Chemical: Drug

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PharmGKB contains no Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

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The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

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The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for forskolin

Gene ? Variant?
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
No VIP available CA VA
rs2229109 NC_000007.13:g.87179809C>T, NC_000007.14:g.87550493C>T, NG_011513.1:g.167756G>A, NM_000927.4:c.1199G>A, NP_000918.2:p.Ser400Asn, rs17276921, rs2235031, rs386561706, rs59635509
C > T
No VIP available CA VA
rs72552784 NC_000007.13:g.87145914C>T, NC_000007.14:g.87516598C>T, NG_011513.1:g.201651G>A, NM_000927.4:c.2995G>A, NP_000918.2:p.Ala999Thr
C > T
No VIP available CA VA
rs9282564 NC_000007.13:g.87229440T>C, NC_000007.14:g.87600124T>C, NG_011513.1:g.118125A>G, NM_000927.4:c.61A>G, NP_000918.2:p.Asn21Asp, rs13234342, rs202032114, rs61615398
T > C
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147


Generic Names
Trade Names
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id





Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant Coleus forskohlii. Has antihypertensive, positive ionotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula


Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES


Source: Drug Bank


Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES


Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank



Source: Drug Bank

InChI String


Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available VIP No VIP available

Drug Targets

Gene Description
ADCY2 (source: Drug Bank )
ADCY5 (source: Drug Bank )
GNAS (source: Drug Bank )
No related drugs are available.
No related diseases are available

Publications related to forskolin: 3

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Machine learning methods and docking for predicting human pregnane X receptor activation. Chemical research in toxicology. 2008. Khandelwal Akash, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Evaluation of 170 xenobiotics as transactivators of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) and correlation to known CYP3A4 drug interactions. Current drug metabolism. 2006. Sinz Michael, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Functional characterization of coding polymorphisms in the human MDR1 gene using a vaccinia virus expression system. Molecular pharmacology. 2002. Kimchi-Sarfaty Chava, et al. PubMed


Web Resource:
PubChem Compound:
PubChem Substance:

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention forskolin and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

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NURSA Datasets

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No NURSA datasets available.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, PubChem.