidepressant increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
flurbiprofen - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
flurbiprofen - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
fluvastatin - cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
fluvastatin - cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
fosamprenavir - cyclosporine The protease inhibitor increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
fosamprenavir - cyclosporine The protease inhibitor, fosamprenavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
fosphenytoin - cyclosporine The hydantoin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
glibenclamide - cyclosporine The sulfonylurea increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
glibenclamide - cyclosporine The sulfonylurea increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
glimepiride - cyclosporine The sulfonylurea increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
glimepiride - cyclosporine The sulfonylurea increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
griseofulvin - cyclosporine Griseofulvin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
griseofulvin - cyclosporine Griseofulvin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
ibuprofen - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
ibuprofen - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
imatinib - cyclosporine Imatinib increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
imatinib - cyclosporine Imatinib increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir - cyclosporine The protease inhibitor increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
indinavir - cyclosporine The protease inhibitor, indinavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
indomethacin - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
indomethacin - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole - cyclosporine The imidazole increases the effect of the immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
itraconazole - cyclosporine The imidazole increases the effect of the immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
ketoconazole - cyclosporine The imidazole increases the effect of immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
ketoconazole - cyclosporine The imidazole increases the effect of immunosuppressant (source: Drug Bank)
ketoprofen - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
ketoprofen - cyclosporine The NSAID, ketoprofen, may increase the serum concentration of cyclosporine. Ketoprofen may also increase the nephrotoxicity of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
lovastatin - cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
lovastatin - cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
mefenamic acid - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
mefenamic acid - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
melphalan - cyclosporine Melphalan increases toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
melphalan - cyclosporine Melphalan increases toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
methotrexate - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect and toxicity of methotrexate (source: Drug Bank)
methotrexate - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect and toxicity of methotrexate (source: Drug Bank)
methylphenidate - cyclosporine Methylphenidate increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
methylphenidate - cyclosporine Methylphenidate increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
metoclopramide - cyclosporine Metoclopramide increases serum levels of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
metoclopramide - cyclosporine Metoclopramide increases serum levels of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
modafinil - cyclosporine Modafinil decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
modafinil - cyclosporine Modafinil decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
nabumetone - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
nabumetone - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
naproxen - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
naproxen - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
nefazodone - cyclosporine The antidepressant increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
nefazodone - cyclosporine The antidepressant increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
nelfinavir - cyclosporine The protease inhibitor increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
nelfinavir - cyclosporine The protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, may increase the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
nicardipine - cyclosporine Nicardipine increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
nicardipine - cyclosporine Nicardipine increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
nifedipine - cyclosporine Increased risk of gingivitis (source: Drug Bank)
nifedipine - cyclosporine Increased risk of gingivitis (source: Drug Bank)
norfloxacin - cyclosporine The quinolone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
norfloxacin - cyclosporine The quinolone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
omeprazole - cyclosporine Omeprazole increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
omeprazole - cyclosporine Omeprazole increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
orlistat - cyclosporine Orlistat decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
orlistat - cyclosporine Orlistat decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
oxaprozin - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
oxaprozin - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
oxcarbazepine - cyclosporine Oxcarbazepine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
oxcarbazepine - cyclosporine Oxcarbazepine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - cyclosporine The barbiturate decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
phenobarbital - cyclosporine The barbiturate, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin - cyclosporine The hydantoin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin - cyclosporine The hydantoin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
piroxicam - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
piroxicam - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
pravastatin - cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
pravastatin - cyclosporine Possible myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (source: Drug Bank)
primidone - cyclosporine The barbiturate increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
primidone - cyclosporine The barbiturate, primidone, increases the effect of cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
probucol - cyclosporine Probucol decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
probucol - cyclosporine Probucol decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
propafenone - cyclosporine Propafenone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
propafenone - cyclosporine Propafenone increases the effect and toxicity of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
pyrazinamide - cyclosporine Pyrazinamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
pyrazinamide - cyclosporine Pyrazinamide decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
quinupristin - cyclosporine Synercid increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
repaglinide - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect of repaglinide (source: Drug Bank)
repaglinide - cyclosporine Cyclosporine increases the effect of repaglinide (source: Drug Bank)
rifabutin - cyclosporine The rifamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
rifabutin - cyclosporine The rifamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin - cyclosporine The rifamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin - cyclosporine The rifamycin decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
sulindac - cyclosporine The NSAID, sulindac, may increase the nephrotoxic effect of cyclosporine. Sulindac may increase the serum concentration of cyclosporine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for increased cyclosporine levels and nephrotoxicity during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
tamsulosin - cyclosporine Cyclosporine, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Cyclosporine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tamsulosin - cyclosporine Cyclosporine, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Cyclosporine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
telithromycin - cyclosporine Telithromycin may possibly increase this agent effect/toxicity (source: Drug Bank)
telithromycin - cyclosporine Telithromycin may reduce clearance of Cyclosporine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Cyclosporine if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tenoxicam - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
tenoxicam - cyclosporine Monitor for nephrotoxicity (source: Drug Bank)
testolactone - cyclosporine The androgen, Testolactone, may increase the hepatotoxicity of Cyclosporine. Testolatone may also elevate serum concentrations of Cyclosporine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs of renal and hepatic toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
testosterone - cyclosporine The androgen, Testosterone, may increase the hepatotoxicity of Cyclosporine. Testosterone may also elevate serum concentrations of Cyclosporine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs of renal and hepatic toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
testosterone propionate - cyclosporine The androgen, Testosterone, may increase the hepatotoxicity of Cyclosporine. Testosterone may also elevate serum concentrations of Cyclosporine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs of renal and hepatic toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
thiopental - cyclosporine Thiopental may increase the metabolism and clearance of Cyclosporine. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Cyclosporine if Thiopental is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
thiopental - cyclosporine Thiopental may increase the metabolism and clearance of Cyclosporine. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Cyclosporine if Thiopental is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tiaprofenic acid - cyclosporine Tiaprofenic acid may increase the nephrotoxicity and/or the serum concentration of Cyclosporine. Consider altnerate therapy or monitor for increased Cyclosporine concentrations and nephrotoxicity during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
ticlopidine - cyclosporine Ticlopidine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
ticlopidine - cyclosporine Ticlopidine decreases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
tipranavir - cyclosporine Tipranavir may affect the efficacy/toxicity of Cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
tolmetin - cyclosporine Tolmetin may increase the serum concentration of Cyclosporine and/or increase the nephrotoxicity of Cyclosporine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for increased Cyclosporine serum concentration and nephrotoxicity during concomitant therapy. (source: Drug Bank)
tolterodine - cyclosporine Cyclosporine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Adjust Tolterodine dose and monitor for efficacy and toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
tolterodine - cyclosporine Cyclosporine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Adjust Tolterodine dose and monitor for efficacy and toxicity. (source: Drug Bank)
topotecan - cyclosporine The p-glycoprotein inhibitor, Cyclosporine, may increase the bioavailability of oral Topotecan. A clinically significant effect is also expected with IV Topotecan. Concomitant therapy should be avoided. (source: Drug Bank)
tramadol - cyclosporine Cyclosporine may increase Tramadol toxicity by decreasing Tramadol metabolism and clearance. (source: Drug Bank)
trandolapril - cyclosporine The ACE inhibitor, Trandolapril, may increase the nephrotoxicity of Cyclosporine. (source: Drug Bank)
trastuzumab - cyclosporine Trastuzumab may increase the risk of neutropenia and anemia. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of adverse events. (source: Drug Bank)
trazodone - cyclosporine The CYP3A4 inhibitor, Cyclosporine, may increase Trazodone efficacy/toxicity by decreasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Cyclosporine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
trazodone - cyclosporine The CYP3A4 inhibitor, Cyclosporine, may increase Trazodone efficacy/toxicity by decreasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Cyclosporine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
verapamil - cyclosporine Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of Cyclosporine by inhibiting CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of Cyclosporine. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Cyclosporine if Verapamil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
voriconazole - cyclosporine Voriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of cyclosporine by decreasing its metabolism. Consider reducing the dose of cyclosporine. Monitor cyclosporine serum concentrations and therapeutic and toxic effects if initiating, discontinuing or adjusting voriconazole therapy. (source: Drug Bank)

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Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

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Publications related to cyclosporine: 102

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A clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interaction between cyclosporine and imatinib. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Atiq Ferdows, et al. PubMed
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A candidate gene approach of the calcineurin pathway to identify variants associated with clinical outcomes in renal transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Pouché Lucie, et al. PubMed
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New challenges and promises in solid organ transplantation pharmacogenetics: the genetic variability of proteins involved in the pharmacodynamics of immunosuppressive drugs. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Pouché Lucie, et al. PubMed
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Personalizing initial calcineurin inhibitor dosing by adjusting to donor CYP3A-status in liver transplant patients. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Monostory Katalin, et al. PubMed
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Association of SNPs with the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressant therapy after heart transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Sánchez-Lázaro Ignacio, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A4∗18B and CYP3A5∗3 polymorphisms contribute to pharmacokinetic variability of cyclosporine among healthy Chinese subjects. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015. Tao Xing-Ru, et al. PubMed
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Cyclosporine and methotrexate-related pharmacogenomic predictors of acute graft-versus-host disease. Haematologica. 2015. Laverdière Isabelle, et al. PubMed
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The Effect of ABCB1 C3435T Polymorphism on Cyclosporine Dose Requirements in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Meta-Analysis. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2014. Lee Jun, et al. PubMed
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Adiponectin and leptin gene polymorphisms in patients with post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Romanowski Maciej, et al. PubMed
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Mechanisms and assessment of statin-related muscular adverse effects. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Moßhammer Dirk, et al. PubMed
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Impact of CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene (G2677T) polymorphisms on dose requirement of the cyclosporine in renal transplant Egyptian recipients. Molecular biology reports. 2014. Sharaki Ola, et al. PubMed
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Calcineurin inhibitors and hypertension: a role for pharmacogenetics?. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Moes Arthur D, et al. PubMed
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A pharmacogenetic study of ABCB1 polymorphisms and cyclosporine treatment response in patients with psoriasis in the Greek population. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Vasilopoulos Y, et al. PubMed
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Clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics in kidney transplantation: calcineurin inhibitors in the starting blocks. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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Association of CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with cyclosporine-related liver injury in Chinese renal transplant recipients. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Xin Hua-Wen, et al. PubMed
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The influence of CYP3A, PPARA, and POR genetic variants on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Lunde Ingrid, et al. PubMed
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In vitro OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 inhibition is associated with observations of benign clinical unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2014. Chiou William J, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, and CYP3A Combined Genotypes on Cyclosporine, Everolimus, and Tacrolimus Pharmacokinetics in Renal Transplantation. CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 2014. Moes D J A R, et al. PubMed
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Long-term effects of ABCB1 and SXR SNPs on the systemic exposure to cyclosporine in pediatric kidney transplant patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Ferraresso Mariano, et al. PubMed
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Impact of POR*28 on the Pharmacokinetics of Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine a in Renal Transplant Patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2013. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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Functional G1199A ABCB1 Polymorphism May Have an Effect on Cyclosporine Blood Concentration in Renal Transplanted Patients. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Mostafa-Hedeab Gomaa, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: cyclosporine and tacrolimus pathways. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Barbarino Julia M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4/5 polymorphisms affect the blood level of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Li Dan-ying, et al. PubMed
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Challenges in pharmacogenetics. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Cascorbi Ingolf, et al. PubMed
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CYP2C8*3 polymorphism and donor age are associated with allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant recipients treated with calcineurin inhibitors. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Gervasini Guillermo, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 polymorphisms are associated with cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity and gingival hyperplasia in renal transplant recipients. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. García Montserrat, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis: towards personalized medicine. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Umićević Mirkov Maša, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4*22: promising newly identified CYP3A4 variant allele for personalizing pharmacotherapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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CYP3A5 Gene Variation Influences Cyclosporine A Metabolite Formation and Renal Cyclosporine Disposition. Transplantation. 2013. Zheng Songmao, et al. PubMed
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The role of MDR1 C3435T gene polymorphism on gingival hyperplasia in Turkish renal transplant patients treated with cyclosporine in the absence of calcium channel blockers. Transplantation proceedings. 2013. Kazancioglu H O, et al. PubMed
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Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase polymorphisms and renal allograft outcome. Transplantation. 2012. Shah Sapna, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for CYP3A5. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Lamba Jatinder, et al. PubMed
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The new CYP3A4 intron 6 C>T polymorphism (CYP3A4*22) is associated with an increased risk of delayed graft function and worse renal function in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lymphocyte counts in kidney allograft recipients are associated with IMPDH2 3757T>C gene polymorphism. Transplantation proceedings. 2011. Pazik J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
In vivo CYP3A activity is significantly lower in cyclosporine-treated as compared with tacrolimus-treated renal allograft recipients. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. de Jonge H, et al. PubMed
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Effect of a new functional CYP3A4 polymorphism on calcineurin inhibitors dose requirements and trough blood levels in stable renal transplant patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Elens Laure, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of calcineurin inhibitors in Brazilian renal transplant patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Santoro Ana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphism in Iranian kidney transplant recipients. Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. 2011. Aghdaie Mahdokht Hossein, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A low-risk ZnT-8 allele (W325) for post-transplantation diabetes mellitus is protective against cyclosporin A-induced impairment of insulin secretion. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2011. Kim I, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of the RNA world: structural RNA polymorphisms in drug therapy. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011. Sadee W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Seasonal variation in blood drug concentrations and a potential relationship to vitamin D. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2011. Lindh Jonatan D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLCO1B1 genetic polymorphism influences mycophenolic acid tolerance in renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Michelon Hugues, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Impact of recipient statin treatment on graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2010. Rotta Marcello, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Potential for pharmacokinetic interactions between ambrisentan and cyclosporine. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Spence R, et al. PubMed
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Deciphering calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity: a pharmacological approach. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Pallet Nicolas, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphisms in type I and II inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase genes and association with clinical outcome in patients on mycophenolate mofetil. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2010. Gensburger Olivier, et al. PubMed
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Donor P-gp polymorphisms strongly influence renal function and graft loss in a cohort of renal transplant recipients on cyclosporine therapy in a long-term follow-up. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Woillard J-B, et al. PubMed
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Risk of diarrhoea in a long-term cohort of renal transplant patients given mycophenolate mofetil: the significant role of the UGT1A8 2 variant allele. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Woillard Jean-Baptiste, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between the immunosuppressant sirolimus and the lipid-lowering drug ezetimibe in healthy volunteers. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Oswald S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Use of pharmacogenetics to optimize immunosuppressive therapy. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2010. Macphee Iain A M. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Long-term changes in cyclosporine pharmacokinetics after renal transplantation in children: evidence for saturable presystemic metabolism and effect of NR1I2 polymorphism. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2010. Fanta Samuel, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP3A and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcineurin inhibitors: Part II. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2010. Staatz Christine E, et al. PubMed
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The effect of CYP3A5 polymorphism on dose-adjusted cyclosporine concentration in renal transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Zhu H J, et al. PubMed
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Effect of CYP3A and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcineurin inhibitors: Part I. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2010. Staatz Christine E, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identification of novel substrates for human cytochrome P450 2J2. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2010. Lee Caroline A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
An inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 single-nucleotide polymorphism impairs the effect of mycophenolic acid. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Winnicki W, et al. PubMed
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The role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides and their common genetic variants in mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Picard N, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of psoriasis. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. O'Rielly Darren D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
TCF7L2 polymorphism associates with new-onset diabetes after transplantation. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2009. Ghisdal Lidia, et al. PubMed
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Is there a place for drug combination strategies using clinical pharmacology attributes?--review of current trends in research. Current clinical pharmacology. 2009. Srinivas Nuggehally R. PubMed
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Interpatient variability in IMPDH activity in MMF-treated renal transplant patients is correlated with IMPDH type II 3757T > C polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Sombogaard Ferdi, et al. PubMed
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Association of drug metabolism gene polymorphisms with toxicities, graft-versus-host disease and survival after HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with leukemia. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 2009. Rocha V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A5 genotype is associated with longer patient survival after kidney transplantation and long-term treatment with cyclosporine. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2008. Kreutz R, et al. PubMed
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Role of cytochrome P450 2C8 and 2J2 genotypes in calcineurin inhibitor-induced chronic kidney disease. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Smith Helen E, et al. PubMed
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Association of four DNA polymorphisms with acute rejection after kidney transplantation. Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. 2008. Grinyó Josep, et al. PubMed
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ABCB1 polymorphisms may have a minor effect on ciclosporin blood concentrations in myasthenia gravis patients. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Zhang Ya-tong, et al. PubMed
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Lack of effect of P-glycoprotein inhibition on renal clearance of dicloxacillin in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pharmacotherapy. 2008. Beringer Paul M, et al. PubMed
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No association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the development of nephrotoxicity after orthotopic heart transplantation. The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation. 2008. Klauke Bärbel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed
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Prediction of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions using human hepatocyte suspension in plasma and cytochrome P450 phenotypic data. II. In vitro-in vivo correlation with ketoconazole. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2008. Lu Chuang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Functional evaluation of polymorphisms in the human ABCB1 gene and the impact on clinical responses of antiepileptic drugs. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Hung Chin-Chuan, et al. PubMed
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Influence of ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms on cyclosporine intracellular concentration in transplant recipients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Crettol Séverine, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of cyclosporine in children suggests an age-dependent influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Fanta Samuel, et al. PubMed
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Possible association of CTLA-4 gene polymorphism with cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth in kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation proceedings. 2007. Kusztal M, et al. PubMed
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Bosentan is a substrate of human OATP1B1 and OATP1B3: inhibition of hepatic uptake as the common mechanism of its interactions with cyclosporin A, rifampicin, and sildenafil. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2007. Treiber Alexander, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 3A polymorphisms and immunosuppressive drugs: an update. Pharmacogenomics. 2007. Anglicheau Dany, et al. PubMed
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Multidrug resistance gene-1 polymorphisms and resistance to cyclosporine A in patients with steroid resistant ulcerative colitis. Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2007. Daniel Fady, et al. PubMed
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A "silent" polymorphism in the MDR1 gene changes substrate specificity. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2007. Kimchi-Sarfaty Chava, et al. PubMed
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Cyclosporin A, tacrolimus and sirolimus are potent inhibitors of the human breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and reverse resistance to mitoxantrone and topotecan. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2006. Gupta Anshul, et al. PubMed
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Systematic screening for polymorphisms in the CYP3A4 gene in the Chinese population. Pharmacogenomics. 2006. Du Jing, et al. PubMed
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Drug-drug interaction between pitavastatin and various drugs via OATP1B1. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2006. Hirano Masaru, et al. PubMed
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Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical relevance. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006. Neuvonen Pertti J, et al. PubMed
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The influence of P-glycoprotein on cerebral and hepatic concentrations of nortriptyline and its metabolites. Drug metabolism and drug interactions. 2006. Ejsing Thomas Broeng, et al. PubMed
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The impact of thiopurine s-methyltransferase polymorphism on azathioprine-induced myelotoxicity in renal transplant recipients. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2005. Kurzawski Mateusz, et al. PubMed
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Cyclosporin A is a broad-spectrum multidrug resistance modulator. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2005. Qadir Misbah, et al. PubMed
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Ezetimibe: a review of its metabolism, pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2005. Kosoglou Teddy, et al. PubMed
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Thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotype predicts azathioprine-induced myelotoxicity in kidney transplant recipients. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. 2004. Formea Christine M, et al. PubMed
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The effect of variable CYP3A5 expression on cyclosporine dosing, blood pressure and long-term graft survival in renal transplant patients. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Kreutz Reinhold, et al. PubMed
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Cyclosporin in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis: a retrospective study. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. 2004. Lee S S, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacology of calcineurin antagonists. Transplantation proceedings. 2004. Kapturczak M H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and MDR-1 genes and pharmacokinetics of the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003. Hesselink Dennis A, et al. PubMed
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Effect of P-glycoprotein modulator, cyclosporin A, on the gastrointestinal excretion of irinotecan and its metabolite SN-38 in rats. Pharmaceutical research. 2003. Arimori Kazuhiko, et al. PubMed
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Influence of a 3-day regimen of azithromycin on the disposition kinetics of cyclosporine A in stable renal transplant patients. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2003. Bachmann Kenneth, et al. PubMed
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Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2003. Ding Xinxin, et al. PubMed
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Enhancement by cyclosporin A of taxol-induced apoptosis of human urinary bladder cancer cells. Urological research. 2002. Nomura Takeo, et al. PubMed
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Interaction of common azole antifungals with P glycoprotein. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2002. Wang Er-jia, et al. PubMed
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Med-psych drug-drug interactions update. Psychosomatics. 2002. Armstrong Scott C, et al. PubMed
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[Birdshot retinochoroidopathy]. Annales de médecine interne. 2000. Cassoux N, et al. PubMed
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Immune mechanism of aplastic anemia. International journal of hematology. 1997. Nakao S. PubMed
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Cyclosporin clinical pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 1993. Fahr A. PubMed
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Cyclosporin A in rheumatoid arthritis: overview of efficacy. British journal of rheumatology. 1993. Wells G, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0078-0240-15
DrugBank:
DB00091
ChEBI:
4031
KEGG Compound:
C05086
KEGG Drug:
D00184
PubChem Compound:
6435893
PubChem Substance:
199551
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
593257
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DNC001177
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
5e5926a7-1de0-4b54-a5c0-286b6200ff82

Clinical Trials

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.