Chemical: Drug
testosterone propionate

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PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

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Generic Names
Trade Names
  • Agovirin
  • Testex
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id





An ester of testosterone with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.

Source: Drug Bank


Testosterone propionate is an anabolic steroid and a short ester form of testosterone that becomes active in the body. It is often used for muscle mass building.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

The effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occur by way of two main mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor (directly or as DHT), and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors. Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5alpha-reductase. DHT binds to the same androgen receptor even more strongly than T, so that its androgenic potency is about 2.5 times that of T. The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the cell nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects.

Source: Drug Bank


Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. Testosterone is primarily secreted from the testes of males. In females, it is produced in the ovaries, adrenal glands and by conversion of adrostenedione in the periphery. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In both males and females, it plays key roles in health and well-being. Examples include enhanced libido, energy, immune function, and protection against osteoporosis. On average, the adult male body produces about twenty times the amount of testosterone than an adult female's body does. In the body, this ester form of testosterone is hydrolyzed rapidly and become actively available as testosterone.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity


Testosterone propionate is rapidly hydrolysed into testosterone. Testosterone is metabolized to 17-keto steroids through two different pathways. The major active metabolites are estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

40% of testosterone in plasma is bound to sex hormone-binding globulin and 2% remains unbound and the rest is bound to albumin and other proteins.

Source: Drug Bank


Side effects include amnesia, anxiety, discolored hair, dizziness, dry skin, hirsutism, hostility, impaired urination, paresthesia, penis disorder, peripheral edema, sweating, and vasodilation.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

About 90% of a dose of testosterone given intramuscularly is excreted in the urine as glucuronic and sulfuric acid conjugates of testosterone and its metabolites; about 6% of a dose is excreted in the feces, mostly in the unconjugated form.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula


Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES


Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES


Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank



Source: Drug Bank

InChI String


Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Drug Targets

Gene Description
AR (source: Drug Bank )

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
testosterone propionate - acenocoumarol The androgen, Testosterone, may incrase the anticoagulant effect of the Vitamin K antagonist, Acenocoumarol. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic effect of Acenocoumarol if Testosterone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank )
testosterone propionate - cyclosporine The androgen, Testosterone, may increase the hepatotoxicity of Cyclosporine. Testosterone may also elevate serum concentrations of Cyclosporine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for signs of renal and hepatic toxicity. (source: Drug Bank )
testosterone propionate - warfarin The androgen, Testosterone, may incrase the anticoagulant effect of the Vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic effect of Warfarin if Testosterone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank )
No related diseases are available


KEGG Compound:
KEGG Drug:
PubChem Compound:
PubChem Substance:

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention testosterone propionate and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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NURSA Datasets

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.