Chemical: Drug
fluorouracil

Available Guidelines

  1. CPIC Guideline for fluorouracil and DPYD
  2. DPWG Guideline for fluorouracil and DPYD

last updated 01/27/2016

1. CPIC Guideline for fluorouracil and DPYD

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guidelines for fluoropyrimidines (i.e. 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine or tegafur) recommends an alternative drug for patients who are homozygous for DPYD non-functional variants - *2A (rs3918290), *13 (rs55886062), and rs67376798 A (on the positive chromosomal strand) - as these patients are typically DPD deficient. Consider a 50% reduction in starting dose for heterozygous patients (intermediate activity).

Annotation

May 2014 Update on PharmGKB

December 2013 Publication

Accepted article preview online August 2013; Advance online publication October 2013.

  • Guidelines regarding the use of pharmacogenomic tests in dosing for fluoropyrimidines have been published in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC).
  • These guidelines are applicable to:
    • at the time of this writing, there are no data available on the possible role of DPYD*2A, *13, or rs67376798 in 5-fluorouracil toxicities in pediatric patient populations; however, there is no reason to suspect that DPYD variant alleles would affect 5-fluorouracil metabolism differently in children compared to adults.
  • Excerpt from the fluoropyrimidine dosing guideline based on DPYD genotype:
    • "The strength of the dosing recommendations is based on the fact that some variants (DPYD*2A, *13, and rs67376798) clearly affect DPD activity, and DPD activity is clearly related to 5-fluorouracil clearance, and 5-fluorouracil exposure is associated with its toxic effects. Therefore, reduction of fluoropyrimidine dosage in patients with these variants may prevent severe and possibly life-threatening toxicities. However, available evidence does not clearly indicate a degree of dose reduction needed to prevent fluoropyrimidine related toxicities...[Based on literature review (see full manuscript),] our recommendation is to start with at least a 50% reduction of the starting dose followed by an increase in dose in patients experiencing no or clinically tolerable toxicity to maintain efficacy, a decrease in dose in patients who do not tolerate the starting dose to minimize toxicities or pharmacokinetic guided dose adjustments (if available). Patients who are homozygous for DPYD*2A, *13, or rs67376798 may demonstrate complete DPD deficiency and the use of 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine is not recommended in these patients."
  • Download and read:

Table 1: Recommended dosing of fluoropyrimidines by genotype/phenotype.

Adapted from Tables 1 and 2 of the 2013 guideline manuscript.

Phenotype (genotype)Examples of diplotypesImplications for phenotypic measuresDosing recommendationsClassification of recommendations a
Homozygous wild-type or normal, high DPD activity (two or more functional *1 alleles)*1/*1Normal DPD activity and "normal" risk for fluoropyrimidine toxicityUse label-recommended dosage and administrationModerate
Heterozygous or intermediate activity (~3-5% of patients), may have partial DPD deficiency, at risk for toxicity with drug exposure (one functional allele *1, plus one nonfunctional allele - *2A, *13 or rs67376798A c)*1/*2A; *1/*13; *1/ rs67376798A c)Decreased DPD activity (leukocyte DPD activity at 30% to 70% that of the normal population) and increased risk for severe or even fatal drug toxicity when treated with fluoropyrimidine drugsStart with at least a 50% reduction in starting dose followed by titration of dose based on toxicity b or pharmacokinetic test (if available)Moderate
Homozygous variant, DPD deficiency (~0.2% of patients), at risk for toxicity with drug exposure (2 nonfunctional alleles - *2A, *13 or rs67376798A c)*2A/*2A; *13/*13; rs67376798A c / rs67376798A cComplete DPD deficiency and increased risk for severe or even fatal drug toxicity when treated with fluoropyrimidine drugsSelect alternate drugStrong

a Rating scheme described in 2013 supplement.
b Increase the dose in patients experiencing no or clinically tolerable toxicity to maintain efficacy; decrease the dose in patients who do not tolerate the starting dose to minimize toxicities.
c Note that the rs67376798A allele refers to the allele on the positive chromosomal strand. This is important because DPYD is on the minus chromosomal strand and rs67376798 is a T/A snp. Therefore, the T allele on the gene confers the deficiency, while the complement on the positive chromosomal strand (A allele) is indicative of deficiency.


last updated 08/10/2011

2. DPWG Guideline for fluorouracil and DPYD

Summary

An alternative drug rather than fluorouracil is recommended for DPYD poor metabolizer patients, and a reduced dose (by 50%) of fluorouracil or use of an alternative drug is recommended for intermediate metabolizer patients.

Annotation

The Royal Dutch Pharmacists Association - Pharmacogenetics Working Group has evaluated therapeutic dose recommendations for fluorouracil based on DPYD genotype [Article:21412232]. They recommend that an alternate drug be used for poor metabolizer patients, and a reduced dose or alternate drug for intermediate metabolizer patients.

Phenotype (Genotype) Therapeutic Dose Recommendation Level of Evidence Clinical Relevance
PM (2 inactive alleles, 2 decreased activity alleles, or one inactive and one decreased activity alleles) Select alterantive drug. Tegafur is not a suitable alternative because this drug is also metabolized by DPD. Published controlled studies of moderate quality* relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints. Clinical effect (S): death; arrhythmia; unanticipated myelosuppression.
IM (1 active allele and 1 inactive or decreased activity allele) Reduce dose by 50% or select alternative drug. Tegafur is not a suitable alternative because this drug is also a substrate for DPD. Increase dose in response to toxicity and efficacy. Published controlled studies of moderate quality* relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints. Clinical effect (S): death; arrhythmia; unanticipated myelosuppression.
Allele Type Alleles
active *1, *4, *5, *6, *9A
decreased activity *9B, *10
inactive *2A, *3, *7, *8, *11, *12, *13, 496A>G, IVS10-15T>C, 1156G>T, 1845G>T
  • *See Methods or PMID: 18253145 for definition of "moderate" quality.
  • S: statistically significant difference.

PharmGKB annotates drug labels containing pharmacogenetic information approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan (PMDA), and Health Canada (Santé Canada) (HCSC). PharmGKB annotations provide a brief summary of the PGx in the label, an excerpt from the label and a downloadable highlighted label PDF file. A list of genes and phenotypes found within the label is mapped to label section headers and listed at the end of each annotation. PharmGKB also attempts to interpret the level of action implied in each label with the "PGx Level" tag.

See the legend for more information about drug label sources and PGx Levels.

We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA, PMDA, HCSC or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for fluorouracil and DPYD
  2. PMDA Label for fluorouracil and DPYD
  3. HCSC Label for fluorouracil and DPYD

last updated 10/28/2015

1. FDA Label for fluorouracil and DPYD

Actionable PGx

Summary

Fluorouracil is available in both a topical cream and as an injection. These two formulations have different indications. Both FDA-approved labels contain information about the potential for severe toxicity in patients with dipyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency. However, neither label mentions testing for genetic variants or activity of DPD.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 01/26/2015

2. PMDA Label for fluorouracil and DPYD

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for fluorouracil states that severe adverse events have occurred in patients receiving the drug who are dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD)-deficient. DPD is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of fluorouracil and other fluoropyrimidines.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 06/08/2015

3. HCSC Label for fluorouracil and DPYD

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for fluorouracil states that it should be used with care in patients who have a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DYPD) deficiency, due to the risk for experiencing toxicity.

There's more of this label. Read more.


Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for fluorouracil

Gene ? Variant?
(144)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2A6 *1B1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA DPYD *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA DPYD *2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA DPYD *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA UGT1A1 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA UGT1A1 *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA UGT1A1 *28 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available DPYD poor metabolizer
DPYD poor metabolizer N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10049380 124487443T>C, 2017+417A>G, 30982589T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10209881 10068136T>C, 130-30376A>G, 31246249T>C, 315-57081A>G, 70-30376A>G, 903-30376A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1042522 -278-661C>G, 16397C>G, 215C>G, 7182846G>C, 7579472G>C, 98C>G, P53:Arg72Pro, Pro33Arg, Pro72Arg, R72P, TP53 Arg72Pro, mRNA 412C>G, p.Pro72Arg, p52 codon 72
G > C
5' Flanking
Pro33Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10434 *847A>G, *913A>G, *929A>G, 20260A>G, 43693212A>G, 43753212A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs1045642 208920T>A, 208920T>C, 25171488A>G, 25171488A>T, 3435T>A, 3435T>C, 87138645A>G, 87138645A>T, ABCB1*6, ABCB1: 3435C>T, ABCB1: C3435T, ABCB1: c.3435C>T, ABCB1:3435C>T, Ile1145=, Ile1145Ile, MDR1 3435C>T, MDR1 C3435T, PGP C3435T, c.3435C>T, mRNA 3853C>T
A > T
A > G
Synonymous
Ile1145Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs1047840 1765G>A, 242042301G>A, 35560080G>A, 35809G>A, Glu589Lys
G > A
Missense
Glu589Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1051266 3952235T>C, 46957794T>C, 80A>G, 9592A>G, : 80A>G, His27Arg, RFC-1, SCL19A1:80G>A, SLC19A1:Arg27His, SLC19A1:G80A, mRNA 199A>G
T > C
Missense
His27Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10517 *1119T>C, 21774T>C, 23357959A>G, 69743760A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs1056515 *3872C>A, 14601902G>T, 163113260G>T, 64704C>A
G > T
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs1056836 10122C=, 10122C>G, 1294C=, 1294C>G, 38071060G=, 38071060G>C, 38298203C>G, CYP1B1*3, CYP1B1: L432V, CYP1B1:4326 C>G, CYP1B1:L432V, Leu432=, Leu432Val
G > C
Missense
Leu432Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1059829 *1103C>T, 12204956G>A, 151042029G>A
G > A
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1063320 *233C>G, 1099028C>G, 1099078C>G, 1099348G>G, 1099370C>G, 1136315G>G, 1314654G>G, 29738749C>G, 29798749C>G, 8994C>G
C > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10784749 31565335C>G, 69422029C>G
C > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10876844 18194012C>A, 56050706C>A
C > A
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs10937158 130-1268A>G, 183708439T>C, 90203585T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs111858276 1484A>G, 376460A>G, 67987074T>C, 98015156T>C, Asp495Gly
T > C
Missense
Asp495Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs112723255 -14+175G>A, -14+420G>A, -368G>A, -398G>A, 1393G>A, 1408G>A, 22611C>T, 50964255C>T, 549478C>T, 5614G>A, 9260G>A, Ala465Thr, Ala470Thr
G > T
G > C
5' Flanking
Ala470Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1127648 *796T>C, 46757652A>G, 75967095A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs112766203 129-910G>A, 129-910G>C, 2063C>G, 2063C>T, 2168C>G, 2168C>T, 2279C>G, 2279C>T, 620781C>G, 620781C>T, 97305279G>A, 97305279G>C, 97770835G>A, 97770835G>C, Thr688Ile, Thr688Ser, Thr723Ile, Thr723Ser, Thr760Ile, Thr760Ser
G > A
G > C
Missense
Thr760Ile
Thr760Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1128503 1236T>C, 167964T>C, 87179601A>G, 87550285A>G, ABCB1 1236C>T, ABCB1*8, ABCB1: c.1236T>C, ABCB1:1236C>T, ABCB1:1236T>C, Gly412=, Gly412Gly, mRNA 1654T>C, p.Gly412Gly
A > G
Synonymous
Gly412Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1138272 12659374C>T, 341C>T, 67353579C>T, 7514C>T, A114V, Ala114Val, GSTP1: A114V, GSTP1: C341T
C > T
Missense
Ala114Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs114096998 3067C>A, 67516461G>T, 847073C>A, 97544543G>T, Pro1023Thr
G > T
Missense
Pro1023Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs11479 -14+194C>A, -14+194C>G, -14+194C>T, -14+439C>A, -14+439C>G, -14+439C>T, -349C>A, -349C>G, -349C>T, -379C>A, -379C>G, -379C>T, 1412C>A, 1412C>G, 1412C>T, 1427C>A, 1427C>G, 1427C>T, 22592G>A, 22592G>C, 22592G>T, 50525807G>A, 50525807G>C, 50525807G>T, 50964236G>A, 50964236G>C, 50964236G>T, 5633C>A, 5633C>G, 5633C>T, 9279C>A, 9279C>G, 9279C>T, Ser471Leu, Ser471Ter, Ser471Trp, Ser476Leu, Ser476Ter, Ser476Trp
G > A
G > T
G > C
5' Flanking
Ser471Trp
Ser471Leu
Ser471null
No VIP available CA VA
rs115232898 226586A>G, 557A>G, 68136948T>C, 98165030T>C, Tyr186Cys, Y186C, c.557A>G
T > C
Missense
Tyr186Cys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs115632870 151-69G>A, 68265739C>T, 97795G>A, 98293821C>T, IVS2-69, c.151-69G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs11615 18191871A>G, 354T>C, 45923653A>G, 63434T>C, Asn118=, ERCC1:19007T>C, ERCC1:Asn118Asn
A > G
Synonymous
Asn118Asn
No VIP available CA VA
rs12613732 10071314T>G, 130-33554A>C, 31249427T>G, 315-60259A>C, 70-33554A>C, 903-33554A>C
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs12659 15830T>C, 3945997A>G, 46951556A>G, 576T>C, 696T>C, Pro192=, Pro232=
A > G
Synonymous
Pro192Pro
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12999804 10067537A>T, 130-29777T>A, 31245650A>T, 315-56482T>A, 70-29777T>A, 903-29777T>A
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs13181 *304T>G, 18123137T>G, 2251A>C, 23927A>C, 45854919T>G, ERCC2 Lys751Gln, ERCC2:2251A>C, ERCC2:Lys751Gln, Lys751Gln, rs13181:T>G
T > G
Missense
Lys751Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs137999090 2021G>A, 552462G>A, 67811072C>T, 97839154C>T, Gly674Asp
C > T
Missense
Gly674Asp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs138616379 1775G>A, 475871G>A, 67887663C>T, 97915745C>T, Arg592Gln
C > T
Missense
Arg592Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs141044036 2872A>G, 67519839T>C, 843695A>G, 97547921T>C, Lys958Glu
T > C
Missense
Lys958Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs143154602 1057C>T, 332771C>T, 68030763G>A, 98058845G>A, Arg353Cys
G > A
Missense
Arg353Cys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs143986398 185621C>G, 274C>G, 68177913G>C, 98205995G>C, Pro92Ala
G > C
Missense
Pro92Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs145773863 1777G>A, 475873G>A, 67887661C>T, 97915743C>T, Gly593Arg
C > T
Missense
Gly593Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs146356975 330911A>G, 68032623T>C, 868A>G, 98060705T>C, Lys290Glu
T > C
Missense
Lys290Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1610696 *287C>G, 1099082C>G, 1099132C>G, 1099402G>G, 1099424C>G, 1136369G>G, 1314708G>G, 29738803C>G, 29798803C>G, 9048C>G
C > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs16857540 173900575C>G, 647-92530C>G, 80395721C>G
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1695 12658484A>G, 313A>G, 6624A>G, 67352689A>G, GSTP1*2, GSTP1*B, GSTP1: I105V, GSTP1:A313G, GSTP1:I105V, GSTP1:Ile105Val, Ile105Val, Part of haplotypes GSTP1*B and GSTP1*C, rs1695:A>G
A > G
Missense
Ile105Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1707 *94C>T, 1098889T>T, 1098939T>T, 1099209T>T, 1099231T>T, 1136176T>T, 1314515T>T, 29738610C>T, 29798610C>T, 8855C>T
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1710 *101G>C, 1098896G>C, 1098946G>C, 1099216C>C, 1099238G>C, 1136183C>C, 1314522C>C, 29738617G>C, 29798617G>C, 8862G>C
G > C
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs17109924 1997T>C, 34121093T>C, 71977787T>C, Val666Ala
T > C
Missense
Val666Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17116806 1740+8030G>T, 418364G>T, 67945170C>A, 97973252C>A
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs17160359 25379662G>T, 458+6848G>T, 509+6848G>T, 746C>A, 87346819G>T
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17179101 *118C>A, 1098913C>A, 1098963C>A, 1099233C>A, 1099255C>A, 1136200C>A, 1314539C>A, 29738634C>A, 29798634C>A, 8879C>A
C > A
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs17179108 *126C>T, 1098921C>T, 1098971C>T, 1099241C>T, 1099263C>T, 1136208C>T, 1314547C>T, 29738642C>T, 29798642C>T, 8887C>T
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1734787 153325446A>C, 27-27438T>G, 4243384A>C, 42684T>G, 63-27438T>G
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1734791 153330920A>T, 26+26722T>A, 37210T>A, 4248858A>T, 62+32141T>A
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs17376848 1896T>C, 475992T>C, 67887542A>G, 97915624A>G, Phe632=, Phe632Phe
A > G
Synonymous
Phe632Phe
No VIP available CA VA
rs17431184 102056T>C, 40524715T>C, 802-400T>C, 89720251T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17435 153311980T>A, 27-13972A>T, 4229918T>A, 56150A>T, 63-13972A>T
T > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs17626122 206474012T>C, 2958-6168T>C, 3054-6168T>C, 3075-6168T>C, 56683430T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799793 11587G>A, 18135477C>T, 45867259C>T, 862G>A, 934G>A, Asp288Asn, Asp312Asn, XPD Asp312Asn, XPD:Asp312Asn
C > T
Missense
Asp288Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799794 -260-1363A>G, -316A>G, 104179267T>C, 7557A>G, 85179267T>C
T > C
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799895 15983631C>G, 24801834C>G, 691C>G, 9750C>G
C > G
Missense
Arg231Gly
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799983 11291734T>G, 12965T>G, 150696111T>G, 894T>G, Asp298Glu, NOS3:894G>T
T > G
Missense
Asp298Glu
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800566 20389C>T, 23359344G>A, 445C>T, 457C>T, 559C>T, 69745145G>A, NQO1*2, NQO1:C609T, NQO1:P187S, NQO1:c.558C>T, Pro149Ser, Pro153Ser, Pro187Ser, rs1800566 C>T
G > A
Missense
Pro149Ser
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801019 124456742G>C, 12530G>C, 30951888G>C, 590G>C, 638G>C, 843G>C, Gly213Ala, OPRT: Gly213Ala
G > C
Not Available
Gly213Ala
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801131 1040A>C, 11208431T>G, 11794419T>G, 1286A>C, 1409A>C, 16685A>C, A1298C, Glu347Ala, Glu429Ala, Glu470Ala, MTHFR:1298A>C
T > G
Not Available
Glu347Ala
rs1801133 11210333G>A, 11796321G>A, 14783C>T, 419C>T, 665C>T, 677C>T, 788C>T, A222V, Ala140Val, Ala222Val, Ala263Val, C677T, MTHFR: c.677C>T, MTHFR:667C>T, p.A222V
G > A
Not Available
Ala140Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801158 1490G>A, 1524+33695G>A, 1601G>A, 410195G>A, 97515865C>T, 97981421C>T, Ser497Asn, Ser534Asn
C > T
Not Available
Ser534Asn
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801159 1516A>G, 1524+33721A>G, 1627A>G, 410221A>G, 97515839T>C, 97981395T>C, DPYD*5, DPYD:A1627G, DPYD:I543V, Ile506Val, Ile543Val
T > C
Missense
Ile543Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801160 129-825C>T, 2194G>A, 620696G>A, 67742838C>T, 97770920C>T, Val732Ile
C > T
Missense
Val732Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801265 39+37555C>T, 39+37555T>C, 42731T=, 42731T>C, 85C=, 85C>T, 85T=, 85T>C, 97883329A=, 97883329A>G, 98348885G=, 98348885G>A, Arg29=, Arg29Cys, Cys29=, Cys29Arg, DPYD*9A, DPYD:C29R, DYPD:T85C
A > G
Missense
Cys29Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801266 234284C>T, 68129250G>A, 703C>T, 98157332G>A, Arg235Trp
G > A
Missense
Arg235Trp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1801268 2983G>T, 67516545C>A, 846989G>T, 97544627C>A, Val995Phe
C > A
Missense
Val995Phe
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs183105782 330953T>C, 68032581A>G, 910T>C, 98060663A>G, Tyr304His
A > G
Missense
Tyr304His
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs183385770 1024G>A, 332738G>A, 68030796C>T, 98058878C>T, Asp342Asn
C > T
Missense
Asp342Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs186169810 1314T>G, 352275T>G, 68011259A>C, 98039341A>C, Phe438Leu
A > C
Missense
Phe438Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1870377 1416A>T, 23789A>T, 3312857T>A, 55972974T>A, Gln472His
T > A
Missense
Gln472His
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs188052243 2678A>G, 64+2591T>C, 67536051T>C, 827483A>G, 97564133T>C, Asn893Ser
T > C
Intronic
Asn893Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1885301 -1358A>G, -1360A>G, -1549A>G, -1549G>A, 101541053A>G, 3591A>G, 99781296A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs190577302 1054C>G, 332768C>G, 68030766G>C, 98058848G>C, Leu352Val
G > C
Missense
Leu352Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs1979277 1303C>T, 1420C>T, 17835470G>A, 18232096G>A, 39761C>T, Leu435Phe, Leu474Phe, SHMT1 L435F
G > A
Missense
Leu435Phe
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs200687447 2482G>A, 65-72205C>T, 67630683C>T, 732851G>A, 97658765C>T, Glu828Lys
C > G
C > T
Missense
Glu828Lys
Glu828Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2010851 *1224C>A, 1696642C>A, 1756642C>A
C > A
3' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2010963 -634C>G, -94C>G, 43678350C>G, 43738350C>G, 5398C>G, VEGF-A 405 G/C, VEGFA:405G>C, VEGFA:C405G
C > G
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2032582 186947T>A, 186947T>G, 2677A, 2677G, 2677T, 2677T>A, 2677T>G, 3095G>T/A, 87160618A>C, 87160618A>T, 87531302A>C, 87531302A>T, 893 Ala, 893 Ser, 893 Thr, ABCB1*7, ABCB1: 2677G>T/A, ABCB1: 2677T/A>G, ABCB1: A893S, ABCB1: G2677T/A, ABCB1: c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1:2677G>A/T, ABCB1:2677G>T/A, ABCB1:A893T, Ala893Ser/Thr, MDR1, MDR1 G2677T/A, Ser893Ala, Ser893Thr, mRNA 3095G>T/A, p.Ala893Ser/Thr
A > T
A > C
Missense
Ser893Ala
Ser893Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2070474 -80C>G, 1-509G>C, 24891292C>G, 4281861C>G, 5042C>G
C > G
5' UTR
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs2070744 -51-762C>T, -786, -813C>T, 11285702C>T, 150690079C>T, 6933C>T, NOS3 -786T>C, NOS3:, T>C, eNOS -786T>C
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2071559 -906T>C, 3332249A>G, 4397T>C, 55992366A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2072671 20589208A>C, 20915701A>C, 79A>C, CDA: c.79A>C, CDA:79A>C, K27Q, Lys27Gln, p.Lys27Gln
A > C
Missense
Lys27Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2074087 145799C>G, 16124232C>G, 16184232C>G, 2461-30C>G
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs2231142 13600044G>T, 32689C>A, 421C>A, 89052323G>T, ABCG2: Q141K, ABCG2:421C>A, ABCG2:Q141K, ABCG2:c.421C>A, Gln141Lys, rs2231142
G > T
Missense
Gln141Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2236225 1958G>A, 45908845G>A, 59087G>A, 64908845G>A, Arg653Gln, MTHFD1:1958G>A, MTHFD1:Arg653Gln, R653Q
G > A
Missense
Arg653Gln
No VIP available CA VA
rs2236722 100801T>C, 115T>C, 51242798A>G, 51534995A>G, 99-35185A>G, Trp39Arg
A > G
Intronic
Trp39Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs225440 220+7029C>T, 277+7029C>T, 286+7029C>T, 292+7029C>T, 319+7029C>T, 43653053C>T, 647494C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2266637 24376845C>T, 3767414C>T, 505G>A, GSTT1:Val169Ile, Val169Ile
G > T
G > C
Missense
Val169Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2286455 16020162C>T, 70462G>A, 7201959C>T, 759G>A, 786G>A, Ala253=, Ala262=
C > T
Synonymous
Ala262Ala
No VIP available CA VA
rs2289310 120476C>A, 30375337G>T, 4442C>A, 79570873G>T, Pro1481Gln
G > T
Missense
Pro1481Gln
No VIP available CA VA
rs2291078 1002T>A, 1050T>A, 124458938T>A, 1255T>A, 14726T>A, 30954084T>A, Val350=
T > A
Not Available
Val350Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs2292997 -54G>A, 129+7980C>T, 183724072G>A, 90219218G>A
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs2293347 187192C>T, 2982C>T, 4858285C>T, 55268916C>T, Asp994=
C > T
Synonymous
Asp994Asp
No VIP available CA VA
rs2297595 226525A>G, 496A>G, 68137009T>C, 98165091T>C, DPYD:496A>G, DPYD:Met166Val, Met166Val
T > C
Missense
Met166Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2302273 -302C>T, 10698182G>A, 149535255G>A, 5168C>T
G > A
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2305948 17205G>A, 3319441C>T, 55979558C>T, 889G>A, Val297Ile
C > T
Missense
Val297Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2306283 14089862A>G, 21329738A>G, 388A>G, 50611A>G, Asn130Asp, SLCO1B1*1B
A > G
Missense
Asn130Asp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2465403 120090827G>A, 149-11092G>A, 33364376G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs25487 1196A>G, 16323944T>C, 44055726T>C, Gln399Arg, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC1:Arg399Gln
T > C
Missense
Gln399Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs25648 -7C>T, 43678977C>T, 43738977C>T, 534C>T, 6025C>T, Ser178=
C > T
Synonymous
Ser178Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2661280 *3757C>G, 14602017G>C, 163113375G>C, 64589C>G
G > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2669429 105463690A>G, 18737239A>G, 20588T>C, 265-58T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2740574 -392G>A, 4713G>A, 5'-flanking region -392A>G, 99382096C>T, 99784473C>T, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4-V, CYP3A4:-392A>G
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2847153 280-499G>A, 651647G>A, 661647G>A, 9044G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2854744 -336C>A, 45951075G>T, 45961075G>T, 4797C>A
G > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2854746 45950645G>C, 45960645G>C, 5227C>G, 95C>G, Ala32Gly
G > C
Missense
Ala32Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2960436 45967282G>A, 45977282G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs3025039 *171C>T, *237C>T, *253C>T, 19584C>T, 43692536C>T, 43752536C>T, VEGFA:C936T
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs307805 -942A>G, 180077487T>C, 24888760T>C, 4138A>G
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs307822 *1475A>G, 180028717T>C, 24839990T>C, 52908A>G
T > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3110697 10843T>C, 45945029A>G, 45955029A>G, 751-485T>C, 769-485T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3130 *1078A>G, 120686A>G, 15969938T>C, 7151735T>C
T > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3136228 -152-405T>G, 26831703T>G, 4531T>G, 48009816T>G
T > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3212948 18192580G>C, 321+74C>G, 45924362G>C, 62725C>G
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3212986 *197G>T, 1510C>A, 18180954C>A, 45912736C>A, 74351G>T, ERCC1 C8092A, ERCC1:8090C>A, ERCC1:8092C>A, Gln504Lys
C > A
3' UTR
Gln504Lys
No VIP available CA VA
rs3218592 111643838C>T, 15813295C>T, 8285G>A, Arg2762Gln
C > T
Missense
Arg2762Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs329007 1053+99G>A, 9512606G>A, 9522606G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs34116584 241808314C>A, 241808314C>G, 241808314C>T, 32C>A, 32C>G, 32C>T, 5153C>A, 5153C>G, 5153C>T, 999182C>A, 999182C>G, 999182C>T, Pro11Arg, Pro11His, Pro11Leu
C > G
C > T
C > A
Missense
Pro11Arg
Pro11Leu
Pro11His
rs34489327 *145-370delT, *145-370delTinsCTTTAA, *449delA, *449delAinsTTAAAG, *859delT, *859delTinsCTTTAA, 20843delA, 20843delAinsTTAAAG, 6-basepair 3'UTR repeat, 663446delA, 663446delAinsTTAAAG, 673446delA, 673446delAinsTTAAAG, TYMS:-TTAAAG, TYMS:1494del, TYMS:1494del TTAAAG, ttaaag
T > -
T > TTAAAG
3' UTR
rs34743033 28-bp tandem repeats, CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG, TSER*2, TSER*3, TYMS: 28 bp tandem repeat, TYMS: 2R, TYMS: TSER *2/*3, TYMS:TSER 28-basepair 5'UTR enhancer region repeat
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC > CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC > CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC > CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs351855 1058-90G>A, 11323G>A, 1162G>A, 176520243G>A, 21331516G>A, FGFR4:Arg388, FGFR4:GLY388ARG, Gly388Arg
G > A
Intronic
Gly388Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs371194629 *280_*281insATTTGT, *280_*281insATTTGTTCATGCCT, *291_*295insATTTGT, *291_*295insATTTGTTCATGCCT, *65_*66insATTTGT, *65_*66insATTTGTTCATGCCT, *65_*67insATTTGT, *65_*67insATTTGTTCATGCCT, *65_*80insATTTGT, *65_*80insATTTGTTCATGCCT, *76_*80insATTTGT, *76_*80insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1093275_1093276insATTTGT, 1093275_1093276insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1093290_1093291insATTTGT, 1093290_1093291insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1093570_1093585insATTTGT, 1093570_1093585insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1093617_1093618insATTTGT, 1093617_1093618insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1096416_1096431insATTTGT, 1096416_1096431insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1098860_1098861insATTTGT, 1098860_1098861insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1098910_1098911insATTTGT, 1098910_1098911insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1099177_1099181insATTTGT, 1099177_1099181insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1099202_1099203insATTTGT, 1099202_1099203insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1136144_1136148insATTTGT, 1136144_1136148insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1136835_1136850insATTTGT, 1136835_1136850insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1314366_1314381insATTTGT, 1314366_1314381insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1314472_1314474insATTTGT, 1314472_1314474insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1612-1_1613insATTTGT, 1612-1_1613insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1622_1626insATTTGT, 1622_1626insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1680_1684insATTTGT, 1680_1684insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1692-1_1692insATTTGT, 1692-1_1692insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 29798581_29798582insATTTGT, 29798581_29798582insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 29830804_29830805insATTTGT, 29830804_29830805insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 8826_8827insATTTGT, 8826_8827insATTTGTTCATGCCT
- > ATTTGTTCATGCCT
- > ATTTGT
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3740066 101604207C>T, 3972C>T, 52408671C>T, 66745C>T, ABCC2:3972C>T, I1324I, Ile1324=
C > T
Synonymous
Ile1324Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs3749438 183705184G>A, 591+374C>T, 90200330G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs3772809 124462824A>G, 1288A>G, 1336A>G, 1541A>G, 18612A>G, 30957970A>G, Ile446Val
A > G
Not Available
Ile446Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs3772810 *28A>G, 124462959A>G, 1423A>G, 1676A>G, 18747A>G, 30958105A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3812718 166053034C>T, 166909544C>T, 25606G>A, 603-91G>A, 787-91G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs3917412 169700502T>C, 21189144T>C, 529+474A>G, 7719A>G
T > C
Intronic
rs3918290 1905+1G>A, 476002G>A, 67887532C>T, 97915614C>T, DPYD*2A, DPYD:67887533 G>A, DPYD:IVS14 + 1G>A
C > T
Donor
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4149056 14091673T>C, 21331549T>C, 521T>C, 52422T>C, SLCO1B1*5, Val174Ala
T > C
Missense
Val174Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4243761 26282791G>T, 2717938G>T, 896-11481G>T
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4426527 1008384A>G, 1020A>G, 14355A>G, 241817516A>G, Ile340Met
A > G
Missense
Ile340Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs45445694 *34+169_*34+196CGGGACGGAGGCAGGCCAAGTGGCGCGG[2][3][4][7][8][9], -97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], 2, 28-bp tandem repeats located in the TS enhancer region of 5'UTR, 5043_5070CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], 657646_657673CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], TYMS:*2
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)2
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 4
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 3
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 8
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 7
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 9
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs45589337 246890A>G, 68116644T>C, 775A>G, 98144726T>C, Lys259Glu
T > C
Missense
Lys259Glu
No VIP available CA VA
rs4646 *161T>G, 132952T>G, 22293401A>C, 51502844A>C
A > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs470119 2955A>G, 50966914T>C, 516+27A>G, 552137T>C, 6601A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4880 160113872A>G, 47C-T, 47T>C, 5482T>C, 64283329A>G, Ala16Val, SOD1:Val16Ala, SOD2: Val16Ala, T47C, V16A
A > G
Missense
Val16Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4932551 7037485G>C, 92071958G>C
G > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4970722 39563T>A, 40-3123T>A, 68323971A>T, 98352053A>T
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5009910 10070901T>C, 130-33141A>G, 31249014T>C, 315-59846A>G, 70-33141A>G, 903-33141A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs501415 -20+35A>G, 2109706A>G, 54318842A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs55674432 2639G>T, 64+2630C>A, 67536090C>A, 827444G>T, 97564172C>A, Gly880Val
C > A
Missense
Gly880Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs55886062 1679T>G, 410273T>G, 67953261A>C, 97981343A>C, Ile560Ser
A > T
A > C
Missense
Ile560Asn
Ile560Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs56038477 1236G>A, 352197G>A, 68011337C>T, 98039419C>T, Glu412=
C > T
Synonymous
Glu412Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5906072 45640507T>C, 8492251T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs59086055 1774C>T, 475870C>T, 67887664G>A, 97915746G>A, Arg592Trp
G > A
Missense
Arg592Trp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5934731 447C>T, 7817606C>T, 9935844C>T, Tyr149=
C > T
Synonymous
Tyr149Tyr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs60139309 2582A>G, 65-72305T>C, 67630583T>C, 732951A>G, 97658665T>C, Lys861Arg
T > C
Intronic
Lys861Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs61757362 2948C>T, 67516580G>A, 846954C>T, 97544662G>A, Thr983Ile
G > A
Missense
Thr983Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs61764370 *2505T>G, *2626T>G, 18120348A>C, 25360224A>C, 48631T>G, LCS6 (let-7 complementary sites 6)
A > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6458232 41569726C>A, 41629726C>A
C > A
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs662 21439A>G, 32970289T>C, 575A>G, 94937446T>C, Gln192Arg
T > C
Missense
Gln192Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs664393 -2021A>G, 10051001T>C, 29071001T>C, 3265A>G
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs67376798 2846A>T, 67519865T>A, 843669A>T, 97547947T>A, Asp949Val
T > A
Missense
Asp949Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6752303 10069372T>C, 130-31612A>G, 31247485T>C, 315-58317A>G, 70-31612A>G, 903-31612A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6877011 *721G>C, 180029471C>G, 24840744C>G, 52154G>C
C > G
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs699947 -2055A>C, -2578, -2595A>C, 3437A>C, 43676389A>C, 43736389A>C, VEGF-A -2578 C/A, VEGFA:, VEGFA:C-2578A
A > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7121 *254C>T, *299C>T, 2322C>T, 27674899C>T, 348C>T, 351C>T, 393C>T, 396C>T, 483C>T, 57478807C>T, 69013C>T, Ile116=, Ile117=, Ile131=, Ile132=, Ile774=
C > T
Synonymous
Ile117Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs715171 7223610C>T, 9341848C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7170769 7035732C>T, 92070205C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs717620 -24C>T, 101542578C>T, 5116C>T, 52347042C>T, ABCC2: 5'UTR, ABCC2:(-24)C>T, mRNA 118C>T
C > T
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs7194667 1609-491A>C, 1857097T>G, 31191A>C, 48242898T>G
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72547601 2933A>G, 67516595T>C, 846939A>G, 97544677T>C, His978Arg
T > C
Missense
His978Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72549304 1475C>T, 376451C>T, 67987083G>A, 98015165G>A, Ser492Leu
G > A
Missense
Ser492Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72549307 226661A>G, 632A>G, 68136873T>C, 98164955T>C, Tyr211Cys
T > C
Missense
Tyr211Cys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72549308 226630A>C, 601A>C, 68136904T>G, 98164986T>G, Ser201Arg
T > G
Missense
Ser201Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72728438 1974+75A>G, 543742A>G, 67819792T>C, 97847874T>C, IVS15+75, c.1974+75A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs7325568 21798284C>T, 40818284C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs75017182 1129-5923C>G, 346167C>G, 68017367G>C, 98045449G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7608731 10071861T>C, 130-34101A>G, 31249974T>C, 315-60806A>G, 70-34101A>G, 903-34101A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7664413 102156428C>T, 177608707C>T, 812-33G>A
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7667298 -271A>G, 3331614T>C, 5032A>G, 55991731T>C
T > C
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs7699188 NC_000004.11, NG_032067.1, NM_001257386.1, NT_016354.19
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7952081 12630728G>A, 67324933G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7993418 191205C>T, 28883061G>A, 3639C>T, 9863061G>A, Tyr1213=
G > A
Synonymous
Tyr1213Tyr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8071253 -1392C>T, 117+953G>A, 41458619G>A, 63+953G>A, 76184467G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8175347 233760235_233760236TA[5][6][7][8], 5-TA insertion in promoter, 7-TA insertion in promoter, 8-TA insertion in promoter, UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*36, UGT1A1*37, microsatellite, short tandem repeat
(TA)6 > (TA)8
(TA)6 > (TA)5
(TA)6 > (TA)7
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs833061 -1498C>T, -460, -958C>T, 43677486C>T, 43737486C>T, 4534C>T, VEGF-A -460 C/T, VEGFA:C-460T, VEGFA:T-1498C
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs854560 12801T>A, 12801T>C, 12801T>G, 12801T>N, 163T>A, 163T>C, 163T>G, 163T>N, 32978927A>C, 32978927A>G, 32978927A>N, 32978927A>T, 94946084A>C, 94946084A>G, 94946084A>N, 94946084A>T, Leu55=, Leu55Met, Leu55Val, Leu55Xaa
A > T
A > C
A > G
A > N
Missense
Leu55Met
No VIP available CA VA
rs861539 104165753G>A, 1651-1239G>A, 1782-1239G>A, 21071C>T, 722C>T, 75229G>A, 85165753G>A, Thr241Met
G > A
Intronic
Thr241Met
No VIP available CA VA
rs9344 *1365+4648C>T, 12038G>A, 14768705G>A, 69462910G>A, 723G>A, CCND1 (A870G), CCND1:870G>A, Pro241=, rs603965
G > A
Intronic
Pro241Pro
No VIP available CA VA
rs9380142 *278A>G, 1099073G>G, 1099123A>G, 1099393A>G, 1099415G>G, 1136360A>G, 1314699A>G, 29738794A>G, 29798794A>G, 9039A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs9561778 3366+1243C>A, 8803391G>T, 95713715G>T, NM_005845.3:c.3366+1243G>T
G > A
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs9679162 10069401G>T, 130-31641C>A, 31247514G>T, 315-58346C>A, 70-31641C>A, 903-31641C>A
G > T
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 144
2D structure from PubChem
provided by PubChem

Overview

Generic Names
Trade Names
  • 5 Fluorouracil
  • Adrucil
  • Arumel
  • Carac
  • Carzonal
  • Effluderm
  • Efudex
  • Efudix
  • Efurix
  • FU
  • Fluoroblastin
  • Fluoroplex
  • Fluracil
  • Fluracilum
  • Fluri
  • Fluril
  • Fluro Uracil
  • Flurouracil
  • Ftoruracil
  • Kecimeton
  • Phthoruracil
  • Phtoruracil
  • Queroplex
  • Timazin
  • URF
  • Ulup
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA128406956

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the thymidylate synthetase conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the topical treatment of multiple actinic or solar keratoses. In the 5% strength it is also useful in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinomas when conventional methods are impractical, such as with multiple lesions or difficult treatment sites. Fluorouracil injection is indicated in the palliative management of some types of cancer, including colon, esophageal, gastric, rectum, breast, biliary tract, stomach, head and neck, cervical, pancreas, renal cell, and carcinoid.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

The precise mechanism of action has not been fully determined, but the main mechanism of fluorouracil is thought to be the binding of the deoxyribonucleotide of the drug (FdUMP) and the folate cofactor, N5-10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, to thymidylate synthase (TS) to form a covalently bound ternary complex. This results in the inhibition of the formation of thymidylate from uracil, which leads to the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and cell death. Fluorouracil can also be incorporated into RNA in place of uridine triphosphate (UTP), producing a fraudulent RNA and interfering with RNA processing and protein synthesis.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Fluorouracil is an antineoplastic anti-metabolite. Anti-metabolites masquerade as purine or pyrimidine - which become the building blocks of DNA. They prevent these substances from becoming incorporated into DNA during the "S" phase (of the cell cycle), stopping normal development and division. Fluorouracil blocks an enzyme which converts the cytosine nucleotide into the deoxy derivative. In addition, DNA synthesis is further inhibited because Fluorouracil blocks the incorporation of the thymidine nucleotide into the DNA strand.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Vitamin B1 needs increased with long term use.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

8-12%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

28-100%

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

10-20 minutes

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

LD 50=230mg/kg (orally in mice)

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Seven percent to 20% of the parent drug is excreted unchanged in the urine in 6 hours; of this over 90% is excreted in the first hour.
The remaining percentage of the administered dose is metabolized, primarily in the liver.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C4H3FN2O2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

c1c(c(=O)[nH]c(=O)[nH]1)F

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

FC1=CNC(=O)NC1=O

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

130.0772

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

130.017855555

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Fluoropyrimidine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Model non-tissue-specific cancer cell displaying genes which may be involved in the pharmacodynamics of the fluoropyrimidines, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), capecitabine and tegafur.
  1. Fluoropyrimidine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the metabolic pathways for fluoropyrimidines.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA12
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA13
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA9
ABCB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC12
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC13
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ABCC3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
ABCC4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
ABCC5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCD1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCD2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCD3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCD4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCE1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCF2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCF3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCG1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
ABCG2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCG4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCG5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCG8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ACE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
AGXT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
AKT2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
AP3M2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APOE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APPBP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BAX
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BCL2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BCR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BPTF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRAF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRCA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRCA2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
C10orf11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
C1orf167
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CBR3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CCND1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CCNO
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CD33
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CD52
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CDA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDKN1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDKN2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CEP290
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CES1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CES2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CFTR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CHN2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CLCN6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CMPK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
COLEC10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CSPG4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CSPP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CTDSPL
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CXCR2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CXCR4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP19A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1B1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2A6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2B6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DAPK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DCTD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DHFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
DLG5
DPYD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
DPYS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DTYMK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DUT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
E2F1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EGF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
EGFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EIF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ENOSF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EPHA5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ERBB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ERCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ERCC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ERCC4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ESR2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
EXO1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
F5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FAM73A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FASLG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FCGR2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FCGR3A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FDXR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FGD4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FGF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FGFR2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
FGFR4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
FLT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
FLT4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FPGS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FXYD3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FZD3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
G6PD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GALNT14
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GGH
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GNAS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSTM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIF1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-G
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IGF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IGF2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
IGFBP3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL13
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL17F
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
IMPDH2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IQGAP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
KDR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIR2DL5A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIR2DS1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIR2DS5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIR3DS1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
KLC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
KLC3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
KRAS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LDHA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LDLR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
LGR5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LILRA3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
LYRM5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MAP2K4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MBD4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MBTD1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MCPH1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MECP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MEGF11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MET
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MLH1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MMP9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MSH6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MSLN
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MTHFD1
MTHFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTOR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MUC4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MYB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MYC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NAA15
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NFKB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
NLGN1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NME1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NME2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NMT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NOS3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NPEPPS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NQO1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NQO2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NT5C
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
OGG1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
OR10AE3P
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
OTC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PALB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
PARD3B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PDE4B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PDGFA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PDGFRA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
PDGFRB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PIK3CA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
PON1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
PPAT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PRAM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PROC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
PROM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PRSS1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PSCA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
PSMB3P
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
PTEN
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
RALBP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
REV3L
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
RGS5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RNF141
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RRM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RRM2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RUNX3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
S100A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SART1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SCN1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SCO2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SELE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SERPINA3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SHMT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC15A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLC19A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
SLC22A7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC28A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC28A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC28A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
SLC29A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC29A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC29A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC29A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC2A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC31A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC35A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLCO1B1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SMAD4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SMUG1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SMURF2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SOD2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SOD3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SPARC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SRGAP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
STK11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SULT1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TAP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TAP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TDG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TGFB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TGFBRAP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
TK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TOP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TOP2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
TP53
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TPMT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
TYMP
TYMS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
UCK2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
UMPS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
UNG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UPB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
UPP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
UPP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
VEGFA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
VKORC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
WDR7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
WNT5B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
WRAP53
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
XPA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
XPO5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
XRCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
XRCC3

Drug Targets

Gene Description
TYMS (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDrug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
capecitabine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
tegafur

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
fluorouracil Increases the effect of and toxicity of fluorouacil (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Increases the effect of and toxicity of fluorouacil (source: Drug Bank)
acenocoumarol The antineoplasic agent increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
acenocoumarol The antineoplasic agent, fluorouracil, may increase the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol. (source: Drug Bank)
anisindione The antineoplasic agent, fluorouracil, may increase the anticoagulant effect of anisindione. (source: Drug Bank)
cimetidine Cimetidine increases the effect and toxicity of fluorouracil (source: Drug Bank)
cimetidine Cimetidine increases the effect and toxicity of fluorouracil (source: Drug Bank)
dicumarol The antineoplasic agent increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
dicumarol The antineoplasic agent, fluorouracil, may increase the anticoagulant effect of dicumarol. (source: Drug Bank)
ethotoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
fosphenytoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
mephenytoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
mephenytoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
metronidazole Risk of 5-FU toxicity when associated with metronidazole (source: Drug Bank)
metronidazole Risk of 5-FU toxicity when associated with metronidazole (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The antineoplasic agent increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin The antineoplasic agent, fluorouracil, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Risk of 5-FU toxicity when associated with metronidazole (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Risk of 5-FU toxicity when associated with metronidazole (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Co-administration of Temsirolimus and Fluorouracil may result in serious adverse drug reactions. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Tolbutamide therapeutic and adverse effects if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Tolbutamide therapeutic and adverse effects if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Torasemide, a CYP2C9 substrate, by decreasing Torasemide metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Torasemide if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Trastuzumab may increase the risk of neutropenia and anemia. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of adverse events. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil The strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Fluorouracil, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of voriconazole by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of voriconazole if fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of zafirlukast. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in zafirlukast therapeutic and adverse effects if fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDisease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
5-fluorouracil associated toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Adenocarcinoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Alzheimer Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Anemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Atrial Fibrillation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Bipolar Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Breast Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cancer or viral infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Colonic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Colorectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
contralateral breast cancer
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Crohn Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Death
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Depression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Diarrhea
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Resistance
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
epithelial cancers
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Esophageal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Esophagitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Esophogeal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
event-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
hand-foot syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Head and Neck Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Failure
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIV Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Homocystinuria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperammonemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypercholesterolemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Kidney Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Nonlymphocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Leukopenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lung Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Menopause
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mental Retardation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolic Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolism, Inborn Errors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
mucositis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mycoses
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myelosuppression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasm Metastasis
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neurotoxicity Syndromes
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neutropenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
neutropenic sepsis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ocular Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ovarian Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
overall survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pain
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pancreatic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Photophobia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
progression-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolism, Inborn Errors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Rectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Schizophrenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Seizures
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sjogren's Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Stomach Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stomatitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stroke
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thrombocytopenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thromboembolism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Unspecified conjunctivitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Urinary Incontinence
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

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Publications related to fluorouracil: 287

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Phenotypic and clinical implications of variants in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2016. Kuilenburg André B P van, et al. PubMed
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Association between DPYD c.1129-5923 C>G/hapB3 and severe toxicity to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer patients: NCCTG N0147 (Alliance). Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Lee Adam M, et al. PubMed
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BRAF in metastatic colorectal cancer: the future starts now. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Orlandi Armando. PubMed
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LGR5 rs17109924 is a predictive genetic biomarker for time to recurrence in patients with colon cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. Szkandera J, et al. PubMed
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Beating the odds: efficacy and toxicity of DPD-driven adaptive dosing of 5-FU in patients with digestive cancer. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Launay Manon, et al. PubMed
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ABCC5 and ABCG1 polymorphisms predict irinotecan-induced severe toxicity in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2015. Chen Sylvia, et al. PubMed
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Genotyping of a family with a novel deleterious DPYD mutation supports the pretherapeutic screening of DPD deficiency with dihydrouracil/uracil ratio. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2015. Thomas F, et al. PubMed
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Genotype-phenotype correlations in 5-fluorouracil metabolism: a candidate DPYD haplotype to improve toxicity prediction. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. Gentile G, et al. PubMed
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Relationship of MTHFR and NQO1 Pharmacogenetics and Chemotherapy Clinical Outcomes in Breast Cancer Patients. Biochemical genetics. 2015. Chaturvedi Pankaj, et al. PubMed
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DPD and UGT1A1 deficiency in colorectal cancer patients receiving triplet chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin and irinotecan. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Falvella Felicia Stefania, et al. PubMed
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Germ line polymorphisms as predictive markers for pre-surgical radiochemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: a 5-year literature update and critical review. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2015. Pezzolo Elisa, et al. PubMed
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Genes involved in pericyte-driven tumor maturation predict treatment benefit of first-line FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. Volz N B, et al. PubMed
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Identification of SNPs associated with response of breast cancer patients to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the EORTC-10994 randomized phase III trial. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2015. Le Morvan V, et al. PubMed
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Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase 85T>C mutation is associated with ocular toxicity of 5-fluorouracil: a case report. American journal of therapeutics. 2015. Baskin Yasemin, et al. PubMed
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Prognostic and predictive significance of thymidylate synthase protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers. 2015. Liu Qingyun, et al. PubMed
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DPYD Variants as Predictors of 5-fluorouracil Toxicity in Adjuvant Colon Cancer Treatment (NCCTG N0147). Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2014. Lee Adam M, et al. PubMed
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Dihydropyrimidinase and beta-ureidopropionase gene variation and severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Kummer Dominic, et al. PubMed
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Molecular biomarkers in colorectal carcinoma. Pharmacogenomics. 2015. Puerta-García Elena, et al. PubMed
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Association between Polymorphisms in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene and Response to Chemotherapies in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. PloS one. 2015. Wang Lei, et al. PubMed
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HLA-G 3'UTR Polymorphisms Impact the Prognosis of Stage II-III CRC Patients in Fluoropyrimidine-Based Treatment. PloS one. 2015. Garziera Marica, et al. PubMed
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The CYP19 RS4646 Polymorphism IS Related to the Prognosis of Stage I-II and Operable Stage III Breast Cancer. PloS one. 2015. Shao Xiying, et al. PubMed
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MTHFR-1298 A>C (rs1801131) is a predictor of survival in two cohorts of stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with adjuvant fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy with or without oxaliplatin. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2014. Cecchin E, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic predictors of outcome in patients with stage II and III colon cancer treated with oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2014. Custodio Ana, et al. PubMed
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A community-based multicenter trial of pharmacokinetically guided 5-fluorouracil dosing for personalized colorectal cancer therapy. The oncologist. 2014. Patel Jai N, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing enzymes and response to 5-fluorouracil among patients with stage II or III rectal cancer (INT-0144; SWOG 9304). Cancer. 2014. Ulrich Cornelia M, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic research in partnership with American Indian and Alaska Native communities. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Woodahl Erica L, et al. PubMed
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Role of solute carrier transporters in pancreatic cancer: a review. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Lemstrová Radmila, et al. PubMed
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UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms: a potential pharmacological biomarker of irinotecan-based chemotherapies in colorectal cancer. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Liu Xiang, et al. PubMed
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Comparative Functional Analysis of DPYD Variants of Potential Clinical Relevance to Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity. Cancer research. 2014. Offer Steven M, et al. PubMed
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The role of IVS14+1 G > A genotype detection in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene and pharmacokinetic monitoring of 5-fluorouracil in the individualized adjustment of 5-fluorouracil for patients with local advanced and metastatic colorectal cancer: a preliminary report. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2014. Cai X, et al. PubMed
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Epigenetic perspectives on cancer chemotherapy response. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Liu Mou-Ze, et al. PubMed
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A functional germline variant in GLI1 implicates hedgehog signaling in clinical outcome of stage II and III colon carcinoma patients. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2014. Szkandera Joanna, et al. PubMed
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Genetic Markers of Toxicity From Capecitabine and Other Fluorouracil-Based Regimens: Investigation in the QUASAR2 Study, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2014. Rosmarin Dan, et al. PubMed
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A Case of 5-FU-Related Severe Toxicity Associated with the p.Y186C DPYD Variant. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Zaanan A, et al. PubMed
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Response to "A Case of 5-FU-Related Severe Toxicity Associated With the P.Y186C DPYD Variant". Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014. Offer S M, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenomic assessment of cisplatin-based chemotherapy outcomes in ovarian cancer. Pharmacogenomics. 2014. Khrunin Andrey V, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in Japanese colorectal cancer patients with UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms. Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2014. Suenaga Mitsukuni, et al. PubMed
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Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR and ABCG2 with the different efficacy of first-line chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer. Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England). 2014. Zhao Jing, et al. PubMed
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A rare cause of susceptibility to neutropenic sepsis in a patient with metastatic pancreas cancer. BMJ case reports. 2014. Suarez Martinez-Falero Beatriz, et al. PubMed
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Identification of a candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism related to chemotherapeutic response through a combination of knowledge-based algorithm and hypothesis-free genomic data. Journal of bioscience and bioengineering. 2013. Takahashi Hiro, et al. PubMed
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Tumor angiogenesis genotyping and efficacy of first-line chemotherapy in metastatic gastric cancer patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Scartozzi Mario, et al. PubMed
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Genetic diversity of the KIR/HLA system and outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with chemotherapy. PloS one. 2014. De Re Valli, et al. PubMed
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Oxidative stress-related genetic polymorphisms are associated with the prognosis of metastatic gastric cancer patients treated with epirubicin, oxaliplatin and 5-Fluorouracil combination chemotherapy. PloS one. 2014. Geng Ruixuan, et al. PubMed
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Potentially Functional SNPs (pfSNPs) as Novel Genomic Predictors of 5-FU Response in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients. PloS one. 2014. Wang Jingbo, et al. PubMed
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Thymidylate synthase genotype-directed chemotherapy for patients with gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers. PloS one. 2014. Goff Laura W, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetics of ABC and SLC transporters in metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving first-line FOLFIRI treatment. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. De Mattia Elena, et al. PubMed
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Potential of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase genotypes in personalizing 5-fluorouracil therapy among colorectal cancer patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2013. Teh Lay Kek, et al. PubMed
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ABCC11/MRP8 polymorphisms affect 5-fluorouracil-induced severe toxicity and hepatic expression. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Magdy Tarek, et al. PubMed
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Common variants in genes coding for chemotherapy metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and targets: a case-control study of contralateral breast cancer risk in the WECARE Study. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2013. Brooks Jennifer D, et al. PubMed
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Polymorphism of TS 3'-UTR predicts survival of Chinese advanced gastric cancer patients receiving first-line capecitabine plus paclitaxel. Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico. 2013. Gao J, et al. PubMed
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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Genotype and Fluoropyrimidine Dosing. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Caudle Kelly E, et al. PubMed
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ERCC1 C8092A (rs3212986) polymorphism as a predictive marker in esophageal cancer patients treated with cisplatin/5-FU-based neoadjuvant therapy. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Rumiato Enrica, et al. PubMed
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DPYD IVS14+1G>A and 2846A>T genotyping for the prediction of severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity: a meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Terrazzino Salvatore, et al. PubMed
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Association of common gene variants in the WNT/beta-catenin pathway with colon cancer recurrence. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Páez D, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic variants in the DPYD, TYMS, CDA and MTHFR genes are clinically significant predictors of fluoropyrimidine toxicity. British journal of cancer. 2013. Loganayagam A, et al. PubMed
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Association of ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to colorectal cancer and therapeutic prognosis. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Wu Huizhe, et al. PubMed
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Gender-specific profiling in SCN1A polymorphisms and time-to-recurrence in patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer treated with adjuvant 5-fluoruracil chemotherapy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Benhaim L, et al. PubMed
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Implications of Genome-Wide Association Studies in Cancer Therapeutics. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2013. Patel Jai N, et al. PubMed
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Pharmacogenetic analysis of adjuvant FOLFOX for Korean patients with colon cancer. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2013. Lee Kyung-Hun, et al. PubMed
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A DPYD Variant (Y186C) in Individuals of African Ancestry Is Associated With Reduced DPD Enzyme Activity. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2013. Offer S M, et al. PubMed
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Fluoropyrimidine toxicity in patients with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase splice site variant: the need for further revision of dose and schedule. Internal and emergency medicine. 2013. Magnani Elena, et al. PubMed
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The expression profile of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes in breast carcinoma. Pharmacogenomics. 2013. Hlaváč Viktor, et al. PubMed
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The cyclin D1 (CCND1) rs9344 G>A polymorphism predicts clinical outcome in colon cancer patients treated with adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2013. Absenger G, et al. PubMed
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The LCS6 polymorphism in the binding site of let-7 microRNA to the KRAS 3'-untranslated region: its role in the efficacy of anti-EGFR-based therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. Sebio Ana, et al. PubMed
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Gender-specific elimination of continuous-infusional 5-fluorouracil in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies: results from a prospective population pharmacokinetic study. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2013. Mueller F, et al. PubMed
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MTHFR polymorphisms and capecitabine-induced toxicity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2013. van Huis-Tanja Lieke H, et al. PubMed
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Genetic variability & chemotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil & cisplatin in head & neck cancer patients: a preliminary study. The Indian journal of medical research. 2013. Dhawan Dipali, et al. PubMed
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Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Gene (DPYD) Polymorphism among Caucasian and non-Caucasian Patients with 5-FU- and Capecitabine-related Toxicity Using Full Sequencing of DPYD. Cancer genomics & proteomics. 2013. Saif Muhammad Wasif. PubMed
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Evaluating predictive pharmacogenetic signatures of adverse events in colorectal cancer patients treated with fluoropyrimidines. PloS one. 2013. Jennings Barbara A, et al. PubMed
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SLCO1B1 and SLC19A1 Gene Variants and Irinotecan-Induced Rapid Response and Survival: A Prospective Multicenter Pharmacogenetics Study of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. PloS one. 2013. Huang Liu, et al. PubMed
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Contribution of the beta-ureidopropionase (UPB1) gene alterations to the development of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2012. Fidlerova Julie, et al. PubMed
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PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for GSTT1. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2012. Thorn Caroline F, et al. PubMed
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A prospective validation pharmacogenomic study in the adjuvant setting of colorectal cancer patients treated with the 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) regimen. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Cecchin E, et al. PubMed
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Intratumoral expression profiling of genes involved in angiogenesis in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy plus the VEGFR inhibitor PTK787/ZK 222584 (vatalanib). The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Wilson P M, et al. PubMed
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An individual coding polymorphism and the haplotype of the SPARC gene predict gastric cancer recurrence. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2012. Winder T, et al. PubMed
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Absence of transcriptomic signature of response to chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal carcinoma patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2012. Laroche-Clary Audrey, et al. PubMed
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