Chemical: Drug
chloramphenicol

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for chloramphenicol

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA No VIP available G6PD A- 202A_376G N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available G6PD B (wildtype) N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
G6PD deficiency N/A N/A N/A
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • CAF
  • CAM
  • CAP
  • CPh
  • Chloramfenikol
  • Chloramphenicole
  • Chloroamphenicol
  • Cloroamfenicolo
  • D-Chloramphenicol
Trade Names
  • Ak-Chlor Ophthalmic Ointment
  • Ak-Chlor Ophthalmic Solution
  • Ak-chlor
  • Alficetyn
  • Ambofen
  • Amphenicol
  • Amphicol
  • Amseclor
  • Anacetin
  • Aquamycetin
  • Austracil
  • Austracol
  • Biocetin
  • Biophenicol
  • Catilan
  • Chemicetin
  • Chemicetina
  • Chlomin
  • Chlomycol
  • Chlora-Tabs
  • Chloracol Ophthalmic Solution
  • Chloramex
  • Chloramficin
  • Chloramfilin
  • Chloramsaar
  • Chlorasol
  • Chloricol
  • Chlornitromycin
  • Chloro-25 vetag
  • Chlorocaps
  • Chlorocid
  • Chlorocid S
  • Chlorocide
  • Chlorocidin C
  • Chlorocidin C tetran
  • Chlorocol
  • Chlorofair
  • Chlorofair Ophthalmic Ointment
  • Chlorofair Ophthalmic Solution
  • Chloroject L
  • Chloromax
  • Chloromycetin Hydrocortisone
  • Chloromycetin Ophthalmic Ointment
  • Chloromycetin Palmitate
  • Chloromycetin for Ophthalmic Solution
  • Chloromycetny
  • Chloromyxin
  • Chloronitrin
  • Chloroptic
  • Chloroptic Ophthalmic Solution
  • Chloroptic S.O.P.
  • Chloroptic-P S.O.P.
  • Chlorovules
  • Cidocetine
  • Ciplamycetin
  • Cloramfen
  • Cloramficin
  • Cloramicol
  • Cloramidina
  • Clorocyn
  • Cloromisan
  • Clorosintex
  • Comycetin
  • Cylphenicol
  • Desphen
  • Detreomycin
  • Detreomycine
  • Dextromycetin
  • Doctamicina
  • Econochlor
  • Econochlor Ophthalmic Ointment
  • Econochlor Ophthalmic Solution
  • Elase-Chloromycetin
  • Embacetin
  • Emetren
  • Enicol
  • Enteromycetin
  • Erbaplast
  • Ertilen
  • Farmicetina
  • Farmitcetina
  • Fenicol
  • Fenicol Ophthalmic Ointment
  • Globenicol
  • Glorous
  • Halomycetin
  • Hortfenicol
  • I-Chlor Ophthalmic Solution
  • Intramycetin
  • Isicetin
  • Ismicetina
  • Isophenicol
  • Isopto fenicol
  • Juvamycetin
  • Kamaver
  • Kemicetina
  • Kemicetine
  • Klorita
  • Klorocid S
  • Leukamycin
  • Leukomyan
  • Leukomycin
  • Levomicetina
  • Levomitsetin
  • Levomycetin
  • Loromisan
  • Loromisin
  • Mastiphen
  • Mediamycetine
  • Medichol
  • Micloretin
  • Micochlorine
  • Micoclorina
  • Microcetina
  • Mychel
  • Mychel-Vet
  • Mycinol
  • Normimycin V
  • Novochlorocap
  • Novomycetin
  • Novophenicol
  • Ocu-Chlor Ophthalmic Ointment
  • Ocu-Chlor Ophthalmic Solution
  • Oftalent
  • Oleomycetin
  • Opclor
  • Opelor
  • Ophtho-Chloram Ophthalmic Solution
  • Ophthochlor
  • Ophthochlor Ophthalmic Solution
  • Ophthoclor
  • Ophthocort
  • Ophtochlor
  • Optomycin
  • Otachron
  • Otophen
  • Pantovernil
  • Paraxin
  • Pentamycetin
  • Pentamycetin Ophthalmic Ointment
  • Pentamycetin Ophthalmic Solution
  • Quemicetina
  • Rivomycin
  • Romphenil
  • Ronphenil
  • Septicol
  • Sificetina
  • Sintomicetina
  • Sintomicetine R
  • Sno-Phenicol
  • Sopamycetin Ophthalmic Ointment
  • Sopamycetin Ophthalmic Solution
  • Spectro-Chlor Ophthalmic Ointment
  • Spectro-Chlor Ophthalmic Solution
  • Stanomycetin
  • Synthomycetin
  • Synthomycetine
  • Synthomycine
  • Tega-Cetin
  • Tevcocin
  • Tevcosin
  • Tifomycin
  • Tifomycine
  • Tiromycetin
  • Treomicetina
  • Tyfomycine
  • Unimycetin
  • Veticol
  • Viceton
Brand Mixture Names
  • Actinac Pwr (Allantoin + Butoxyethyl Nicotinate + Chloramphenicol + Hydrocortisone Acetate + Sulfur)
  • Actinac Pws (Allantoin + Butoxyethyl Nicotinate + Chloramphenicol + Hydrocortisone Acetate + Sulfur)
  • Chlorasone (Chloramphenicol + Prednisolone Acetate)
  • Elase Chloromycetin Ont (Chloramphenicol + Deoxyribonuclease Pancreatic + Fibrinolysin)
  • Liquichlor (Chloramphenicol + Prednisolone + Squalane + Tetracaine)
  • Ophthocort Ont (Chloramphenicol + Hydrocortisone Acetate + Polymyxin B)
  • Sopamycetin/Hc Ointment (Chloramphenicol + Hydrocortisone Acetate)
  • Sopamycetin/Hc Ont (Chloramphenicol + Hydrocortisone Acetate)
  • Sopamycetin/Hc Susp (Chloramphenicol + Hydrocortisone Acetate)
  • Zoomycetine Spray (Chloramphenicol + Isopropyl Alcohol + Methyl Violet)

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA448927

Type(s):

Drug

Description

An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

Used in treatment of cholera, as it destroys the vibrios and decreases the diarrhea. It is effective against tetracycline-resistant vibrios. It is also used in eye drops or ointment to treat bacterial conjunctivitis.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Chloramphenicol is lipid-soluble, allowing it to diffuse through the bacterial cell membrane. It then reversibly binds to the L16 protein of the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes, where transfer of amino acids to growing peptide chains is prevented (perhaps by suppression of peptidyl transferase activity), thus inhibiting peptide bond formation and subsequent protein synthesis.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that was derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and is now produced synthetically. Chloramphenicol is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms, but due to serious side-effects (e.g., damage to the bone marrow, including aplastic anemia) in humans, it is usually reserved for the treatment of serious and life-threatening infections (e.g., typhoid fever). Chloramphenicol is bacteriostatic but may be bactericidal in high concentrations or when used against highly susceptible organisms. Chloramphenicol stops bacterial growth by binding to the bacterial ribosome (blocking peptidyl transferase) and inhibiting protein synthesis.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take on an empty stomach.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic, with 90% conjugated to inactive glucuronide.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

Plasma protein binding is 50-60% in adults and 32% is premature neonates.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Rapidly and completely absorbed from gastrointestinal tract following oral administration (bioavailability 80%). Well absorbed following intramuscular administration (bioavailability 70%). Intraocular and some systemic absorption also occurs after topical application to the eye.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

Half-life in adults with normal hepatic and renal function is 1.5 - 3.5 hours. In patients with impaired renal function half-life is 3 - 4 hours. In patients with severely impaired hepatic function half-life is 4.6 - 11.6 hours. Half-life in children 1 month to 16 years old is 3 - 6.5 hours, while half-life in infants 1 to 2 days old is 24 hours or longer and is highly variable, especially in low birth-weight infants.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD 50 = 1500 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD 50 = 2500 mg/kg. Toxic reactions including fatalities have occurred in the premature and newborn; the signs and symptoms associated with these reactions have been referred to as the gray syndrome. Symptoms include (in order of appearance) abdominal distension with or without emesis, progressive pallid cyanosis, vasomotor collapse frequently accompanied by irregular respiration, and death within a few hours of onset of these symptoms.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C11H12Cl2N2O5

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

c1cc(ccc1[C@H]([C@@H](CO)NC(=O)C(Cl)Cl)O)N(=O)=O

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

OC[C@@H](NC(=O)C(Cl)Cl)[C@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

323.129

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

322.012326918

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

OC[C@@H](NC(=O)C(Cl)Cl)[C@H](O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)[N+]([O-])=O

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C11H12Cl2N2O5/c12-10(13)11(18)14-8(5-16)9(17)6-1-3-7(4-2-6)15(19)20/h1-4,8-10,16-17H,5H2,(H,14,18)/t8-,9-/m1/s1

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
CD55 (source: Drug Bank)

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
acetohexamide - chloramphenicol The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - acenocoumarol Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - acetohexamide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - chlorpropamide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - chlorpropamide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - cyclosporine Increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - cyclosporine Increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - dicumarol Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - ethotoin Increases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - fosphenytoin Increases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - glibenclamide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - glibenclamide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - gliclazide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - gliclazide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - glipizide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - glipizide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - glisoxepide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - glycodiazine The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - mephenytoin Increases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - mephenytoin Increases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - phenytoin Increases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - phenytoin Increases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - rifampin Rifampin decreases the effect of chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - rifampin Rifampin decreases the effect of chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - tacrolimus Increases tacrolimus levels (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - tacrolimus Increases tacrolimus levels (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - tolazamide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - tolbutamide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - tolbutamide The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chloramphenicol - warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
chlorpropamide - chloramphenicol The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
chlorpropamide - chloramphenicol The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
cyclosporine - chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol increases the effect of cyclosporine (source: Drug Bank)
fosphenytoin - chloramphenicol Increases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
glibenclamide - chloramphenicol The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
glibenclamide - chloramphenicol The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
gliclazide - chloramphenicol The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
gliclazide - chloramphenicol The agent increases the effect of sulfonylurea (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin - chloramphenicol Increases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin - chloramphenicol Increases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin - chloramphenicol Rifampin decreases the effect of chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
rifampin - chloramphenicol Rifampin decreases the effect of chloramphenicol (source: Drug Bank)
thiopental - chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol may increase the serum concentration of Thiopental by decreasing Thiopental metabolism. Thiopental may decrease the serum concentration of Chloramphenicol by increasing Chloramphenicol metabolism. Monitor for changes in therapeutic effects of both agents if concomitant therapy is initiated, discontinued or doses are adjusted. (source: Drug Bank)
thiopental - chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol may increase the serum concentration of Thiopental by decreasing Thiopental metabolism. Thiopental may decrease the serum concentration of Chloramphenicol by increasing Chloramphenicol metabolism. Monitor for changes in therapeutic effects of both agents if concomitant therapy is initiated, discontinued or doses are adjusted. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Publications related to chloramphenicol: 17

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available
PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Scott Stuart A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Identifying genomic and developmental causes of adverse drug reactions in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2010. Becker Mara L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Medications and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an evidence-based review. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. 2010. Youngster Ilan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Warfarin interactions with substances listed in drug information compendia and in the FDA-approved label for warfarin sodium. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Anthony M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Lancet. 2008. Cappellini M D, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
G6PD deficiency: the genotype-phenotype association. Blood reviews. 2007. Mason Philip J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Med-psych drug-drug interactions update. Psychosomatics. 2002. Armstrong Scott C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Haemolytic potential of three chemotherapeutic agents and aspirin in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ. 1999. Ali N A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug-induced haemolysis and renal failure in children with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Afghanistan. Annals of tropical paediatrics. 1990. Choudhry V P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. WHO Working Group. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1989. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug-induced haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. British medical journal. 1976. Chan T K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Acute haemolysis complicating co-trimoxazole therapy for typhoid fever in a patient with G.-6-P.D. deficiency. Lancet. 1972. Owusu S K. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Acute haemolytic anaemia in typhoid fever. Indian journal of pediatrics. 1972. Bakshi S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Chloramphenicol-induced hemolysis in Caucasian glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Annals of internal medicine. 1971. McCaffrey R P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Typhoid fever in Hong Kong junk family. British medical journal. 1969. Forrest C R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hemolysis in typhoid fever. British medical journal. 1967. La Grutta A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Haemolysis in typhoid fever in children with G-6-PD deficiency. British medical journal. 1967. Hersko C, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
61570-331-31
DrugBank:
DB00446
PDB:
CLM
ChEBI:
17698
KEGG Compound:
C00918
KEGG Drug:
D00104
PubChem Compound:
298
PubChem Substance:
4172
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
798398
BindingDB:
50028502
HET:
CLM
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP001356

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention chloramphenicol and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials loaded.

NURSA Datasets

provided by nursa.org

No NURSA datasets available.

Common Searches

Search PubMed
Search Medline Plus
Search PubChem
Search CTD

Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.