Chemical: Drug
dimercaprol

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PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for dimercaprol

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA VA G6PD A- 202A_376G N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available G6PD B (wildtype) N/A N/A N/A
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • 2,3-dimercapro
  • 2,3-dimercaptopropanol
  • bal
  • british anti-lewisite
Trade Names
  • Bal In Oil Injection
  • Dimercaprol
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA165958406

Type(s):

Drug

Description

Dimercaprol is a traditional chelating agent developed by British biochemists at Oxford University during World War II. It was developed as an experimental antidote against the arsenic-based poison gas Lewisite. It has been used clinically since 1949 in arsenic, cadmium and mercury poisoning. In addition, it has in the past been used for the treatment of Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder in which the body tends to retain copper. Dimercaprol is a potentially toxic drug, and its use may be accompanied by multiple side effects.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the treatment of arsenic, gold and mercury poisoning. Indicated in acute lead poisoning when used concomitantly with edetate calcium disodium (DB00974).

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

The sulfhydryl groups of dimercaprol form complexes with certain heavy metals thus preventing or reversing the metallic binding of sulfhydryl-containing enzymes. The complex is excreted in the urine.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Due to its oily nature, dimercaprol is not absorbed orally and its administration requires deep intra-muscular injection that is extremely painful and allergenic. It was found to mobilize and relocate lead to the brain, increasing its neurotoxic effects. Although treatment with dimercaprol increases the excretion of cadmium, there is a concomitant increase in renal cadmium concentration, so its use should be avoided in cases of cadmium toxicity.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Absorption

After intra-muscular injection.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

The drug has a short half life.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

The intramuscular LD50 in rats is approximately 105 mg/kg; intraperitoneally 140 mg/kg. The intraperitoneal LD80 in mice is approximately 125 mg/kg. Dimercaprol has been shown in animal experiments to increase brain deposition of arsenite, organic mercury compounds and increase the toxicity of cadmium and lead. Dimercaprol has been shown to induce seizure in animal studies and also is nephrotoxic.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Urine.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C3H8OS2

Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES

OCC(S)CS

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

124.225

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

124.001656258

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

OCC(S)CS

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C3H8OS2/c4-1-3(6)2-5/h3-6H,1-2H2

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
G6PD
No related drugs are available.

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to dimercaprol: 1

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hemolysis during BAL chelation therapy for high blood lead levels in two G6PD deficient children. Clinical pediatrics. 1978. Janakiraman N, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

National Drug Code Directory:
11098-526-03
DrugBank:
DB06782
ChEBI:
554382
KEGG Compound:
C02924
KEGG Drug:
D00167
PubChem Compound:
3080
PubChem Substance:
99443293
ChemSpider:
2971
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
2ed1fc15-ca74-400e-bfdb-64483b2c590b

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention dimercaprol and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials loaded.

NURSA Datasets

provided by nursa.org

No NURSA datasets available.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.