Chemical: Drug
ethambutol

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.



PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for ethambutol

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
No VIP available CA No VIP available GSTM1 non-null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA GSTM1 null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available GSTT1 non-null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA GSTT1 null N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *5B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *5D N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *6A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *6B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *7 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *7A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *7B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *13 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA NAT2 *14 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA STAT3 CTA N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA STAT3 TCG N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA STAT3 TTA N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1041983 NC_000008.10:g.18257795C>T, NC_000008.11:g.18400285C>T, NG_012246.1:g.14041C>T, NM_000015.2:c.282C>T, NP_000006.2:p.Tyr94=, XM_011544358.1:c.282C>T, XP_011542660.1:p.Tyr94=, rs17845484, rs17858364, rs59855457
C > T
SNP
Y94Y
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1057910 NC_000010.10:g.96741053A=, NC_000010.10:g.96741053A>C, NC_000010.11:g.94981296A=, NC_000010.11:g.94981296A>C, NG_008385.1:g.47639A=, NG_008385.1:g.47639A>C, NM_000771.3:c.1075A=, NM_000771.3:c.1075A>C, NP_000762.2:p.Ile359=, NP_000762.2:p.Ile359Leu, XM_005269575.1:c.1075A=, XM_005269575.1:c.1075A>C, XP_005269632.1:p.Ile359=, XP_005269632.1:p.Ile359Leu, rs17847042, rs3198471, rs61212474
A > C
SNP
I359L
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1080983 NC_000022.10:g.42528568T=, NC_000022.10:g.42528568T>C, NC_000022.11:g.42132561C=, NC_000022.11:g.42132561C>T, NG_008376.3:g.2431G=, NG_008376.3:g.2431G>A, NM_000106.5:c.-1770A>G, NM_000106.5:c.-1770G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.-1770A>G, NM_001025161.2:c.-1770G>A, NT_187682.1:g.54907T=, NT_187682.1:g.54907T>C, NW_004504305.1:g.54891C=, NW_004504305.1:g.54891C>T, NW_009646208.1:g.18129C=, NW_009646208.1:g.18129C>T, XM_005278353.1:c.-1773A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.-1773G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529966.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.-1045-725A>G, XM_011529967.1:c.-1045-725G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529968.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.-1228A>G, XM_011529969.1:c.-1228G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529970.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.-1228A>G, XM_011529971.1:c.-1228G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.-1770A>G, XM_011529972.1:c.-1770G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.-1233A>G, XM_011547750.1:c.-1233G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.42+2343C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.42+2343T>C, XR_430455.2:n.836C>T, XR_430455.2:n.836T>C, XR_952536.1:n.122C=, XR_952536.1:n.122C>T, XR_952537.1:n.122C=, XR_952537.1:n.122C>T, XR_952538.1:n.122C=, XR_952538.1:n.122C>T, XR_952539.1:n.40+371C>T, XR_952539.1:n.40+371T>C, XR_952540.1:n.-1213C>T, XR_952540.1:n.-1213T>C, XR_952745.1:n.-618A>G, XR_952745.1:n.-618G>A, rs57121857
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1080989 NC_000022.10:g.42527793C=, NC_000022.10:g.42527793C>T, NC_000022.11:g.42131791C=, NC_000022.11:g.42131791C>T, NG_008376.3:g.3201G=, NG_008376.3:g.3201G>A, NM_000106.5:c.-1000A>G, NM_000106.5:c.-1000G>A, NM_001025161.2:c.-1000A>G, NM_001025161.2:c.-1000G>A, NT_187682.1:g.54132C=, NT_187682.1:g.54132C>T, NW_004504305.1:g.54118T=, NW_004504305.1:g.54118T>C, NW_009646208.1:g.17357T=, NW_009646208.1:g.17357T>C, XM_005278353.1:c.-1000A>G, XM_005278353.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529966.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529966.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529967.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529967.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529968.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529968.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529969.1:c.-458G=, XM_011529969.1:c.-458G>A, XM_011529970.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529970.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011529971.1:c.-458G=, XM_011529971.1:c.-458G>A, XM_011529972.1:c.-1000G=, XM_011529972.1:c.-1000G>A, XM_011547750.1:c.-458G=, XM_011547750.1:c.-458G>A, XM_011547756.1:c.42+1568C>T, XM_011547756.1:c.42+1568T>C, XR_430455.2:n.329-263C>T, XR_430455.2:n.329-263T>C, XR_952536.1:n.-652C>T, XR_952536.1:n.-652T>C, XR_952537.1:n.-652C>T, XR_952537.1:n.-652T>C, XR_952538.1:n.-652C>T, XR_952538.1:n.-652T>C, XR_952539.1:n.-363C>T, XR_952539.1:n.-363T>C, XR_952540.1:n.-1986C>T, XR_952540.1:n.-1986T>C, XR_952745.1:n.158G=, XR_952745.1:n.158G>A
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1524107 NC_000007.13:g.22768219C>T, NC_000007.14:g.22728600C>T, NG_011640.1:g.6454C>T, NM_000600.4:c.211-93C>T, NM_001318095.1:c.-18-93C>T, NR_131935.1:n.-980G>A, XM_005249745.1:c.373-93C>T, XM_005249745.3:c.373-93C>T, XM_005249746.1:c.-18-93C>T, XM_011515390.1:c.211-93C>T, XM_011515391.1:c.-18-93C>T
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1695 NC_000011.10:g.67585218A>G, NC_000011.9:g.67352689A>G, NG_012075.1:g.6624A>G, NM_000852.3:c.313A>G, NP_000843.1:p.Ile105Val, XM_005273958.1:c.313A>G, XP_005274015.1:p.Ile105Val, rs1138257, rs11553891, rs17353321, rs17856342, rs2230827, rs4609, rs56971933, rs947894
A > G
SNP
I105V
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799929 NC_000008.10:g.18257994C>T, NC_000008.11:g.18400484C>T, NG_012246.1:g.14240C>T, NM_000015.2:c.481C>T, NP_000006.2:p.Leu161=, XM_011544358.1:c.481C>T, XP_011542660.1:p.Leu161=, rs17595342, rs4646268, rs58882350, rs60310310
C > T
SNP
L161L
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799930 NC_000008.10:g.18258103G>A, NC_000008.11:g.18400593G>A, NG_012246.1:g.14349G>A, NM_000015.2:c.590G>A, NP_000006.2:p.Arg197Gln, XM_011544358.1:c.590G>A, XP_011542660.1:p.Arg197Gln, rs17517027, rs17856496, rs4646269, rs60190029, rs61467963
G > A
SNP
R197Q
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799931 NC_000008.10:g.18258370G>A, NC_000008.11:g.18400860G>A, NG_012246.1:g.14616G>A, NM_000015.2:c.857G>A, NP_000006.2:p.Gly286Glu, XM_011544358.1:c.857G>A, XP_011542660.1:p.Gly286Glu, rs17693862, rs4646270, rs52802193, rs58803786
G > A
SNP
G286E
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800629 NC_000006.11:g.31543031G=, NC_000006.11:g.31543031G>A, NC_000006.12:g.31575254G=, NC_000006.12:g.31575254G>A, NG_007462.1:g.4682G=, NG_007462.1:g.4682G>A, NG_012010.1:g.8156G=, NG_012010.1:g.8156G>A, NM_000594.3:c.-488A>G, NM_000594.3:c.-488G>A, NT_113891.2:g.3052647A=, NT_113891.2:g.3052647A>G, NT_113891.3:g.3052541A=, NT_113891.3:g.3052541A>G, NT_167245.1:g.2828572G=, NT_167245.1:g.2828572G>A, NT_167245.2:g.2822987G=, NT_167245.2:g.2822987G>A, NT_167246.1:g.2885915G=, NT_167246.1:g.2885915G>A, NT_167246.2:g.2880295G=, NT_167246.2:g.2880295G>A, NT_167247.1:g.2922737G=, NT_167247.1:g.2922737G>A, NT_167247.2:g.2917152G=, NT_167247.2:g.2917152G>A, NT_167248.1:g.2836669G=, NT_167248.1:g.2836669G>A, NT_167248.2:g.2831073G=, NT_167248.2:g.2831073G>A, NT_167249.1:g.2873832G=, NT_167249.1:g.2873832G>A, NT_167249.2:g.2874534G=, NT_167249.2:g.2874534G>A, rs116610137, rs117441802, rs148958203, rs3091256, rs36205298, rs4134777, rs59729336
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2003569 NC_000002.11:g.234667937G>A, NC_000002.12:g.233759291G>A, NG_002601.2:g.174548G>A, NG_033238.1:g.4019G>A, NM_000463.2:c.-997G>A, NM_001072.3:c.862-7743G>A, NM_007120.2:c.868-7743G>A, NM_019075.2:c.856-7743G>A, NM_019076.4:c.856-7743G>A, NM_019077.2:c.856-7743G>A, NM_019078.1:c.868-7743G>A, NM_019093.2:c.868-7743G>A, NM_021027.2:c.856-7743G>A, NM_205862.1:c.61-7743G>A, XR_241238.1:n.924-7743G>A, XR_241239.1:n.-975G>A, XR_241240.1:n.1023-7743G>A, XR_241241.1:n.942-7743G>A, rs17286591
G > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2008584 NC_000002.11:g.234637015A>G, NC_000002.12:g.233728369A>G, NG_002601.2:g.143626A>G, NM_001072.3:c.861+34504A>G, NM_007120.2:c.867+8682A>G, NM_019075.2:c.856-38665A>G, NM_019076.4:c.856-38665A>G, NM_019077.2:c.856-38665A>G, NM_019078.1:c.867+14511A>G, NM_019093.2:c.-758A>G, NM_021027.2:c.856-38665A>G, NM_205862.1:c.60+34504A>G, XR_241238.1:n.923+8682A>G, XR_241240.1:n.1022+34504A>G, XR_241241.1:n.942-38665A>G, rs16849646, rs17869157, rs55772651, rs60783229, rs62191914
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2031920 NC_000010.10:g.135339845C>T, NC_000010.11:g.133526341C>T, NG_008383.1:g.3979C>T, NM_000773.3:c.-1055C>T, XM_005252665.1:c.-512C>T, rs3813868
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2066992 NC_000007.13:g.22768249G>T, NC_000007.14:g.22728630G>T, NG_011640.1:g.6484G>T, NM_000600.4:c.211-63G>T, NM_001318095.1:c.-18-63G>T, NR_131935.1:n.-1010C>A, XM_005249745.1:c.373-63G>T, XM_005249745.3:c.373-63G>T, XM_005249746.1:c.-18-63G>T, XM_011515390.1:c.211-63G>T, XM_011515391.1:c.-18-63G>T, rs17147236, rs58064907
G > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2069837 NC_000007.13:g.22768027A>G, NC_000007.14:g.22728408A>G, NG_011640.1:g.6262A>G, NM_000600.4:c.211-285A>G, NM_001318095.1:c.-18-285A>G, NR_131935.1:n.-788T>C, XM_005249745.1:c.373-285A>G, XM_005249745.3:c.373-285A>G, XM_005249746.1:c.-18-285A>G, XM_011515390.1:c.211-285A>G, XM_011515391.1:c.-18-285A>G, rs111176548, rs16873259, rs3779040, rs56908115
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2070672 NC_000010.10:g.135340548A>G, NC_000010.11:g.133527044A>G, NG_008383.1:g.4682A>G, NM_000773.3:c.-352A>G, XM_005252665.1:c.21+171A>G, rs58043512
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2070673 NC_000010.10:g.135340567A>T, NC_000010.11:g.133527063A>T, NG_008383.1:g.4701A>T, NM_000773.3:c.-333A>T, XM_005252665.1:c.21+190A>T
A > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2227956 NC_000006.11:g.31778272G=, NC_000006.11:g.31778272G>A, NC_000006.12:g.31810495G=, NC_000006.12:g.31810495G>A, NG_011855.1:g.9564C=, NG_011855.1:g.9564C>T, NM_005527.3:c.1478C=, NM_005527.3:c.1478C>T, NP_005518.3:p.Thr493=, NP_005518.3:p.Thr493Met, NT_113891.2:g.3287853A=, NT_113891.2:g.3287853A>G, NT_113891.3:g.3287747A=, NT_113891.3:g.3287747A>G, NT_167244.1:g.3093033A=, NT_167244.1:g.3093033A>G, NT_167244.2:g.3143117A=, NT_167244.2:g.3143117A>G, NT_167245.1:g.3063859G=, NT_167245.1:g.3063859G>A, NT_167245.2:g.3058274G=, NT_167245.2:g.3058274G>A, NT_167248.1:g.3071920A=, NT_167248.1:g.3071920A>G, NT_167248.2:g.3066324A=, NT_167248.2:g.3066324A>G, XM_005249070.1:c.1670C=, XM_005249070.1:c.1670C>T, XM_005249070.3:c.1670C=, XM_005249070.3:c.1670C>T, XM_005249071.1:c.1478C=, XM_005249071.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005249072.1:c.1478C=, XM_005249072.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005249073.1:c.1478C=, XM_005249073.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005249073.2:c.1478C=, XM_005249073.2:c.1478C>T, XM_005249074.1:c.1478C=, XM_005249074.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005272813.1:c.1670T=, XM_005272813.1:c.1670T>C, XM_005272814.1:c.1478T=, XM_005272814.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005272815.1:c.1478T=, XM_005272815.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005272816.1:c.1478T=, XM_005272816.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005272816.2:c.1478T=, XM_005272816.2:c.1478T>C, XM_005272817.1:c.1478T=, XM_005272817.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005274858.1:c.1478T=, XM_005274858.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005274859.1:c.1670T=, XM_005274859.1:c.1670T>C, XM_005274859.3:c.1670T=, XM_005274859.3:c.1670T>C, XM_005274860.1:c.1478T=, XM_005274860.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005274861.1:c.1478T=, XM_005274861.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005274861.2:c.1478T=, XM_005274861.2:c.1478T>C, XM_005274862.1:c.1478T=, XM_005274862.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005274970.1:c.1670C=, XM_005274970.1:c.1670C>T, XM_005274970.3:c.1670C=, XM_005274970.3:c.1670C>T, XM_005274971.1:c.1478C=, XM_005274971.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005274972.1:c.1478C=, XM_005274972.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005274973.1:c.1478C=, XM_005274973.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005274973.2:c.1478C=, XM_005274973.2:c.1478C>T, XM_005274974.1:c.1478C=, XM_005274974.1:c.1478C>T, XM_005275398.1:c.1478T=, XM_005275398.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005275399.1:c.1670T=, XM_005275399.1:c.1670T>C, XM_005275400.1:c.1478T=, XM_005275400.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005275401.1:c.1478T=, XM_005275401.1:c.1478T>C, XM_005275401.2:c.1478T=, XM_005275401.2:c.1478T>C, XM_005275402.1:c.1478T=, XM_005275402.1:c.1478T>C, XM_011514566.1:c.1478C=, XM_011514566.1:c.1478C>T, XM_011546311.1:c.1478T=, XM_011546311.1:c.1478T>C, XM_011547246.1:c.1478T=, XM_011547246.1:c.1478T>C, XM_011547247.1:c.1670T=, XM_011547247.1:c.1670T>C, XM_011547652.1:c.1478C=, XM_011547652.1:c.1478C>T, XM_011548238.1:c.1478T=, XM_011548238.1:c.1478T>C, XM_011548239.1:c.1670T=, XM_011548239.1:c.1670T>C, XP_005249127.1:p.Thr557=, XP_005249127.1:p.Thr557Met, XP_005249128.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005249128.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005249129.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005249129.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005249130.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005249130.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005249131.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005249131.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005272870.1:p.Met557=, XP_005272870.1:p.Met557Thr, XP_005272871.1:p.Met493=, XP_005272871.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005272872.1:p.Met493=, XP_005272872.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005272873.1:p.Met493=, XP_005272873.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005272874.1:p.Met493=, XP_005272874.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005274915.1:p.Met493=, XP_005274915.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005274916.1:p.Met557=, XP_005274916.1:p.Met557Thr, XP_005274917.1:p.Met493=, XP_005274917.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005274918.1:p.Met493=, XP_005274918.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005274919.1:p.Met493=, XP_005274919.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005275027.1:p.Thr557=, XP_005275027.1:p.Thr557Met, XP_005275028.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005275028.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005275029.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005275029.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005275030.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005275030.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005275031.1:p.Thr493=, XP_005275031.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_005275455.1:p.Met493=, XP_005275455.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005275456.1:p.Met557=, XP_005275456.1:p.Met557Thr, XP_005275457.1:p.Met493=, XP_005275457.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005275458.1:p.Met493=, XP_005275458.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_005275459.1:p.Met493=, XP_005275459.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_011512868.1:p.Thr493=, XP_011512868.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_011544613.1:p.Met493=, XP_011544613.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_011545548.1:p.Met493=, XP_011545548.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_011545549.1:p.Met557=, XP_011545549.1:p.Met557Thr, XP_011545954.1:p.Thr493=, XP_011545954.1:p.Thr493Met, XP_011546540.1:p.Met493=, XP_011546540.1:p.Met493Thr, XP_011546541.1:p.Met557=, XP_011546541.1:p.Met557Thr, rs116591280, rs117465227, rs148468928, rs35842419, rs386561656, rs52829371, rs57160046
G > A
SNP
T493M
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3755319 NC_000002.11:g.234667582A=, NC_000002.11:g.234667582A>C, NC_000002.12:g.233758936A=, NC_000002.12:g.233758936A>C, NG_002601.2:g.174193A=, NG_002601.2:g.174193A>C, NG_033238.1:g.3664A=, NG_033238.1:g.3664A>C, NM_000463.2:c.-1352A=, NM_000463.2:c.-1352A>C, NM_001072.3:c.862-8098A=, NM_001072.3:c.862-8098A>C, NM_007120.2:c.868-8098A=, NM_007120.2:c.868-8098A>C, NM_019075.2:c.856-8098A=, NM_019075.2:c.856-8098A>C, NM_019076.4:c.856-8098A=, NM_019076.4:c.856-8098A>C, NM_019077.2:c.856-8098A=, NM_019077.2:c.856-8098A>C, NM_019078.1:c.868-8098A=, NM_019078.1:c.868-8098A>C, NM_019093.2:c.868-8098A=, NM_019093.2:c.868-8098A>C, NM_021027.2:c.856-8098A=, NM_021027.2:c.856-8098A>C, NM_205862.1:c.61-8098A=, NM_205862.1:c.61-8098A>C, XR_241238.1:n.924-8098A=, XR_241238.1:n.924-8098A>C, XR_241239.1:n.-1330A=, XR_241239.1:n.-1330A>C, XR_241240.1:n.1023-8098A=, XR_241240.1:n.1023-8098A>C, XR_241241.1:n.942-8098A=, XR_241241.1:n.942-8098A>C, rs35208194, rs36208045, rs57256426
A > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3813867 NC_000010.10:g.135339605G>C, NC_000010.11:g.133526101G>C, NG_008383.1:g.3739G>C, NM_000773.3:c.-1295G>C, XM_005252665.1:c.-752G>C, rs57822387
G > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3814637 NC_000010.10:g.96521045C>T, NC_000010.11:g.94761288C>T, NG_008384.2:g.3583C>T, NM_000769.2:c.-1418C>T, rs11565103, rs117910415, rs17878465, rs58858251
C > G
C > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4148323 NC_000002.11:g.234669144G>A, NC_000002.12:g.233760498G>A, NG_002601.2:g.175755G>A, NG_033238.1:g.5226G>A, NM_000463.2:c.211G>A, NM_001072.3:c.862-6536G>A, NM_007120.2:c.868-6536G>A, NM_019075.2:c.856-6536G>A, NM_019076.4:c.856-6536G>A, NM_019077.2:c.856-6536G>A, NM_019078.1:c.868-6536G>A, NM_019093.2:c.868-6536G>A, NM_021027.2:c.856-6536G>A, NM_205862.1:c.61-6536G>A, NP_000454.1:p.Gly71Arg, XR_241238.1:n.924-6536G>A, XR_241239.1:n.233G>A, XR_241240.1:n.1023-6536G>A, XR_241241.1:n.942-6536G>A, rs113525835, rs34360183, rs58105808, rs58585123
G > A
SNP
G71R
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4149032 NC_000012.11:g.21317791C>T, NC_000012.12:g.21164857C>T, NG_011745.1:g.38664C>T, NM_006446.4:c.85-7793C>T, rs57192307
C > T
SNP
No VIP available CA VA
rs4646244 NC_000008.10:g.18247718T>A, NC_000008.11:g.18390208T>A, NG_012246.1:g.3964T>A, NM_000015.2:c.-1144T>A, rs17595300
T > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4646267 NC_000008.10:g.18247913A>G, NC_000008.11:g.18390403A>G, NG_012246.1:g.4159A>G, NM_000015.2:c.-949A>G
A > G
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4646903 NC_000015.10:g.74719300A>G, NC_000015.9:g.75011641A>G, NG_008431.1:g.1759A>G, NM_000499.3:c.*1189T>C, NM_000499.4:c.*1189T>C, NM_000499.4:c.*947+242T>C, NM_001319216.1:c.*1189T>C, NM_001319216.1:c.*947+242T>C, NM_001319217.1:c.*1189T>C, NM_001319217.1:c.*947+242T>C, XM_005254185.1:c.*1189T>C, XM_005254186.1:c.*1189T>C, XM_005254187.1:c.*1189T>C, XM_005254188.1:c.*1189T>C, XM_005254189.1:c.*1189T>C, rs116877783, rs17861083, rs5030838
A > G
A > T
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4918758 NC_000010.10:g.96697252T>C, NC_000010.11:g.94937495T>C, NG_008385.1:g.3838T>C, NM_000771.3:c.-1188T>C, XM_005269575.1:c.-1188T>C, rs17110346
T > C
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4986893 NC_000010.10:g.96540410G>A, NC_000010.11:g.94780653G>A, NG_008384.2:g.22948G>A, NM_000769.2:c.636G>A, NP_000760.1:p.Trp212Ter, rs52827375, rs57081121
G > A
SNP
W212*
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6413432 NC_000010.10:g.135348544T>A, NC_000010.11:g.133535040T>A, NG_008383.1:g.12678T>A, NM_000773.3:c.967+1143T>A, XM_005252665.1:c.1027+1143T>A
T > A
SNP
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6431625 NC_000002.11:g.234637912T>C, NC_000002.12:g.233729266T>C, NG_002601.2:g.144523T>C, NM_001072.3:c.861+35401T>C, NM_007120.2:c.867+9579T>C, NM_019075.2:c.856-37768T>C, NM_019076.4:c.856-37768T>C, NM_019077.2:c.856-37768T>C, NM_019078.1:c.867+15408T>C, NM_019093.2:c.140T>C, NM_021027.2:c.856-37768T>C, NM_205862.1:c.60+35401T>C, NP_061966.1:p.Val47Ala, XR_241238.1:n.923+9579T>C, XR_241240.1:n.1022+35401T>C, XR_241241.1:n.942-37768T>C, rs17864457, rs61313666
T > C
SNP
V47A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs9332096 NC_000010.10:g.96696875C>T, NC_000010.11:g.94937118C>T, NG_008385.1:g.3461C>T, NM_000771.3:c.-1565C>T, XM_005269575.1:c.-1565C>T
C > T
SNP
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
  • Aethambutolum
  • D-Ethambutol
  • EMB
  • Etambutol [INN-Spanish]
  • Etambutolo [DCIT]
  • Ethambutol HCL
  • Ethambutol Hydrochloride
  • Ethambutol dihydrochloride
  • Ethambutol, racemic mixture
  • Ethambutolum [INN-Latin]
Trade Names
  • Dadibutol
  • Diambutol
  • Etibi
  • Myambutol
  • Tibutol
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA164784021

Type(s):

Drug

Description

An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For use, as an adjunct, in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Ethambutol inhibits arabinosyl transferases which is involved in cell wall biosynthesis. By inhibiting this enzyme, the bacterial cell wall complex production is inhibited. This leads to an increase in cell wall permeability.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Ethambutol is an oral chemotherapeutic agent which is specifically effective against actively growing microorganisms of the genus Mycobacterium, including M. tuberculosis. Ethambutol inhibits RNA synthesis and decreases tubercle bacilli replication. Nearly all strains of M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii as well as a number of strains of MAC are sensitive to ethambutol.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take with food to reduce irritation.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic. Up to 15% of administered drug is metabolized to inactive metabolites. The main path of metabolism appears to be an initial oxidation of the alcohol to an aldehydic intermediate, followed by conversion to a dicarboxylic acid.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

20-30%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

About 75% to 80% of an orally administered dose of ethambutol is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

In patients with normal renal function, 3 to 4 hours. In patients with impaired renal function, up to 8 hours.

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

The most commonly recognized toxic effect of ethambutol is optic neuropathy, which generally is considered uncommon and reversible in medical literature. Other side effects that have been observed are pruritus, joint pain, gastrointestinal upset, abdominal pain, malaise, headache, dizziness, mental confusion, disorientation, and possible hallucinations.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

During the 24-hour period following oral administration of ethambutol hydrochloride approximately 50 percent of the initial dose is excreted unchanged in the urine, while an additional 8 to 15 percent appears in the form of metabolites. From 20 to 22 percent of the initial dose is excreted in the feces as unchanged drug.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C10H24N2O2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

CCC(CO)NCCNC(CC)CO

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

CC[C@@H](CO)NCCN[C@@H]

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

204.3098

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

204.183778022

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

CC[C@@H](CO)NCCN[C@@H](CC)CO

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C10H24N2O2/c1-3-9(7-13)11-5-6-12-10(4-2)8-14/h9-14H,3-8H2,1-2H3/t9-,10-/m0/s1

Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

No related drugs are available.

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to ethambutol: 44

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2 variants are associated with drug-induced liver injury caused by anti-tuberculosis drugs in Indonesian patients with tuberculosis. Journal of human genetics. 2016. Yuliwulandari Rika, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Analysis of IL-6, STAT3 and HSPA1L Gene Polymorphisms in Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatitis in a Nested Case-Control Study. PloS one. 2015. Wang Jing, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Involvement of cytochrome P450 1A1 and glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphisms and promoter hypermethylation in the progression of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury: a case-control study. PloS one. 2015. He Lei, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of NAT2, GST and CYP2E1 polymorphisms and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2014. Singla Neha, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Evolution and transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis in a Russian population. Nature genetics. 2014. Casali Nicola, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
N-acetyltransferase 2, cytochrome P4502E1 and glutathione S-transferase genotypes in antitubercular treatment-induced hepatotoxicity in North Indians. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2014. Rana S V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Dependence of efavirenz- and rifampicin-isoniazid-based antituberculosis treatment drug-drug interaction on CYP2B6 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms: ANRS 12154 study in Cambodia. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2014. Bertrand Julie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Evolution of high-level ethambutol-resistant tuberculosis through interacting mutations in decaprenylphosphoryl-beta-D-arabinose biosynthetic and utilization pathway genes. Nature genetics. 2013. Safi Hassan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of N-acetyltransferase 2 and cytochrome P450 2E1 gene polymorphisms with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western India. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2013. Gupta Vinod H, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutation rate estimates from different lineages predict substantial differences in the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Nature genetics. 2013. Ford Christopher B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
The roles of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and other predictors in anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2012. Monteiro T P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Sex, ethnicity and slow acetylator profile are the major causes of hepatotoxicity induced by antituberculosis drugs. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2012. Chamorro Julián G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: a nested case-control study. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2012. Tang S-W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Polymorphism of the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene as a susceptibility risk factor for antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Tunisian patients with tuberculosis. Pathologie-biologie. 2012. Ben Mahmoud L, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic interaction between NAT2, GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1, and environmental factors is associated with adverse reactions to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Molecular diagnosis & therapy. 2012. Costa Gustavo N O, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms associated with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Chinese patients. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 2012. An Hui-Ru, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
TNF-alpha genetic polymorphism -308G/A and antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. 2012. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury: a meta-analysis. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2012. Wang P-Y, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2 genetic polymorphisms and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Chinese community population. Annals of hepatology. 2012. Lv Xiaozhen, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The SLCO1B1 rs4149032 polymorphism is highly prevalent in South Africans and is associated with reduced rifampin concentrations: dosing implications. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2011. Chigutsa Emmanuel, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of NAT2, CYP2E1 and GST enzymes and the occurrence of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis in Brazilian TB patients. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 2011. Teixeira Raquel Lima de Figueiredo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Comparison between acetylator phenotype and genotype polymorphism of n-acetyltransferase-2 in tuberculosis patients. Hepatology international. 2011. Rana S V, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of N-acetyltransferase-2 genotypes and anti-tuberculosis induced liver injury; first case-controlled study from Iran. Current drug safety. 2011. Khalili Hossein, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms in anti-TB drug-induced maculopapular eruption. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Role of polymorphic N-acetyl transferase2 and cytochrome P4502E1 gene in antituberculosis treatment-induced hepatitis. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2011. Bose Purabi Deka, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Association of isoniazid-metabolizing enzyme genotypes and isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in tuberculosis patients. In vivo (Athens, Greece). 2011. Sotsuka Takayo, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene deletions are not associated with hepatotoxicity caused by antitubercular drugs. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2010. Chatterjee S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to first-line anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2010. Lee S-W, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Low N-acetyltransferase 2 activity in isoniazid-associated acute hepatitis requiring liver transplantation. Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. 2010. Cramer Jakob P, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTT1 and GSTM1 null mutations and adverse reactions induced by antituberculosis drugs in Koreans. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2010. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase associated with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Chinese tuberculosis patients. The Journal of international medical research. 2010. Wang T, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. Pharmacogenomics. 2009. Kim Sang-Heon, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Association of slow N-acetyltransferase 2 profile and anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity in patients from Southern Brazil. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2008. Possuelo L G, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 homozygous null mutations on the risk of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in a Caucasian population. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. 2008. Leiro Virginia, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Effects of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), CYP2E1 and Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genotypes on the serum concentrations of isoniazid and metabolites in tuberculosis patients. The Journal of toxicological sciences. 2008. Fukino Katsumi, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of anti-TB drugs-related hepatotoxicity. Pharmacogenomics. 2008. Roy Puspita Das, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: concise up-to-date review. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2008. Tostmann Alma, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Determining the relation between N-acetyltransferase-2 acetylator phenotype and antituberculosis drug induced hepatitis by molecular biologic tests. Tüberküloz ve toraks. 2008. Bozok Cetintaş Vildan, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Genetic polymorphisms of NAT2 and CYP2E1 associated with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Korean patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2007. Cho Hyun-Jung, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Two years review of cutaneous adverse drug reaction from first line anti-tuberculous drugs. The Medical journal of Malaysia. 2007. Tan W C, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Adverse reactions to first-line antituberculosis drugs. Expert opinion on drug safety. 2006. Forget Eric J, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Cytochrome P450 2E1 genotype and the susceptibility to antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2003. Huang Yi-Shin, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Increased risk of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in individuals with glutathione S-transferase M1 'null' mutation. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2001. Roy B, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Slow N-acetyltransferase 2 genotype affects the incidence of isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2000. Ohno M, et al. PubMed

LinkOuts

Web Resource:
Wikipedia
National Drug Code Directory:
0555-0923-02
DrugBank:
DB00330
ChEBI:
4877
KEGG Compound:
C06984
PubChem Compound:
3279
PubChem Substance:
9198
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
247960
BindingDB:
50204422
Therapeutic Targets Database:
DAP000055
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:
b9487a8c-5b28-4592-a994-3e378635983f

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention ethambutol and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials loaded.

NURSA Datasets

provided by nursa.org

No NURSA datasets available.

Common Searches

Search PubMed
Search Medline Plus
Search PubChem
Search CTD

Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.