Chemical: Drug

PharmGKB contains no dosing guidelines for this . To report known genotype-based dosing guidelines, or if you are interested in developing guidelines, click here.

PharmGKB has no annotated drug labels with pharmacogenomic information for this . If you know of a drug label with PGx, send us a message.

PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem


Generic Names
  • Droxydopa
  • L-DOPS
  • L-dihydroxyphenylserine
  • L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine
Trade Names
  • Dops
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id





Droxidopa is a precursor of noradrenaline that is used in the treatment of Parkinsonism. It is approved for use in Japan and is currently in trials in the U.S. The racaemic form (dl-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine) has also been used, and has been investigated in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. There is a deficit of noradrenaline as well as of dopamine in Parkinson's disease and it has been proposed that this underlies the sudden transient freezing seen usually in advanced disease.

Source: Drug Bank


For treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) associated with various disorders including Multiple System Atrophy, Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy, hemodialysis induced hypotension and Parkinson's Disease. Also investigated for use/treatment in neurologic disorders, nephropathy, blood (blood forming organ disorders, unspecified), and dizzy/fainting spells.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Droxidopa crosses the blood-brain barrier where it is converted to norepinephrine via decarboxylation by L-aromatic-amino-acid decarboxylase. Increased levels of norepinephrine in the central nervous system (CNS) may be beneficial to patients in a wide range of indications. Norephinephrine acts at alpha-adrenergic receptors as a vasoconstrictor and at beta-adrenergic receptors as a heart stimulator and artery dilator.

Source: Drug Bank


Droxidopa is an orally active synthetic precursor of norepinephrine that increases the deficient supply of norepinephrine in patients with NOH, thereby improving orthostatic blood pressure and alleviating associated symptoms of lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision, and syncope through the induction of tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypertension.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity


Droxidopa is metabolized by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase.

Source: Drug Bank


Oral bioavailability is 90%.

Source: Drug Bank


2-3 hours.

Source: Drug Bank


Droxidopa has minimal toxic effects and an acute, oral LD50 of more than 5 g/kg in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys. Side effects occur in in 0.78% of patients and include nausea, headache, increased blood pressure, hallucination, and anorexia.

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Droxidopa is mainly excreted in the urine, with the main metabolite being 3-O-methyldihydroxyphenylserine.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula


Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES


Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES


Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank


Web Resource:
KEGG Drug:
PubChem Compound:
PubChem Substance:

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention droxidopa and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials found.

Common Searches

Search PubMed
Search Medline Plus
Search PubChem
Search CTD

Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.