Chemical: Drug
ethanol

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for ethanol

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
ADH1B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
ALDH2 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1001179 NC_000011.10:g.34438684C>T, NC_000011.9:g.34460231C>T, NG_013339.1:g.4760C>T, NM_001752.3:c.-330C>T, rs17879971, rs36224099, rs386508782, rs60285691
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10515115 NC_000005.10:g.71716480T>A, NC_000005.9:g.71012307T>A, NG_015988.1:g.2318T>A, rs117462073, rs17358014
T > A
T > C
T > G
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1051730 NC_000015.10:g.78601997G>A, NC_000015.9:g.78894339G>A, NG_016143.1:g.24299C>T, NM_000743.4:c.645C>T, NM_001166694.1:c.645C>T, NP_000734.2:p.Tyr215=, NP_001160166.1:p.Tyr215=, NR_046313.1:n.1146C>T, XM_006720382.1:c.444C>T, XM_011521173.1:c.564C>T, XP_006720445.1:p.Tyr148=, XP_011519475.1:p.Tyr188=, rs117683679, rs17486992, rs386514167, rs59313803
G > A
SNP
Y215Y
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1076560 NC_000011.10:g.113412966C>A, NC_000011.9:g.113283688C>A, NG_008841.1:g.67314G>T, NM_000795.3:c.811-83G>T, NM_016574.3:c.724-83G>T, XM_005271425.1:c.811-83G>T, XM_005271426.1:c.808-83G>T, rs1800500
C > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1154461 NC_000004.11:g.100342902C>G, NC_000004.12:g.99421745C>G, NM_000673.4:c.601-952G>C, NM_001166504.1:c.625-952G>C, rs1662044, rs2134675, rs57274128, rs74951143
C > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs11575893 NC_000005.10:g.71719624C>T, NC_000005.9:g.71015451C>T, NG_015988.1:g.5462C>T, NM_004291.3:c.159+172C>T, rs59893632
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1176744 NC_000011.10:g.113932306A>C, NC_000011.9:g.113803028A>C, NG_011483.1:g.32440A>C, NM_006028.4:c.386A>C, NP_006019.1:p.Tyr129Ser, XM_011543063.1:c.353A>C, XM_011543064.1:c.185A>C, XM_011543065.1:c.179A>C, XM_011543066.1:c.353A>C, XP_011541365.1:p.Tyr118Ser, XP_011541366.1:p.Tyr62Ser, XP_011541367.1:p.Tyr60Ser, XP_011541368.1:p.Tyr118Ser, rs12789060, rs1672726, rs17116132, rs386521153, rs52824992, rs61541040
A > C
SNP
Y129S
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1204014 NC_000007.13:g.122634843C>T, NC_000007.14:g.122994789C>T, NG_011980.1:g.5912G>A, NM_016945.2:c.846G>A, NP_058641.1:p.Thr282=, rs10350572, rs11567320, rs17145282, rs59698445
C > T
SNP
T282T
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1229967 NC_000004.11:g.100207578G>C, NC_000004.12:g.99286421G>C, NM_000667.3:c.259+429C>G, NR_037884.1:n.3790-374G>C, rs117541479, rs1693436, rs17298736, rs57128620
G > C
G > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1229976 NC_000004.11:g.100202078C>T, NC_000004.12:g.99280921C>T, NM_000667.3:c.829-642G>A, NR_037884.1:n.3790-5874C>T, rs1789860, rs3805323, rs57398036
C > T
SNP
rs1229984 NC_000004.11:g.100239319T=, NC_000004.11:g.100239319T>C, NC_000004.12:g.99318162T=, NC_000004.12:g.99318162T>C, NG_011435.1:g.8254A=, NG_011435.1:g.8254A>G, NM_000668.5:c.143A=, NM_000668.5:c.143A>G, NM_001286650.1:c.23A=, NM_001286650.1:c.23A>G, NP_000659.2:p.His48=, NP_000659.2:p.His48Arg, NP_001273579.1:p.His8=, NP_001273579.1:p.His8Arg, XM_005262730.1:c.23A=, XM_005262730.1:c.23A>G, XP_005262787.1:p.His8=, XP_005262787.1:p.His8Arg, rs11537716, rs17028836, rs17856968, rs1789884, rs52797169, rs57624638
T > C
SNP
H48R
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1229985 NC_000004.11:g.100232878A>G, NC_000004.12:g.99311721A>G, NG_011435.1:g.14695T>C, NM_000668.5:c.829-65T>C, NM_001286650.1:c.709-65T>C, XM_005262730.1:c.709-65T>C, rs1789881
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs13280604 NC_000008.10:g.42559586G>A, NC_000008.11:g.42704443G>A, NM_000749.3:c.53-4274G>A, XR_949716.1:n.908+1300C>T, XR_949717.1:n.-1299C>T, XR_949718.1:n.909-207C>T
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1662060 NC_000004.11:g.100259841T>C, NC_000004.12:g.99338684T>C, NG_011718.1:g.19077A>G, NM_000669.4:c.1103+893A>G, NR_133005.1:n.1429+893A>G, XM_011531588.1:c.1001+893A>G, XM_011531589.1:c.983+893A>G
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs16871471 NC_000005.10:g.71722730A>T, NC_000005.9:g.71018557A>T, NG_015988.1:g.8568A>T, rs57016258
A > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs16969968 NC_000015.10:g.78590583G>A, NC_000015.9:g.78882925G>A, NG_023328.1:g.30064G>A, NM_000745.3:c.1192G>A, NM_001307945.1:c.458+734G>A, NP_000736.2:p.Asp398Asn, XM_005254142.1:c.707+485G>A, XM_005254142.2:c.707+485G>A, XM_011521174.1:c.458+734G>A, rs17486705, rs386541574, rs52821477
G > A
SNP
D398N
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17033 NC_000004.11:g.100228945T>C, NC_000004.12:g.99307788T>C, NG_011435.1:g.18628A>G, NM_000668.5:c.*52A>G, NM_001286650.1:c.*52A>G, XM_005262730.1:c.*52A>G, rs3805326, rs60655048
T > C
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799971 NC_000006.11:g.154360797A>G, NC_000006.12:g.154039662A>G, NG_021208.1:g.34162A>G, NM_000914.4:c.118A>G, NM_001008503.2:c.118A>G, NM_001008504.3:c.118A>G, NM_001008505.2:c.118A>G, NM_001145279.3:c.397A>G, NM_001145280.3:c.-11+28644A>G, NM_001145281.2:c.47+29103A>G, NM_001145282.2:c.118A>G, NM_001145283.2:c.118A>G, NM_001145284.3:c.118A>G, NM_001145285.2:c.118A>G, NM_001145286.2:c.118A>G, NM_001285522.1:c.118A>G, NM_001285523.1:c.118A>G, NM_001285524.1:c.397A>G, NP_000905.3:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001008503.2:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001008504.2:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001008505.2:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001138751.1:p.Asn133Asp, NP_001138754.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001138755.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001138756.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001138757.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001138758.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001272451.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001272452.1:p.Asn40Asp, NP_001272453.1:p.Asn133Asp, NR_104348.1:n.252A>G, NR_104349.1:n.252A>G, NR_104350.1:n.252A>G, NR_104351.1:n.252A>G, XM_005267002.1:c.304A>G, XM_006715497.2:c.304A>G, XM_011535849.1:c.397A>G, XP_005267059.1:p.Asn102Asp, XP_006715560.1:p.Asn102Asp, XP_011534151.1:p.Asn133Asp, XR_245534.1:n.304A>G, XR_245535.1:n.304A>G, XR_245536.1:n.304A>G, XR_245537.1:n.304A>G, rs17181017, rs52818856, rs61596185
A > G
SNP
N40D
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800497 NC_000011.10:g.113400106G>A, NC_000011.9:g.113270828G>A, NG_012976.1:g.17316G>A, NM_178510.1:c.2137G>A, NP_848605.1:p.Glu713Lys, XM_011542736.1:c.2170G>A, XM_011542737.1:c.2140G>A, XM_011542738.1:c.1948G>A, XP_011541038.1:p.Glu724Lys, XP_011541039.1:p.Glu714Lys, XP_011541040.1:p.Glu650Lys, rs117686243, rs4134623, rs4245144, rs59538675
G > A
SNP
E713K
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2018417 NC_000004.11:g.100235140C>A, NC_000004.12:g.99313983C>A, NG_011435.1:g.12433G>T, NM_000668.5:c.666G>T, NM_001286650.1:c.546G>T, NP_000659.2:p.Ala222=, NP_001273579.1:p.Ala182=, XM_005262730.1:c.546G>T, XP_005262787.1:p.Ala182=, rs17853136, rs60364763
C > A
SNP
A222A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2031920 NC_000010.10:g.135339845C>T, NC_000010.11:g.133526341C>T, NG_008383.1:g.3979C>T, NM_000773.3:c.-1055C>T, XM_005252665.1:c.-512C>T, rs3813868
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2232165 NC_000003.11:g.172166144G>A, NC_000003.12:g.172448354G>A, NG_021159.1:g.5103C>T, NM_004122.2:c.60C>T, NM_198407.2:c.60C>T, NP_004113.1:p.Asp20=, NP_940799.1:p.Asp20=, rs16845637, rs386497610, rs56532783, rs57930503
G > A
SNP
D20D
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2276332 NC_000004.11:g.100203447A>C, NC_000004.12:g.99282290A>C, NM_000667.3:c.828+56T>G, NR_037884.1:n.3790-4505A>C, rs17028805, rs386563298, rs4147534
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs283411 NC_000004.11:g.100265957C>A, NC_000004.12:g.99344800C>A, NG_011718.1:g.12961G>T, NM_000669.4:c.567+62G>T, NR_133005.1:n.937+62G>T, XM_011531588.1:c.465+62G>T, XM_011531589.1:c.447+62G>T, rs1215591, rs1662054
C > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs283416 NC_000004.11:g.100271356G>A, NC_000004.12:g.99350199G>A, NG_011718.1:g.7562C>T, NM_000669.4:c.19-2353C>T, NR_133005.1:n.389-2353C>T, XM_011531588.1:c.18+2459C>T, XM_011531589.1:c.-103+814C>T, rs1215587, rs1630421
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2948694 NC_000003.11:g.172165163A>G, NC_000003.12:g.172447373A>G, NG_021159.1:g.6084T>C, NM_004122.2:c.*171T>C, NM_198407.2:c.796+245T>C
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3763153 NC_000005.10:g.71717820T>C, NC_000005.9:g.71013647T>C, NG_015988.1:g.3658T>C, NM_004291.3:c.-1474T>C, rs117489910, rs36223768, rs386585731, rs58334661
T > A
T > C
T > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3857384 NC_000005.10:g.71718137C>T, NC_000005.9:g.71013964C>T, NG_015988.1:g.3975C>T, NM_004291.3:c.-1157C>T, rs36224097, rs59626536
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4950 NC_000008.10:g.42552633G>A, NC_000008.11:g.42697490G>A, NM_000749.3:c.-57G>A, XR_949716.1:n.919C>T, XR_949717.1:n.1617C>T, rs61628039
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs578776 NC_000015.10:g.78596058G>A, NC_000015.9:g.78888400G>A, NG_016143.1:g.30238C>T, NG_023328.1:g.35539G>A, NM_000743.4:c.*546C>T, NM_001166694.1:c.1390-2867C>T, NR_046313.1:n.2083+482C>T, XM_006720382.1:c.*546C>T, XM_011521173.1:c.*546C>T, rs386599954, rs57549958
G > A
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs615470 NC_000015.10:g.78593646T>C, NC_000015.9:g.78885988T>C, NG_016143.1:g.32650A>G, NG_023328.1:g.33127T>C, NM_000745.3:c.*393T>C, NM_001166694.1:c.1390-455A>G, NM_001307945.1:c.*530T>C, NR_046313.1:n.2181+268A>G, XM_005254142.1:c.*530T>C, XM_005254142.2:c.*530T>C, XM_011521174.1:c.*530T>C, rs386601798, rs59627565
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6265 NC_000011.10:g.27658369C>T, NC_000011.9:g.27679916C>T, NG_011794.1:g.68690G>A, NM_001143805.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143806.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143807.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143808.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143809.1:c.283G>A, NM_001143810.1:c.442G>A, NM_001143811.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143812.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143813.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143814.1:c.196G>A, NM_001143816.1:c.196G>A, NM_001709.4:c.196G>A, NM_170731.4:c.220G>A, NM_170732.4:c.196G>A, NM_170733.3:c.196G>A, NM_170734.3:c.241G>A, NM_170735.5:c.196G>A, NP_001137277.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137278.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137279.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137280.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137281.1:p.Val95Met, NP_001137282.1:p.Val148Met, NP_001137283.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137284.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137285.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137286.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001137288.1:p.Val66Met, NP_001700.2:p.Val66Met, NP_733927.1:p.Val74Met, NP_733928.1:p.Val66Met, NP_733929.1:p.Val66Met, NP_733930.1:p.Val81Met, NP_733931.1:p.Val66Met, NR_002832.2:n.503C>T, NR_033312.1:n.434C>T, NR_033313.1:n.434C>T, NR_033314.1:n.503C>T, NR_033315.1:n.434C>T, XM_005253060.1:c.442G>A, XM_011520280.1:c.442G>A, XP_005253117.1:p.Val148Met, XP_011518582.1:p.Val148Met, XR_242807.1:n.355C>T, XR_242808.1:n.352C>T, XR_242809.1:n.224-802C>T, rs16917222, rs17855547, rs3829232, rs386602118, rs60760775
C > -
C > A
SNP
V66M
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs671 NC_000012.11:g.112241766G>A, NC_000012.12:g.111803962G>A, NG_012250.1:g.42421G>A, NM_000690.3:c.1510G>A, NM_001204889.1:c.1369G>A, NP_000681.2:p.Glu504Lys, NP_001191818.1:p.Glu457Lys, rs2230021, rs4134524, rs4986830, rs60823674
G > A
SNP
E504K
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs698 NC_000004.11:g.100260789T>C, NC_000004.12:g.99339632T>C, NG_011718.1:g.18129A>G, NM_000669.4:c.1048A>G, NP_000660.1:p.Ile350Val, NR_133005.1:n.1374A>G, XM_011531588.1:c.946A>G, XM_011531589.1:c.928A>G, XP_011529890.1:p.Ile316Val, XP_011529891.1:p.Ile310Val, rs1042758, rs117472071, rs1693473, rs17399447, rs17855753, rs3182222, rs4134508, rs56906178
T > -
T > C
SNP
I350V
No VIP available CA VA
rs846664 NC_000007.13:g.122635173A>C, NC_000007.14:g.122995119A>C, NG_011980.1:g.5582T>G, NM_016945.2:c.516T>G, NP_058641.1:p.Asn172Lys, rs10441367, rs52807346, rs60318342
A > C
SNP
N172K
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs860170 NC_000007.13:g.122635024C>T, NC_000007.14:g.122994970C>T, NG_011980.1:g.5731G>A, NM_016945.2:c.665G>A, NP_058641.1:p.Arg222His, rs10441366, rs52808112, rs59417867
C > T
SNP
R222H
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs931635 NC_000004.11:g.100210847A>G, NC_000004.12:g.99289690A>G, NM_000667.3:c.18+1207T>C, NR_037884.1:n.4148+905A>G, rs1693434, rs59523765, rs59861732
A > G
SNP
VIP No Clinical Annotations available No Variant Annotations available
rs975833 NC_000004.11:g.100201739G>C, NC_000004.12:g.99280582G>C, NM_000667.3:c.829-303C>G, NR_037884.1:n.3790-6213G>C, rs59130346
G > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs978739 NC_000007.13:g.122635900T>C, NC_000007.14:g.122995846T>C, NG_011980.1:g.4855A>G, NM_016945.2:c.-212A>G, rs11489653, rs17145286, rs386624868
T > C
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Absolute Alcohol
  • Absolute Ethanol
  • Alcohol
  • Alcohol Anhydrous
  • Alcohol, Dehydrated
  • Alcohol, Diluted
  • Alcool Ethylique
  • Alcool Etilico
  • Alkohol
  • Alkoholu Etylowego
  • Aminoethanol
  • Beta-Aminoethanol
  • Beta-Aminoethyl Alcohol
  • Beta-Ethanolamine
  • Beta-Hydroxyethylamine
  • Caswell No. 426
  • Dehydrated Ethanol
  • Denatured Alcohol
  • Denatured Ethanol
  • ETA
  • Etanolo
  • Ethanol 200 Proof
  • Ethanol Anhydrous
  • Ethanol Extra Pure
  • Ethyl Alcohol
  • Ethyl Alcohol Anhydrous
  • Ethyl Alcohol, Anhydrous
  • Ethyl Alcohol, Denatured
  • Ethyl Hydrate
  • Ethyl Hydroxide
  • Ethylol
  • Ethylolamine
  • HSDB 531
  • Methylcarbinol
  • USAF EK-1597
Trade Names
  • Aethanol
  • Aethylalkohol
  • Alcare Hand Degermer
  • Algrain
  • Anhydrol
  • Colamine
  • Denatured Alcohol Cd-10
  • Denatured Alcohol Cd-5
  • Denatured Alcohol Cd-5a
  • Denatured Alcohol Sd-1
  • Denatured Alcohol Sd-13a
  • Denatured Alcohol Sd-17
  • Denatured Alcohol Sd-23a
  • Denatured Alcohol Sd-28
  • Denatured Alcohol Sd-30
  • Denatured Alcohol Sd-39b
  • Denatured Alcohol Sd-39c
  • Denatured Alcohol Sd-3a
  • Denatured Alcohol Sd-40m
  • Envision Conditioner Pdd 9020
  • Ethanol Absolute
  • Ethanol Absolute Bp
  • Ethanol, Silent Spirit
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 10%
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 20%
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 30%
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 40%
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 5%
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 50%
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 60%
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 70%
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 80%
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 95%
  • Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 96%
  • Glycinol
  • Jaysol
  • Jaysol S
  • Methylated Spirit Mineralised
  • Pyro
  • Reagent Alcohol
  • Spirit
  • Synasol
  • Tecsol
  • Tecsol C
  • Thanol
  • Thiofaco M-50
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA448073

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For therapeutic neurolysis of nerves or ganglia for the relief of intractable chronic pain in such conditions as inoperable cancer and trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux), in patients for whom neurosurgical procedures are contraindicated.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Ethanol affects the brain's neurons in several ways. It alters their membranes as well as their ion channels, enzymes, and receptors. Alcohol also binds directly to the receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and the NMDA receptors for glutamate.
The sedative effects of ethanol are mediated through binding to GABA receptors and glycine receptors (alpha 1 and alpha 2 subunits). It also inhibits NMDA receptor functioning. In its role as an anti-infective, ethanol acts as an osmolyte or dehydrating agent that disrupts the osmotic balance across cell membranes.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Alcohol produces injury to cells by dehydration and precipitation of the cytoplasm or protoplasm. This accounts for its bacteriocidal and antifungal action. When alcohol is injected in close proximity to nerve tissues, it produces neuritis and nerve degeneration (neurolysis). Ninety to 98% of ethanol that enters the body is completely oxidized. Ethanol is also used as a cosolvent to dissolve many insoluble drugs and to serve as a mild sedative in some medicinal formulations. Ethanol also binds to GABA, glycine, NMDA receptors and modulates their effects. Ethanol is also metabolised by the hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic. Metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

Rapidly absorbed.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

Oral, rat LD 50: 5628 mg/kg. Symptoms and effects of overdose include nausea, vomiting, CNS depression, acute respiratory failure or death and with chronic use, severe health problems, such as liver and brain damage.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C2H6O

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CCO

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CCO

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

46.0684

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

46.041864814

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

CCO

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C2H6O/c1-2-3/h3H,2H2,1H3

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Acetaminophen Pathway (therapeutic doses), Pharmacokinetics
    Stylized diagram showing acetaminophen metabolism and transport in the liver.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ADH1A (source: Drug Bank)
ADH1B (source: Drug Bank)
ADH1C (source: Drug Bank)
GABRA1 (source: Drug Bank)
GLRA1 (source: Drug Bank)
GLRA2 (source: Drug Bank)
GRIN3A (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDrug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
escitalopram

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
tizanidine - ethanol Ethanol increases the adverse effects of Tizanidine. The CNS depressant effects of these agents are additive. (source: Drug Bank)
triprolidine - ethanol Triprolidine may enhance the CNS depressant effects of Ethanol. (source: Drug Bank)
triprolidine - ethanol Triprolidine may enhance the CNS depressant effects of Ethanol. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

Publications related to ethanol: 66

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Combined Effects of Acamprosate and Escitalopram on Ethanol Consumption in Mice. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research. 2016. Ho Ada Man-Choi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Ethanol-metabolizing activities and isozyme protein contents of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in human liver: phenotypic traits of the ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 variant gene alleles. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2016. Chiang Chien-Ping, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epigenomic mapping and effect sizes of noncoding variants associated with psychotropic drug response. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Higgins Gerald A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic variability in CYP2E1 and catalase gene among currently and formerly alcohol-dependent male subjects. Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). 2015. Plemenitas Anja, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ALDH2*2 but not ADH1B*2 is a causative variant gene allele for Asian alcohol flushing after a low-dose challenge: correlation of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic findings. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2014. Peng Giia-Sheun, et al. PubMed
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Dissecting ancestry genomic background in substance dependence genome-wide association studies. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Polimanti Renato, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Associations of OPRM1 A118G and alcohol sensitivity with intravenous alcohol self-administration in young adults. Addiction biology. 2014. Hendershot Christian S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Familial risk for alcohol dependence and developmental changes in BMI: the moderating influence of addiction and obesity genes. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lichenstein Sarah D, et al. PubMed
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Ethanol self-administration and nicotine treatment induce brain levels of CYP2D in African green monkeys. British journal of pharmacology. 2014. Miller R T, et al. PubMed
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Environment-wide association study (ewas) for type 2 diabetes in the marshfield personalized medicine research project biobank. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. 2014. Hall Molly A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
BDNF rs6265 polymorphism and drug addiction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Haerian Batoul Sadat. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of alcohol in Chinese and Indians in Singapore. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2013. Seng K Y, et al. PubMed
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Ethanol self-administration and nicotine treatment induce brain levels of CYP2B6 and CYP2E1 in African green monkeys. Neuropharmacology. 2013. Ferguson Charmaine S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Differential Effects of Nicotine Treatment and Ethanol Self-administration on CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and Nicotine Pharmacokinetics in African Green Monkeys. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2012. Ferguson Charmaine S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of alcoholism: a clinical neuroscience perspective. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Ray Lara A, et al. PubMed
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Independent and combined effects of ethanol self-administration and nicotine treatment on hepatic CYP2E1 in African green monkeys. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2011. Ferguson C S, et al. PubMed
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alcohol, smoking, and caffeine in relation to fecundability, with effect modification by NAT2. Annals of epidemiology. 2011. Taylor Kira C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional genetic variants that increase synaptic serotonin and 5-HT3 receptor sensitivity predict alcohol and drug dependence. Molecular psychiatry. 2011. Enoch M-A, et al. PubMed
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Genome-wide significant association between alcohol dependence and a variant in the ADH gene cluster. Addiction biology. 2011. Frank Josef, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetics of Naltrexone in Asian Americans: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Laboratory Study. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011. Ray Lara A, et al. PubMed
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Breaking Barriers in the Genomics and Pharmacogenetics of Drug Addiction. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Ho M K, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmocoepigenetics: a new approach to predicting individual drug responses and targeting new drugs. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2011. Baer-Dubowska Wanda, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Variation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes is associated with multiple substance dependence phenotypes. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010. Sherva Richard, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) gene in the comorbidity of schizophrenia with alcohol use disorders and nicotine dependence. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2010. Busto Amaya, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The modulating effect of the androgen receptor on craving in alcohol withdrawal of men is partially mediated by leptin. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2010. Lenz B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DNATwist: a Web-based tool for teaching middle and high school students about pharmacogenomics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010. Berlin D S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
A genomewide association study of nicotine and alcohol dependence in Australian and Dutch populations. Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies. 2010. Lind Penelope A, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors alpha5 and alpha3 increase risks to nicotine dependence. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2009. Chen Xiangning, et al. PubMed
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Warfarin interactions with substances listed in drug information compendia and in the FDA-approved label for warfarin sodium. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Anthony M, et al. PubMed
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Association of the dopamine D2 receptor gene with alcohol dependence: haplotypes and subgroups of alcoholics as key factors for understanding receptor function. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2009. Kraschewski Adrian, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3/DAT1) and alcohol dependence in humans: a systematic review. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. van der Zwaluw Carmen S, et al. PubMed
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ADH single nucleotide polymorphism associations with alcohol metabolism in vivo. Human molecular genetics. 2009. Birley Andrew J, et al. PubMed
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Association of pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with heavy alcohol use and body mass. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research. 2008. Landgren Sara, et al. PubMed
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Effects of 5-week ethanol feeding on the liver of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 knockout mice. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2008. Matsumoto Akiko, et al. PubMed
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Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 reduces ischemic damage to the heart. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2008. Chen Che-Hong, et al. PubMed
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Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2008. Tolstrup Janne Schurmann, et al. PubMed
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The neuronal nicotinic receptor subunit genes (CHRNA6 and CHRNB3) are associated with subjective responses to tobacco. Human molecular genetics. 2008. Zeiger Joanna S, et al. PubMed
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Meta-analysis of the association of the Taq1A polymorphism with the risk of alcohol dependency: a HuGE gene-disease association review. American journal of epidemiology. 2008. Smith Lesley, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic treatments for drug addiction: alcohol and opiates. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse. 2008. Haile Colin N, et al. PubMed
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Involvement of cannabinoid CB2 receptor in alcohol preference in mice and alcoholism in humans. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Ishiguro H, et al. PubMed
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Nucleotide sequence variation within the human tyrosine kinase B neurotrophin receptor gene: association with antisocial alcohol dependence. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Xu K, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic basis for partial protection against alcoholism in Asians, heterozygous for the variant ALDH2*2 gene allele. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2007. Peng Giia-Sheun, et al. PubMed
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Candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for alcoholism: an expanded convergent functional genomics approach. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2007. Rodd Z A, et al. PubMed
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Association of a functional polymorphism in the mu-opioid receptor gene with alcohol response and consumption in male rhesus macaques. Archives of general psychiatry. 2007. Barr Christina S, et al. PubMed
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Multiple ADH genes modulate risk for drug dependence in both African- and European-Americans. Human molecular genetics. 2007. Luo Xingguang, et al. PubMed
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Association analysis of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) SNP rs1076560 in alcoholic patients. Neuroscience letters. 2007. Sasabe Toshikazu, et al. PubMed
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Diplotype trend regression analysis of the ADH gene cluster and the ALDH2 gene: multiple significant associations with alcohol dependence. American journal of human genetics. 2006. Luo Xingguang, et al. PubMed
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Functional variant in a bitter-taste receptor (hTAS2R16) influences risk of alcohol dependence. American journal of human genetics. 2006. Hinrichs Anthony L, et al. PubMed
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Increased attributable risk related to a functional mu-opioid receptor gene polymorphism in association with alcohol dependence in central Sweden. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005. Bart Gavin, et al. PubMed
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A polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) and sensitivity to the effects of alcohol in humans. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research. 2004. Ray Lara A, et al. PubMed
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Association of paraoxonase-1 M55L genotype and alcohol consumption with coronary atherosclerosis: the Helsinki Sudden Death Study. Pharmacogenetics. 2004. Rontu Riikka, et al. PubMed
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Transcriptional activity of the tandem repeat polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of the human CYP2E1 gene. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research. 2003. Nomura Fumio, et al. PubMed
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Neuropeptide y and alcoholism: genetic, molecular, and pharmacological evidence. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research. 2003. Pandey Subhash C, et al. PubMed
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Protective association of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase with alcohol dependence in Native American Mission Indians. The American journal of psychiatry. 2003. Wall Tamara L, et al. PubMed
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Influence of ADH1B polymorphism on alcohol use and its subjective effects in a Jewish population. American journal of medical genetics. 2002. Carr Lucinda G, et al. PubMed
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XRCC1 genetic polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Pharmacogenetics. 2002. Kim Sook-Un, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics: the inherited basis for interindividual differences in drug response. Annual review of genomics and human genetics. 2001. Evans W E, et al. PubMed
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A polymorphism of the methionine synthase gene: association with plasma folate, vitamin B12, homocyst(e)ine, and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 1999. Ma J, et al. PubMed
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Populations and genetic polymorphisms. Molecular diagnosis : a journal devoted to the understanding of human disease through the clinical application of molecular biology. 1999. Weber W W. PubMed
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ADH genotypes and alcohol use and dependence in Europeans. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research. 1998. Whitfield J B, et al. PubMed
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The RsaI polymorphism of CYP2E1 and susceptibility to alcoholic liver disease in Caucasians: effect on age of presentation and dependence on alcohol dehydrogenase genotype. Pharmacogenetics. 1998. Grove J, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphism of alcohol-metabolizing genes affects drinking behavior and alcoholic liver disease in Japanese men. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research. 1997. Tanaka F, et al. PubMed
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Cytochrome P-4502E1: its physiological and pathological role. Physiological reviews. 1997. Lieber C S. PubMed
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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: a "housekeeping" enzyme subject to tissue-specific regulation by hormones, nutrients, and oxidant stress. The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1994. Kletzien R F, et al. PubMed
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Biotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline by cDNA-expressed human CYP1A2 and CYP2E1. Pharmacogenetics. 1992. Gu L, et al. PubMed
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Allelic association of human dopamine D2 receptor gene in alcoholism. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 1990. Blum K, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
DrugBank:
DB00898
PDB:
168
ChEBI:
16236
KEGG Compound:
C00469
KEGG Drug:
D00068
PubChem Compound:
702
PubChem Substance:
3752
46506969
IUPHAR Ligand:
2299
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
724947
ChemSpider:
682
HET:
168
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000681

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention ethanol and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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NURSA Datasets

provided by nursa.org

No NURSA datasets available.

Common Searches

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.