Chemical: Drug

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PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for dactinomycin

Gene ? Variant?
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1045642 NC_000007.13:g.87138645A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87509329A>G, NG_011513.1:g.208920T>C, NM_000927.4:c.3435T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Ile1145=, rs10239679, rs11568726, rs117328163, rs17210003, rs2229108, rs386513066, rs60023214, rs9690664
A > G
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1128503 NC_000007.13:g.87179601A>G, NC_000007.14:g.87550285A>G, NG_011513.1:g.167964T>C, NM_000927.4:c.1236T>C, NP_000918.2:p.Gly412=, rs116989428, rs17276907, rs2032587, rs2229105, rs28365046, rs386518005, rs58257317
A > G
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801133 NC_000001.10:g.11856378G>A, NC_000001.11:g.11796321G>A, NG_013351.1:g.14783C>T, NM_005957.4:c.665C>T, NP_005948.3:p.Ala222Val, XM_005263458.1:c.788C>T, XM_005263458.2:c.788C>T, XM_005263459.1:c.734C>T, XM_005263460.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263460.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263461.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263461.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263462.1:c.665C>T, XM_005263462.3:c.665C>T, XM_005263463.1:c.419C>T, XM_005263463.2:c.419C>T, XM_011541495.1:c.785C>T, XM_011541496.1:c.788C>T, XP_005263515.1:p.Ala263Val, XP_005263516.1:p.Ala245Val, XP_005263517.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263518.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263519.1:p.Ala222Val, XP_005263520.1:p.Ala140Val, XP_011539797.1:p.Ala262Val, XP_011539798.1:p.Ala263Val, rs386545618, rs4134713, rs59514310
G > A
No VIP available CA VA
rs1805087 NC_000001.10:g.237048500A>G, NC_000001.11:g.236885200A>G, NG_008959.1:g.94920A>G, NM_000254.2:c.2756A>G, NM_001291939.1:c.2603A>G, NM_001291940.1:c.1535A>G, NP_000245.2:p.Asp919Gly, NP_001278868.1:p.Asp868Gly, NP_001278869.1:p.Asp512Gly, XM_005273140.1:c.2924A>G, XM_005273141.1:c.2753A>G, XM_005273141.3:c.2753A>G, XM_005273142.1:c.2666A>G, XM_005273143.1:c.2603A>G, XM_005273144.1:c.2318A>G, XM_005273145.1:c.1118A>G, XM_006711769.2:c.2756A>G, XM_006711770.1:c.1820A>G, XM_011544193.1:c.2567A>G, XM_011544194.1:c.2924A>G, XP_005273197.1:p.Asp975Gly, XP_005273198.1:p.Asp918Gly, XP_005273199.1:p.Asp889Gly, XP_005273200.1:p.Asp868Gly, XP_005273201.1:p.Asp773Gly, XP_005273202.1:p.Asp373Gly, XP_006711832.1:p.Asp919Gly, XP_006711833.1:p.Asp607Gly, XP_011542495.1:p.Asp856Gly, XP_011542496.1:p.Asp975Gly, rs17658739, rs56618494, rs61036243
A > G
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2032582 NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>C, NC_000007.13:g.87160618A>T, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>C, NC_000007.14:g.87531302A>T, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>A, NG_011513.1:g.186947T>G, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>A, NM_000927.4:c.2677T>G, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Ala, NP_000918.2:p.Ser893Thr, rs10228331, rs2229106, rs386553610, rs57135550, rs9641018
A > C
A > T
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2279343 NC_000019.10:g.41009358A>G, NC_000019.9:g.41515263A>G, NG_007929.1:g.23060A>G, NM_000767.4:c.785A>G, NP_000758.1:p.Lys262Arg, XM_005258569.1:c.785A>G, XM_005258569.3:c.785A>G, XM_005258570.1:c.785A>G, XM_005258571.1:c.365-2940A>G, XM_006723050.2:c.785A>G, XM_011526546.1:c.785A>G, XM_011526547.1:c.785A>G, XM_011526548.1:c.485-2940A>G, XM_011526549.1:c.194A>G, XM_011526550.1:c.365-2940A>G, XP_005258626.1:p.Lys262Arg, XP_005258627.1:p.Lys262Arg, XP_006723113.1:p.Lys262Arg, XP_011524848.1:p.Lys262Arg, XP_011524849.1:p.Lys262Arg, XP_011524851.1:p.Lys65Arg
A > G
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3211371 NC_000019.10:g.41016810C>T, NC_000019.9:g.41522715C>T, NG_007929.1:g.30512C>T, NM_000767.4:c.1459C>T, NP_000758.1:p.Arg487Cys, XM_005258569.1:c.*48C>T, XM_005258569.3:c.*48C>T, XM_005258570.1:c.*214C>T, XM_005258571.1:c.859C>T, XM_006723050.2:c.*143C>T, XM_011526547.1:c.*214C>T, XM_011526548.1:c.979C>T, XM_011526549.1:c.868C>T, XM_011526550.1:c.859C>T, XP_005258628.1:p.Arg287Cys, XP_011524850.1:p.Arg327Cys, XP_011524851.1:p.Arg290Cys, XP_011524852.1:p.Arg287Cys, rs12721654, rs28399500, rs33995163, rs58951873
C > T
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3745274 NC_000019.10:g.41006936G>T, NC_000019.9:g.41512841G>T, NG_007929.1:g.20638G>T, NM_000767.4:c.516G>T, NP_000758.1:p.Gln172His, XM_005258569.1:c.516G>T, XM_005258569.3:c.516G>T, XM_005258570.1:c.516G>T, XM_005258571.1:c.364+2490G>T, XM_006723050.2:c.516G>T, XM_011526546.1:c.516G>T, XM_011526547.1:c.516G>T, XM_011526548.1:c.484+2490G>T, XM_011526549.1:c.-75-1G>T, XM_011526550.1:c.364+2490G>T, XP_005258626.1:p.Gln172His, XP_005258627.1:p.Gln172His, XP_006723113.1:p.Gln172His, XP_011524848.1:p.Gln172His, XP_011524849.1:p.Gln172His, rs56308434, rs57685583
G > T
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs45445694 NC_000018.10:g.657646_657673CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NC_000018.9:g.657646_657673CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NG_028255.1:g.5043_5070CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NM_001012716.2:c.*34+169_*34+196CGGGACGGAGGCAGGCCAAGTGGCGCGG[2][3][4][7][8][9], NM_001071.2:c.-97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], XM_005258137.1:c.-97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], XM_005258138.1:c.-97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], rs34743033 (retired)
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147


Generic Names
  • AD
  • Antibiotic From Streptomyces Parvullus
  • Dactinomicina [INN-Spanish]
  • Dactinomycine [INN-French]
  • Dactinomycinum [INN-Latin]
  • actd
Trade Names
  • ACT
  • ACT D
  • ACTO-D
  • Actactinomycin a Iv
  • Actinomycin 11 Cosmegen
  • Actinomycin 7
  • Actinomycin Aiv
  • Actinomycin C1
  • Actinomycin I
  • Actinomycin I1
  • Actinomycin Iv
  • Actinomycin X 1
  • Actinomycindioic D Acid, Dilactone
  • Chounghwamycin B
  • Cosmegen
  • Dactinomycin D
  • Dilactone Actinomycin D Acid
  • Dilactone Actinomycindioic D Acid
  • HBF 386 Meractinomycin
  • Lyovac Cosmegen
  • Meractinomycin
  • Oncostatin K
  • Oxamide
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id





A compound composed of a two cyclic peptides attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from streptomyces parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)

Source: Drug Bank


For the treatment of Wilms' tumor, childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and metastatic, nonseminomatous testicular cancer as part of a combination chemotherapy and/or multi-modality treatment regimen

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

Good evidence exists that this drug bind strongly, but reversibly, to DNA, interfering with synthesis of RNA (prevention of RNA polymerase elongation) and, consequently, with protein synthesis.

Source: Drug Bank


Generally, the actinomycins exert an inhibitory effect on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and on some fungi. However, the toxic properties of the actinomycins (including dactinomycin) in relation to antibacterial activity are such as to preclude their use as antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases. Because the actinomycins are cytotoxic, they have an antineoplastic effect which has been demonstrated in experimental animals with various types of tumor implant. This cytotoxic action is the basis for their use in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Dactinomycin is believed to produce its cytotoxic effects by binding DNA and inhibiting RNA synthesis.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity



Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding


Source: Drug Bank


poorly absorbed from gastrointestinal tract

Source: Drug Bank


36 hours

Source: Drug Bank



Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula


Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES


Source: Drug Bank


Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES


Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank



Source: Drug Bank

InChI String


Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
trastuzumab - dactinomycin Trastuzumab may increase the risk of neutropenia and anemia. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of adverse events. (source: Drug Bank )

Curated Information ?

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to dactinomycin: 9

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenomics of second-line drugs used for treatment of unresponsive or relapsed osteosarcoma patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Hattinger Claudia M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of actinomycin D in children with cancer. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2016. Walsh Christopher, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2B6rs2279343 Is Associated with Improved Survival of Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma Treated with Cyclophosphamide. PloS one. 2016. Labib Rania M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Characterisation of the clinical pharmacokinetics of actinomycin D and the influence of ABCB1 pharmacogenetic variation on actinomycin D disposition in children with cancer. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2014. Hill Christopher R, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Genomic approach towards personalized anticancer drug therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Midorikawa Yutaka, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Influence of polymorphisms in MTHFR 677 C¿T, TYMS 3R¿2R and MTR 2756 A¿G on NSCLC risk and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. Pharmacogenomics. 2011. Cui Lian-Hua, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2011. Hodges Laura M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Methotrexate in pediatric osteosarcoma: response and toxicity in relation to genetic polymorphisms and dihydrofolate reductase and reduced folate carrier 1 expression. The Journal of pediatrics. 2009. Patiño-García Ana, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Structure, function and regulation of P-glycoprotein and its clinical relevance in drug disposition. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 2008. Zhou S-F. PubMed


Web Resource:
KEGG Compound:
KEGG Drug:
PubChem Compound:
PubChem Substance:
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
Therapeutic Targets Database:

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention dactinomycin and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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NURSA Datasets

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.