Chemical: Drug
fluorouracil

Available Guidelines

  1. CPIC Guideline for fluorouracil and DPYD
  2. DPWG Guideline for fluorouracil and DPYD

last updated 07/30/2014

1. CPIC Guideline for fluorouracil and DPYD

Summary

The CPIC Dosing Guidelines for fluoropyrimidines (i.e. 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine or tegafur) recommends an alternative drug for patients who are homozygous for DPYD non-functional variants - *2A (rs3918290), *13 (rs55886062), and rs67376798 A (on the positive chromosomal strand) - as these patients are typically DPD deficient. Consider a 50% reduction in starting dose for heterozygous patients (intermediate activity).

Annotation

May 2014 Update on PharmGKB

December 2013 Publication

Accepted article preview online August 2013; Advance online publication October 2013.

  • Guidelines regarding the use of pharmacogenomic tests in dosing for fluoropyrimidines have been published in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC).
  • These guidelines are applicable to:
    • at the time of this writing, there are no data available on the possible role of DPYD*2A, *13, or rs67376798 in 5-fluorouracil toxicities in pediatric patient populations; however, there is no reason to suspect that DPYD variant alleles would affect 5-fluorouracil metabolism differently in children compared to adults.
  • Excerpt from the fluoropyrimidine dosing guideline based on DPYD genotype:
    • "The strength of the dosing recommendations is based on the fact that some variants (DPYD*2A, *13, and rs67376798) clearly affect DPD activity, and DPD activity is clearly related to 5-fluorouracil clearance, and 5-fluorouracil exposure is associated with its toxic effects. Therefore, reduction of fluoropyrimidine dosage in patients with these variants may prevent severe and possibly life-threatening toxicities. However, available evidence does not clearly indicate a degree of dose reduction needed to prevent fluoropyrimidine related toxicities...[Based on literature review (see full manuscript),] our recommendation is to start with at least a 50% reduction of the starting dose followed by an increase in dose in patients experiencing no or clinically tolerable toxicity to maintain efficacy, a decrease in dose in patients who do not tolerate the starting dose to minimize toxicities or pharmacokinetic guided dose adjustments (if available). Patients who are homozygous for DPYD*2A, *13, or rs67376798 may demonstrate complete DPD deficiency and the use of 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine is not recommended in these patients."
  • Download and read:

Table 1: Recommended dosing of fluoropyrimidines by genotype/phenotype.

Adapted from Tables 1 and 2 of the 2013 guideline manuscript.

Phenotype (genotype)Examples of diplotypesImplications for phenotypic measuresDosing recommendationsClassification of recommendationsa
Homozygous wild-type or normal, high DPD activity (two or more functional *1 alleles)*1/*1Normal DPD activity and "normal" risk for fluoropyrimidine toxicityUse label-recommended dosage and administrationModerate
Heterozygous or intermediate activity (~3-5% of patients), may have partial DPD deficiency, at risk for toxicity with drug exposure (one functional allele *1, plus one nonfunctional allele - *2A, *13 or rs67376798Ac)*1/*2A; *1/*13; *1/ rs67376798Ac)Decreased DPD activity (leukocyte DPD activity at 30% to 70% that of the normal population) and increased risk for severe or even fatal drug toxicity when treated with fluoropyrimidine drugsStart with at least a 50% reduction in starting dose followed by titration of dose based on toxicity b or pharmacokinetic test (if available)Moderate
Homozygous variant, DPD deficiency (~0.2% of patients), at risk for toxicity with drug exposure (2 nonfunctional alleles - *2A, *13 or rs67376798A c)*2A/*2A; *13/*13; rs67376798Ac / rs67376798AcComplete DPD deficiency and increased risk for severe or even fatal drug toxicity when treated with fluoropyrimidine drugsSelect alternate drugStrong

a Rating scheme described in 2013 supplement.

b Increase the dose in patients experiencing no or clinically tolerable toxicity to maintain efficacy; decrease the dose in patients who do not tolerate the starting dose to minimize toxicities.

c Note that the rs67376798A allele refers to the allele on the positive chromosomal strand. This is important because DPYD is on the minus chromosomal strand and rs67376798 is a T/A snp. Therefore, the T allele on the gene confers the deficiency, while the complement on the positive chromosomal strand (A allele) is indicative of deficiency.


last updated 02/07/2014

2. DPWG Guideline for fluorouracil and DPYD

Summary

An alternative drug rather than fluorouracil is recommended for DPYD poor metabolizer patients, and a reduced dose (by 50%) of fluorouracil or use of an alternative drug is recommended for intermediate metabolizer patients.

Annotation

The Royal Dutch Pharmacists Association - Pharmacogenetics Working Group has evaluated therapeutic dose recommendations for fluorouracil based on DPYD genotype [Article:21412232]. They recommend that an alternate drug be used for poor metabolizer patients, and a reduced dose or alternate drug for intermediate metabolizer patients.

Phenotype (Genotype)Therapeutic Dose RecommendationLevel of EvidenceClinical Relevance
PM (2 inactive alleles, 2 decreased activity alleles, or one inactive and one decreased activity alleles)Select alterantive drug. Tegafur is not a suitable alternative because this drug is also metabolized by DPD.Published controlled studies of moderate quality* relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints.Clinical effect (S): death; arrhythmia; unanticipated myelosuppression.
IM (1 active allele and 1 inactive or decreased activity allele)Reduce dose by 50% or select alternative drug. Tegafur is not a suitable alternative because this drug is also a substrate for DPD. Increase dose in response to toxicity and efficacy.Published controlled studies of moderate quality* relating to phenotyped and/or genotyped patients or healthy volunteers, and having relevant pharmacokinetic or clinical endpoints.Clinical effect (S): death; arrhythmia; unanticipated myelosuppression.
Allele TypeAlleles
active*1, *4, *5, *6, *9A
decreased activity*9B, *10
inactive*2A, *3, *7, *8, *11, *12, *13, 496A>G, IVS10-15T>C, 1156G>T, 1845G>T
  • *See Methods or PMID: 18253145 for definition of "moderate" quality.
  • S: statistically significant difference.

PharmGKB annotates drug labels containing pharmacogenetic information approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan (PMDA), and Health Canada (Santé Canada) (HCSC). PharmGKB annotations provide a brief summary of the PGx in the label, an excerpt from the label and a downloadable highlighted label PDF file. A list of genes and phenotypes found within the label is mapped to label section headers and listed at the end of each annotation. PharmGKB also attempts to interpret the level of action implied in each label with the "PGx Level" tag.

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We welcome any information regarding drug labels containing PGx information approved by the FDA, EMA, PMDA, HCSC or other Medicine Agencies around the world - please contact feedback.


Annotated Labels

  1. FDA Label for fluorouracil and DPYD
  2. PMDA Label for fluorouracil and DPYD
  3. HCSC Label for fluorouracil and DPYD

last updated 10/25/2013

1. FDA Label for fluorouracil and DPYD

Actionable PGx

Summary

Fluorouracil is available in both a topical cream and as an injection. These two formulations have different indications. Both FDA-approved labels contain information about the potential for severe toxicity in patients with dipyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency. However, neither label mentions testing for genetic variants or activity of DPD.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 01/26/2015

2. PMDA Label for fluorouracil and DPYD

Actionable PGx

Summary

The PMDA package insert for fluorouracil states that severe adverse events have occurred in patients receiving the drug who are dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD)-deficient. DPD is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of fluorouracil and other fluoropyrimidines.

There's more of this label. Read more.


last updated 06/08/2015

3. HCSC Label for fluorouracil and DPYD

Actionable PGx

Summary

The product monograph for fluorouracil states that it should be used with care in patients who have a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DYPD) deficiency, due to the risk for experiencing toxicity.

There's more of this label. Read more.


Clinical Variants that meet the highest level of criteria, manually curated by PharmGKB, are shown below.

To see more Clinical Variants with lower levels of criteria, click the button at the bottom of the page.

Disclaimer: The PharmGKB's clinical annotations reflect expert consensus based on clinical evidence and peer-reviewed literature available at the time they are written and are intended only to assist clinicians in decision-making and to identify questions for further research. New evidence may have emerged since the time an annotation was submitted to the PharmGKB. The annotations are limited in scope and are not applicable to interventions or diseases that are not specifically identified.

The annotations do not account for individual variations among patients, and cannot be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other treatments. It remains the responsibility of the health-care provider to determine the best course of treatment for a patient. Adherence to any guideline is voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding its application to be made solely by the clinician and the patient. PharmGKB assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the PharmGKB clinical annotations, or for any errors or omissions.

? = Mouse-over for quick help

The table below contains information about pharmacogenomic variants on PharmGKB. Please follow the link in the "Variant" column for more information about a particular variant. Each link in the "Variant" column leads to the corresponding PharmGKB Variant Page. The Variant Page contains summary data, including PharmGKB manually curated information about variant-drug pairs based on individual PubMed publications. The PMIDs for these PubMed publications can be found on the Variant Page.

The tags in the first column of the table indicate what type of information can be found on the corresponding Variant Page.

Links in the "Gene" column lead to PharmGKB Gene Pages.

List of all variant annotations for fluorouracil

Gene ? Variant?
(147)
Alternate Names ? Chemicals ? Alleles ?
(+ chr strand)
Function ? Amino Acid?
Translation
VIP No VIP available No VIP available CYP2A6 *1B1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA DPYD *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA DPYD *2A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA DPYD *4 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA DPYD *5 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA DPYD *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA DPYD *9A N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA No VIP available DPYD *9B N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA DPYD *11 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available CA VA DPYD *12 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA DPYD *13 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA UGT1A1 *1 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA UGT1A1 *6 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No VIP available VA UGT1A1 *28 N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available DPYD poor metabolizer
DPYD poor metabolizer N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available DPYD deficiency
DPYD deficiency N/A N/A N/A
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10049380 124487443T>C, 124768596T>C, 2017+417A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10209881 130-30376A>G, 31023383T>C, 31246249T>C, 315-57081A>G, 70-30376A>G, 903-30376A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1042522 -1020C=, -1020C>A, -1020C>G, -939C=, -939C>A, -939C>G, 16397C=, 16397C>A, 16397C>G, 215C=, 215C>A, 215C>G, 7579472G=, 7579472G>C, 7579472G>T, 7676154G=, 7676154G>C, 7676154G>T, 98C=, 98C>A, 98C>G, P53:Arg72Pro, Pro33=, Pro33Arg, Pro33His, Pro72=, Pro72Arg, Pro72His, R72P, TP53 Arg72Pro, mRNA 412C>G, p.Pro72Arg, p52 codon 72
G > C
5' Flanking
Pro33Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10434 *847A>G, *913A>G, *929A>G, 20260A>G, 43753212A>G, 43785475A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs1045642 208920T>C, 3435T>C, 87138645A>G, 87509329A>G, ABCB1*6, ABCB1: 3435C>T, ABCB1: C3435T, ABCB1: c.3435C>T, ABCB1:3435C>T, Ile1145=, Ile1145Ile, MDR1 3435C>T, MDR1 C3435T, PGP C3435T, c.3435C>T, mRNA 3853C>T
A > T
A > G
Synonymous
Ile1145Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs1047840 1762G>A, 1765G>A, 241878999G>A, 242042301G>A, 35809G>A, Glu588Lys, Glu589Lys
G > A
Missense
Glu589Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1051266 45537880T>C, 46957794T>C, 80A>G, 9592A>G, : 80A>G, His27Arg, RFC-1, SCL19A1:80G>A, SLC19A1:Arg27His, SLC19A1:G80A, mRNA 199A>G
T > C
Missense
His27Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10517 *1119T>C, 21774T>C, 69709857A>G, 69743760A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs1056515 *3872C>A, 163113260G>T, 163143470G>T, 183322C>A
G > T
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs1056836 10042C=, 10042C>G, 1294C=, 1294C>G, 38071060G=, 38298203C>G, CYP1B1*3, CYP1B1: L432V, CYP1B1:4326 C>G, CYP1B1:L432V, Leu432=, Leu432Val
G > C
Missense
Leu432Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1059829 *1103C>T, *987C>T, 151042029G>A, 151662468G>A, 29587C>T
G > A
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1063320 *233C=, *233C>G, 1093443C=, 1093443C>G, 1093458C=, 1093458C>G, 1093752G=, 1093752G>C, 1093785C=, 1093785C>G, 1096598G=, 1096598G>C, 1099028C=, 1099028C>G, 1099078C=, 1099078C>G, 1099370C=, 1099370C>G, 1137017G=, 1137017G>C, 1314548G=, 1314548G>C, 29798749C=, 29798749C>G, 29830972C=, 29830972C>G, 8994C=, 8994C>G
C > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10784749 69028249C>G, 69422029C>G
C > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs10876844 55656922C>A, 56050706C>A
C > A
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs10937158 -1402-1268A>G, 130-1268A>G, 183708439T>C, 183990651T>C, 316-1268A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs111858276 1484A>G, 376460A>G, 97549600T>C, 98015156T>C, Asp495Gly
T > C
Missense
Asp495Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs112445441 10574G>A, 10574G>C, 10574G>T, 25245347C>A, 25245347C>G, 25245347C>T, 25398281C>A, 25398281C>G, 25398281C>T, 38G>A, 38G>C, 38G>T, Gly13Ala, Gly13Asp, Gly13Val, g.25398281C>G, g.25398281C>T
G > A
G > T
G > C
Missense
Gly13Asp
Gly13Val
Gly13Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs112723255 -14+175G>A, -14+420G>A, -368G>A, -398G>A, 1393G>A, 1408G>A, 22611C>T, 50525826C>T, 50964255C>T, 5614G>A, 9260G>A, Ala465Thr, Ala470Thr
G > T
G > C
5' Flanking
Ala470Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1127648 *796T>C, 75674754A>G, 75967095A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs112766203 129-910G>A, 129-910G>C, 2279C>G, 2279C>T, 620781C>G, 620781C>T, 97305279G>A, 97305279G>C, 97770835G>A, 97770835G>C, Thr760Ile, Thr760Ser
G > A
G > C
Missense
Thr760Ile
Thr760Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1128503 1236T>C, 167964T>C, 87179601A>G, 87550285A>G, ABCB1 1236C>T, ABCB1*8, ABCB1: c.1236T>C, ABCB1:1236C>T, ABCB1:1236T>C, Gly412=, Gly412Gly, mRNA 1654T>C, p.Gly412Gly
A > G
Synonymous
Gly412Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1138272 341C>T, 67353579C>T, 67586108C>T, 7514C>T, A114V, Ala114Val, GSTP1: A114V, GSTP1: C341T
C > T
Missense
Ala114Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs114096998 3067C>A, 3067C>G, 3067C>T, 847073C>A, 847073C>G, 847073C>T, 97078987G>A, 97078987G>C, 97078987G>T, 97544543G>A, 97544543G>C, 97544543G>T, Pro1023Ala, Pro1023Ser, Pro1023Thr
G > T
Missense
Pro1023Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs11479 -14+194C>T, -14+439C>T, -349C>T, -379C>T, 1412C>T, 1427C>T, 22592G>A, 50525807G>A, 50964236G>A, 5633C>T, 9279C>T, Ser471Leu, Ser476Leu
G > A
G > T
G > C
5' Flanking
Ser471Trp
Ser471Leu
Ser471null
No VIP available CA VA
rs115232898 226586A>G, 557A>G, 97699474T>C, 98165030T>C, Tyr186Cys, Y186C, c.557A>G
T > C
Missense
Tyr186Cys
No VIP available CA VA
rs115632870 151-69G>A, 97795G>A, 97828265C>T, 98293821C>T, IVS2-69, c.151-69G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs11615 354T>C, 45420395A>G, 45923653A>G, 63434T>C, Asn118=, ERCC1:19007T>C, ERCC1:Asn118Asn
A > G
Synonymous
Asn118Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12613732 130-33554A>C, 31026561T>G, 31249427T>G, 315-60259A>C, 70-33554A>C, 903-33554A>C
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs12659 15830T>C, 45531642A>G, 46951556A>G, 576T>C, 696T>C, Pro192=, Pro232=
A > G
Synonymous
Pro192Pro
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs12999804 130-29777T>A, 31022784A>T, 31245650A>T, 315-56482T>A, 70-29777T>A, 903-29777T>A
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs13181 *304T>G, 2251A>C, 23927A>C, 45351661T>G, 45854919T>G, ERCC2 Lys751Gln, ERCC2:2251A>C, ERCC2:Lys751Gln, Lys751Gln, rs13181:T>G
T > G
Missense
Lys751Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs137999090 2021G>A, 552462G>A, 97373598C>T, 97839154C>T, Gly674Asp
C > T
Missense
Gly674Asp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs138616379 1775G>A, 475871G>A, 97450189C>T, 97915745C>T, Arg592Gln
C > T
Missense
Arg592Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs141044036 2872A>G, 843695A>G, 97082365T>C, 97547921T>C, Lys958Glu
T > C
Missense
Lys958Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs143154602 1057C>T, 332771C>T, 97593289G>A, 98058845G>A, Arg353Cys
G > A
Missense
Arg353Cys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs143986398 185621C>G, 274C>G, 97740439G>C, 98205995G>C, Pro92Ala
G > C
Missense
Pro92Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs145773863 1777G>A, 475873G>A, 97450187C>T, 97915743C>T, Gly593Arg
C > T
Missense
Gly593Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs146356975 330911A>G, 868A>G, 97595149T>C, 98060705T>C, Lys290Glu
T > C
Missense
Lys290Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs147601618 1796T>C, 475892T>C, 97450168A>G, 97915724A>G, Met599Thr
A > G
Missense
Met599Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1610696 *287C=, *287C>G, 1093497C=, 1093497C>G, 1093512C=, 1093512C>G, 1093806G=, 1093806G>C, 1093839C=, 1093839C>G, 1096652G=, 1096652G>C, 1099082C=, 1099082C>G, 1099132C=, 1099132C>G, 1099424C=, 1099424C>G, 1137071G=, 1137071G>C, 1314602G=, 1314602G>C, 29798803C=, 29798803C>G, 29831026C=, 29831026C>G, 9048C=, 9048C>G
C > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs163182 1414-24781G>C, 1688-24781G>C, 1795-24781G>C, 2822986G>C, 2844216G>C, 382996G>C, 55173G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs16857540 173900575C>G, 174182785C>G, 647-92530C>G
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs1695 313A>G, 6624A>G, 67352689A>G, 67585218A>G, GSTP1*2, GSTP1*B, GSTP1: I105V, GSTP1:A313G, GSTP1:I105V, GSTP1:Ile105Val, Ile105Val, Part of haplotypes GSTP1*B and GSTP1*C, rs1695:A>G
A > G
Missense
Ile105Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1707 *94C=, *94C>T, 1093304T=, 1093304T>C, 1093319T=, 1093319T>C, 1093613T=, 1093613T>C, 1093646T=, 1093646T>C, 1096459T=, 1096459T>C, 1098889T=, 1098889T>C, 1098939T=, 1098939T>C, 1099231T=, 1099231T>C, 1136878T=, 1136878T>C, 1314409T=, 1314409T>C, 29798610C=, 29798610C>T, 29830833C=, 29830833C>T, 8855C=, 8855C>T
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1710 *101G=, *101G>C, 1093311G=, 1093311G>C, 1093326G=, 1093326G>C, 1093620C=, 1093620C>G, 1093653G=, 1093653G>C, 1096466C=, 1096466C>G, 1098896G=, 1098896G>C, 1098946G=, 1098946G>C, 1099238G=, 1099238G>C, 1136885C=, 1136885C>G, 1314416C=, 1314416C>G, 29798617G=, 29798617G>C, 29830840G=, 29830840G>C, 8862G=, 8862G>C
G > C
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs17109924 1781T>C, 1925T>C, 1997T>C, 2497+95T>C, 71584007T>C, 71977787T>C, Val594Ala, Val642Ala, Val666Ala
T > C
Missense
Val666Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17116806 1740+8030G>T, 418364G>T, 97507696C>A, 97973252C>A
C > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs17160359 458+6848G>T, 509+6848G>T, 746C>A, 87346819G>T, 87717503G>T
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17179101 *118C>A, 1093328C>A, 1093343C>A, 1093637C>A, 1093670C>A, 1096483C>A, 1098913C>A, 1098963C>A, 1099255C>A, 1136902C>A, 1314433C>A, 29798634C>A, 29830857C>A, 8879C>A
C > A
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs17179108 *126C>T, 1093336C>T, 1093351C>T, 1093645C>T, 1093678C>T, 1096491C>T, 1098921C>T, 1098971C>T, 1099263C>T, 1136910C>T, 1314441C>T, 29798642C>T, 29830865C>T, 8887C>T
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1734787 -421-1429T>G, 1493974A>C, 153325446A>C, 154059995A>C, 27-27438T>G, 63-27438T>G, 82133T>G
A > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1734791 -421-6903T>A, 1499448A>T, 153330920A>T, 154065469A>T, 26+26722T>A, 62+32141T>A, 76659T>A
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs17376848 1896T>C, 475992T>C, 97450068A>G, 97915624A>G, Phe632=, Phe632Phe
A > G
Synonymous
Phe632Phe
No VIP available CA VA
rs17431184 102056T>C, 1321-400T>C, 211-400T>C, 802-400T>C, 87960494T>C, 89720251T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17435 -254+11870A>T, 1480508T>A, 153311980T>A, 154046529T>A, 27-13972A>T, 63-13972A>T, 95599A>T
T > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs17626122 205609288T>C, 206474012T>C, 2958-6168T>C, 3054-6168T>C, 3075-6168T>C, 3261-6168T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17822471 1637C>T, 31710C>T, 48208468G>A, 48242379G>A, Thr546Met
G > A
Missense
Thr546Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs17822931 15891G>A, 48224287C>T, 48258198C>T, 538G>A, Gly180Arg
G > T
G > C
Missense
Gly180Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799793 11587G>A, 45364001C>T, 45867259C>T, 862G>A, 934G>A, Asp288Asn, Asp312Asn, XPD Asp312Asn, XPD:Asp312Asn
C > T
Missense
Asp288Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799794 -260-1363A>G, -316A>G, 103712930T>C, 104179267T>C, 7557A>G
T > C
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1799895 24800212C>G, 24801834C>G, 691C>G, 9750C>G, Arg231Gly
C > G
Missense
Arg231Gly
No VIP available CA VA
rs1799983 12965T>G, 150696111T>G, 150999023T>G, 894T>G, Asp298Glu, NOS3:894G>T
T > G
Missense
Asp298Glu
No VIP available CA VA
rs1800566 20389C>T, 343C>T, 445C>T, 457C>T, 559C>T, 69711242G>A, 69745145G>A, NQO1*2, NQO1:C609T, NQO1:P187S, NQO1:c.558C>T, Pro115Ser, Pro149Ser, Pro153Ser, Pro187Ser, rs1800566 C>T
G > A
Missense
Pro149Ser
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801019 124456742G>C, 124737895G>C, 12530G>C, 590G>C, 638G>C, 843G>C, Gly213Ala, OPRT: Gly213Ala
G > C
Not Available
Gly213Ala
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801131 11794419T>G, 11854476T>G, 1286A>C, 16685A>C, A1298C, Glu429Ala, MTHFR:1298A>C
T > G
Not Available
Glu347Ala
rs1801133 11796321G>A, 11856378G>A, 14783C>T, 665C>T, 677C>T, A222V, Ala222Val, C677T, MTHFR: c.677C>T, MTHFR:667C>T, p.A222V
G > A
Not Available
Ala140Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801158 1601G>A, 410195G>A, 97515865C>T, 97981421C>T, Ser534Asn
C > T
Not Available
Ser534Asn
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801159 1627A>G, 410221A>G, 97515839T>C, 97981395T>C, DPYD*5, DPYD:A1627G, DPYD:I543V, Ile543Val
T > C
Missense
Ile543Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801160 129-825C>T, 2194G>A, 620696G>A, 97305364C>T, 97770920C>T, Val732Ile
C > T
Missense
Val732Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801265 42731T=, 42731T>C, 85T=, 85T>C, 97883329A=, 97883329A>G, 98348885G=, 98348885G>A, Cys29=, Cys29Arg, DPYD*9A, DPYD:C29R, DYPD:T85C
A > G
Missense
Cys29Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801266 234284C>T, 703C>T, 97691776G>A, 98157332G>A, Arg235Trp
G > A
Missense
Arg235Trp
No VIP available CA VA
rs1801268 2983G>T, 846989G>T, 97079071C>A, 97544627C>A, Val995Phe
C > A
Missense
Val995Phe
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs183105782 330953T>C, 910T>C, 97595107A>G, 98060663A>G, Tyr304His
A > G
Missense
Tyr304His
No VIP available CA VA
rs183205964 *34+185C>G, -86G>C, 5054G>C, 657657G>C
G > C
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs183385770 1024G>A, 332738G>A, 97593322C>T, 98058878C>T, Asp342Asn
C > T
Missense
Asp342Asn
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs186169810 1314T>G, 352275T>G, 97573785A>C, 98039341A>C, Phe438Leu
A > C
Missense
Phe438Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1870377 1416A>T, 23789A>T, 55106807T>A, 55972974T>A, Gln472His, VEGFR-2 1718T/A
T > A
Missense
Gln472His
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs188052243 2678A>G, 64+2591T>C, 827483A>G, 97098577T>C, 97564133T>C, Asn893Ser
T > C
Intronic
Asn893Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs1885301 -1549A>G, -1549G>A, 101541053A>G, 3591A>G, 99781296A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs190577302 1054C>G, 332768C>G, 97593292G>C, 98058848G>C, Leu352Val
G > C
Missense
Leu352Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs1979277 1006C>T, 1303C>T, 1420C>T, 18232096G>A, 18328782G>A, 39761C>T, Leu336Phe, Leu435Phe, Leu474Phe, SHMT1 L435F
G > A
Missense
Leu435Phe
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs200687447 2482G>A, 2482G>C, 65-72205C>G, 65-72205C>T, 732851G>A, 732851G>C, 97193209C>G, 97193209C>T, 97658765C>G, 97658765C>T, Glu828Gln, Glu828Lys
C > G
C > T
Missense
Glu828Lys
Glu828Gln
No VIP available CA VA
rs201045130 39659467A>G, 40125139A>G, 761T>C, Leu254Pro
A > G
Missense
Leu254Pro
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2010851 *1224C>A, 1647476C>A, 1756642C>A
C > A
3' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2010963 -1507C>G, -634C>G, -94C>G, 43738350C>G, 43770613C>G, 5398C>G, VEGF-A 405 G/C, VEGFA:405G>C, VEGFA:C405G
C > G
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2032582 186947T>A, 186947T>G, 2677A, 2677G, 2677T, 2677T>A, 2677T>G, 3095G>T/A, 87160618A>C, 87160618A>T, 87531302A>C, 87531302A>T, 893 Ala, 893 Ser, 893 Thr, ABCB1*7, ABCB1: 2677G>T/A, ABCB1: 2677T/A>G, ABCB1: A893S, ABCB1: G2677T/A, ABCB1: c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1:2677G>A/T, ABCB1:2677G>T/A, ABCB1:A893T, Ala893Ser/Thr, MDR1, MDR1 G2677T/A, Ser893Ala, Ser893Thr, mRNA 3095G>T/A, p.Ala893Ser/Thr
A > T
A > C
Missense
Ser893Ala
Ser893Thr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2070474 -250G>C, -80C>G, 24495324C>G, 24891292C>G, 5042C>G
C > G
5' UTR
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs2070744 -51-762C=, -51-762C>T, -786, -813C=, -813C>T, 150690079C=, 150690079C>T, 150992991C=, 150992991C>T, 6933C=, 6933C>T, NOS3 -786T>C, NOS3:, T>C, eNOS -786T>C
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2071559 -906T>C, 4397T>C, 55126199A>G, 55992366A>G
A > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2072671 20589208A>C, 20915701A>C, 79A>C, CDA: c.79A>C, CDA:79A>C, K27Q, Lys27Gln, p.Lys27Gln
A > C
Missense
Lys27Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2074087 145799C=, 145799C>G, 16090375C=, 16090375C>G, 16184232C>G, 1748233G=, 1748233G>C, 2461-30C>G, 2461-30G>C
C > G
Intronic
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs2231142 105152C>A, 421C>A, 88131171G>T, 89052323G>T, ABCG2: Q141K, ABCG2:421C>A, ABCG2:Q141K, ABCG2:c.421C>A, Gln141Lys, rs2231142
G > T
Missense
Gln141Lys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2236225 1958G>A, 59087G>A, 64442127G>A, 64908845G>A, Arg653Gln, MTHFD1:1958G>A, MTHFD1:Arg653Gln, R653Q
G > A
Missense
Arg653Gln
No VIP available CA VA
rs2236722 100801T>C, 115T>C, 51242798A>G, 51534995A>G, Trp39Arg
A > G
Intronic
Trp39Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs225440 220+7029C>T, 277+7029C>T, 286+7029C>T, 292+7029C>T, 319+7029C>T, 42232943C>T, 43653053C>T
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2266637 113-228G>A, 151G>A, 201-228G>A, 24376845C>T, 271020C>T, 463G>A, 505G>A, GSTT1:Val169Ile, Val155Ile, Val169Ile, Val51Ile
G > T
G > C
Missense
Val169Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2286455 16018539C>T, 16020162C>T, 70462G>A, 759G>A, 786G>A, Ala253=, Ala262=
C > T
Synonymous
Ala262Ala
No VIP available CA VA
rs2289310 120476C>A, 4442C>A, 49807G>T, 77811115G>T, 79570873G>T, Pro1481Gln
G > T
Missense
Pro1481Gln
No VIP available CA VA
rs2291078 1002T>A, 1050T>A, 124458938T>A, 124740091T>A, 1255T>A, 14726T>A, Val350=
T > A
Not Available
Val350Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs2292997 -1403+7980C>T, -54G>A, 129+7980C>T, 183724072G>A, 184006284G>A, 315+7980C>T
G > A
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs2293347 187192C>T, 2982C>T, 55201223C>T, 55268916C>T, Asp994=
C > T
Synonymous
Asp994Asp
No VIP available CA VA
rs2297595 226525A>G, 496A>G, 97699535T>C, 98165091T>C, DPYD:496A>G, DPYD:Met166Val, Met166Val
T > C
Missense
Met166Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2302273 -302C>T, 149535255G>A, 150155692G>A, 5168C>T
G > A
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2305948 17205G>A, 55113391C>T, 55979558C>T, 889G>A, Val297Ile
C > T
Missense
Val297Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2306283 21176804A>G, 21329738A>G, 388A>G, 50611A>G, Asn130Asp, SLCO1B1*1B
A > G
Missense
Asn130Asp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2465403 119078588G>A, 120090827G>A, 149-11092G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs25487 1196A>G, 29005A>G, 43551574T>C, 44055726T>C, Gln399Arg, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC1:Arg399Gln
T > C
Missense
Gln399Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs25648 -7C>T, -880C>T, 43738977C>T, 43771240C>T, 534C>T, 6025C>T, Ser178=
C > T
Synonymous
Ser178Ser
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2661280 *3757C>G, 163113375G>C, 163143585G>C, 183207C>G
G > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2669429 104451462A>G, 105463690A>G, 20588T>C, 265-58T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2740574 -392G>A, 4713G>A, 5'-flanking region -392A>G, 99382096C>T, 99784473C>T, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4-V, CYP3A4:-392A>G
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs2847153 280-499G>A, 661647G>A, 9044G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs2854744 -336C>A, 45921476G>T, 45961075G>T, 4797C>A
G > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2854746 45921046G>C, 45960645G>C, 5227C>G, 95C>G, Ala32Gly
G > C
Missense
Ala32Gly
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs2959023 -1T>C, 104466921A>G, 105479149A>G, 5129T>C
A > G
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs2960436 45937683G>A, 45977282G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs3025039 *171C>T, *237C>T, *253C>T, 19584C>T, 43752536C>T, 43784799C>T, VEGFA:C936T
C > T
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs307805 -942A>G, 180077487T>C, 180650487T>C, 4138A>G
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs307822 *1475A>G, 180028717T>C, 180601717T>C, 52908A>G
T > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3110697 10843T>C, 45915430A>G, 45955029A>G, 751-485T>C, 769-485T>C
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3130 *1078A>G, 120686A>G, 15968315T>C, 15969938T>C
T > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3136228 -1293T>G, -2071T>G, -557T>G, 4531T>G, 47782677T>G, 48009816T>G
T > G
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3212948 321+74C>G, 45421104G>C, 45924362G>C, 62725C>G
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3212986 *197G>T, 1510C>A, 1516C>A, 45409478C>A, 45912736C>A, 74351G>T, ERCC1 C8092A, ERCC1:8090C>A, ERCC1:8092C>A, Gln504Lys, Gln506Lys
C > A
3' UTR
Gln504Lys
No VIP available CA VA
rs3218592 111322635C>T, 111643838C>T, 8051G>A, 8285G>A, Arg2684Gln, Arg2762Gln
C > T
Missense
Arg2762Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs329007 1053+99G>A, 9522606G>A, 9522608G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs34116584 240868897C>A, 240868897C>G, 240868897C>T, 241808314C>A, 241808314C>G, 241808314C>T, 32C>A, 32C>G, 32C>T, 5153C>A, 5153C>G, 5153C>T, Pro11Arg, Pro11His, Pro11Leu
C > G
C > T
C > A
Missense
Pro11Arg
Pro11Leu
Pro11His
rs34489327 *145-370delT, *145-370delTinsCTTTAA, *449delA, *449delAinsTTAAAG, *859delT, *859delTinsCTTTAA, 20843delA, 20843delAinsTTAAAG, 6-basepair 3'UTR repeat, 663446delA, 663446delAinsTTAAAG, 673446delA, 673446delAinsTTAAAG, TYMS:-TTAAAG, TYMS:1494del, TYMS:1494del TTAAAG, ttaaag
T > -
T > TTAAAG
3' UTR
rs34743033 28-bp tandem repeats, CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG, TSER*2, TSER*3, TYMS: 28 bp tandem repeat, TYMS: 2R, TYMS: TSER *2/*3, TYMS:TSER 28-basepair 5'UTR enhancer region repeat
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC > CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC > CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC > CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCGCCGCGCCACTTCGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCCC
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs351855 1058-90G>A, 1097+65G>A, 11323G>A, 1162G>A, 176520243G>A, 177093242G>A, FGFR4:Arg388, FGFR4:GLY388ARG, Gly388Arg
G > A
Intronic
Gly388Arg
No VIP available CA VA
rs370457585 39661180C>G, 39661180C>T, 40126852C>G, 40126852C>T, 640G>A, 640G>C, Ala214Pro, Ala214Thr
C > T
Missense
Ala214Thr
No VIP available CA VA
rs371194629 *65_*66insATTTGT, *65_*66insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1093275_1093276insATTTGT, 1093275_1093276insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1093290_1093291insATTTGT, 1093290_1093291insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1093570_1093585insATTTGT, 1093570_1093585insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1093617_1093618insATTTGT, 1093617_1093618insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1096416_1096431insATTTGT, 1096416_1096431insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1098860_1098861insATTTGT, 1098860_1098861insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1098910_1098911insATTTGT, 1098910_1098911insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1099202_1099203insATTTGT, 1099202_1099203insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1136835_1136850insATTTGT, 1136835_1136850insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 1314366_1314381insATTTGT, 1314366_1314381insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 29798581_29798582insATTTGT, 29798581_29798582insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 29830804_29830805insATTTGT, 29830804_29830805insATTTGTTCATGCCT, 8826_8827insATTTGT, 8826_8827insATTTGTTCATGCCT
- > ATTTGTTCATGCCT
- > ATTTGT
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3740066 101604207C>T, 3972C>T, 66745C>T, 99844450C>T, ABCC2:3972C>T, I1324I, Ile1324=
C > T
Synonymous
Ile1324Ile
No VIP available CA VA
rs374150125 39663330G>A, 40129002G>A, 538C>T, Arg180Ter
G > A
Stop Codon
Arg180null
No VIP available CA VA
rs3749438 -941+374C>T, 183705184G>A, 183987396G>A, 591+374C>T, 777+374C>T
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs3772809 124462824A>G, 124743977A>G, 1288A>G, 1336A>G, 1541A>G, 18612A>G, Ile446Val
A > G
Not Available
Ile446Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs3772810 *28A>G, 124462959A>G, 124744112A>G, 1423A>G, 1676A>G, 18747A>G
A > G
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs3812718 166053034C>T, 166909544C>T, 25606G>A, 603-91G>A
C > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs3917412 169700502T>C, 169731361T>C, 529+474A>G, 7719A>G
T > C
Intronic
rs3918290 1905+1G>A, 476002G>A, 97450058C>T, 97915614C>T, DPYD*2A, DPYD:67887533 G>A, DPYD:IVS14 + 1G>A
C > T
Donor
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4073 -352A>T, 4802A>T, 73740307A>T, 74606024A>T, IL8 -251A/T
A > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4149056 21178615T>C, 21331549T>C, 521T>C, 52422T>C, SLCO1B1*5, Val174Ala
T > C
Missense
Val174Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4243761 26037644G>T, 26282791G>T, 896-11481G>T
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4402960 -106+27113C>A, 185511687G>T, 185793899G>T, 239+29254C>A, 36141C>A, 50+27113C>A
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4426527 1020A>G, 14355A>G, 240878099A>G, 241817516A>G, Ile340Met
A > G
Missense
Ile340Met
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs45445694 *34+169_*34+196CGGGACGGAGGCAGGCCAAGTGGCGCGG[2][3][4][7][8][9], -97_-70CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], 2, 28-bp tandem repeats located in the TS enhancer region of 5'UTR, 5043_5070CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], 657646_657673CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG[2][3][4][7][8][9], TYMS:*2
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > (CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG)2
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 4
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 3
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 8
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 7
CCGCGCCACTTGGCCTGCCTCCGTCCCG > 9
5' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs45589337 246890A>G, 775A>G, 97679170T>C, 98144726T>C, Lys259Glu
T > C
Missense
Lys259Glu
No VIP available CA VA
rs4646 *161T>G, 132952T>G, 51210647A>C, 51502844A>C
A > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs470119 2955A>G, 50528485T>C, 50966914T>C, 516+27A>G, 6601A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4880 159692840A>G, 160113872A>G, 47C-T, 47T>C, 5482T>C, Ala16Val, SOD1:Val16Ala, SOD2: Val16Ala, T47C, V16A, Val16Ala
A > G
Missense
Val16Ala
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4932551 91528728G>C, 92071958G>C
G > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs4970722 39563T>A, 40-3123T>A, 97886497A>T, 98352053A>T
A > T
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5009910 130-33141A>G, 31026148T>C, 31249014T>C, 315-59846A>G, 70-33141A>G, 903-33141A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs501415 -20+35A>G, 54318842A>G, 56651611A>G
A > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs55674432 2639G>T, 64+2630C>A, 827444G>T, 97098616C>A, 97564172C>A, Gly880Val
C > A
Missense
Gly880Val
No VIP available CA VA
rs55886062 1679T>G, 410273T>G, 97515787A>C, 97981343A>C, Ile560Ser
A > T
A > C
Missense
Ile560Asn
Ile560Ser
No VIP available CA VA
rs56038477 1236G>A, 352197G>A, 97573863C>T, 98039419C>T, Glu412=
C > T
Synonymous
Glu412Glu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs56160474 *274T>C, 847358T>C, 97078702A>G, 97544258A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5906072 105769T>C, 45640507T>C, 45781104T>C
T > C
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs59086055 1774C>T, 475870C>T, 97450190G>A, 97915746G>A, Arg592Trp
G > A
Missense
Arg592Trp
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs5934731 447C>T, 9935844C>T, 9967804C>T, Tyr149=
C > T
Synonymous
Tyr149Tyr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs60139309 2582A>G, 65-72305T>C, 732951A>G, 97193109T>C, 97658665T>C, Lys861Arg
T > C
Intronic
Lys861Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs61757362 2948C>T, 846954C>T, 97079106G>A, 97544662G>A, Thr983Ile
G > A
Missense
Thr983Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs61764370 *2505T>G, *2626T>G, 25207290A>C, 25360224A>C, 48631T>G, LCS6 (let-7 complementary sites 6)
A > C
3' UTR
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6458232 41629726C>A, 41661988C>A
C > A
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs662 21439A>G, 575A>G, 94937446T>C, 95308134T>C, Gln192Arg
T > C
Missense
Gln192Arg
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs664393 -2021A>G, 28496864T>C, 29071001T>C, 3265A>G
T > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available CA VA
rs67376798 2846A>T, 843669A>T, 97082391T>A, 97547947T>A, Asp949Val
T > A
Missense
Asp949Val
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6752303 130-31612A>G, 31024619T>C, 31247485T>C, 315-58317A>G, 70-31612A>G, 903-31612A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6769511 -106+8510A>G, 17538A>G, 185530290T>C, 185812502T>C, 239+10651A>G, 50+8510A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs6877011 *721G>C, 180029471C>G, 180602471C>G, 52154G>C
C > G
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs699947 -2055A>C, -2578, -2595A>C, 3437A>C, 43736389A>C, 43768652A>C, VEGF-A -2578 C/A, VEGFA:, VEGFA:C-2578A
A > C
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7121 *254C>T, *299C>T, 216C>T, 2322C>T, 348C>T, 351C>T, 393C>T, 396C>T, 483C>T, 57478807C>T, 58903752C>T, 69013C>T, Ile116=, Ile117=, Ile131=, Ile132=, Ile72=, Ile774=
C > T
Synonymous
Ile117Ile
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs715171 9341848C>T, 9373808C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7170769 91526975C>T, 92070205C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs717620 -24C>T, 101542578C>T, 5116C>T, 99782821C>T, ABCC2: 5'UTR, ABCC2:(-24)C>T, mRNA 118C>T
C > T
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs7194667 1609-491A>C, 31191A>C, 48208987T>G, 48242898T>G
T > G
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72547601 2933A>G, 846939A>G, 97079121T>C, 97544677T>C, His978Arg
T > C
Missense
His978Arg
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs72549303 1898delC, 475994delC, 97450066delG, 97915622delG, Pro633Glnfs
G > -
Frameshift
Pro633Gln
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72549304 1475C>T, 376451C>T, 97549609G>A, 98015165G>A, Ser492Leu
G > A
Missense
Ser492Leu
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs72549306 1003G>T, 332717G>T, 97593343C>A, 98058899C>A, Val335Leu
C > A
Missense
Val335Leu
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72549307 226661A>G, 632A>G, 97699399T>C, 98164955T>C, Tyr211Cys
T > C
Missense
Tyr211Cys
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs72549308 226630A>C, 601A>C, 97699430T>G, 98164986T>G, Ser201Arg
T > G
Missense
Ser201Arg
No VIP available CA No Variant Annotations available
rs72549309 185642_185645delTCAT, 295_298delTCAT, 97740415_97740418delATGA, 98205971_98205974delATGA, Phe100Serfs
ATGA > -
Frameshift
Phe100Ser
No VIP available CA VA
rs72728438 1974+75A>G, 543742A>G, 97382318T>C, 97847874T>C, IVS15+75, c.1974+75A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs7325568 40244147C>T, 40818284C>T
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available CA VA
rs75017182 1129-5923C>G, 346167C>G, 97579893G>C, 98045449G>C
G > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7608731 130-34101A>G, 31027108T>C, 31249974T>C, 315-60806A>G, 70-34101A>G, 903-34101A>G
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7664413 110193G>A, 176687553C>T, 177608707C>T, 812-33G>A
C > T
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7667298 -271A>G, 5032A>G, 55125564T>C, 55991731T>C
T > C
5' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs7699188 -19-34895C>T, 61414C>T, 88174909G>A, 89096061G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs770063251 104424265C>T, 105436493C>T, 1217G>A, 47785G>A, Trp406Ter
C > T
Stop Codon
Trp406*
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs780093 1572+799T>C, 27519736T>C, 27742603T>C, 27898T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs780094 1423-418T>C, 26532T>C, 27518370T>C, 27741237T>C
T > C
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs78060119 1156G>T, 352117G>T, 97573943C>A, 98039499C>A, Glu386Ter
C > A
Stop Codon
Glu386null
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7952081 67324933G>A, 67557462G>A
G > A
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs7993418 191205C>T, 28308924G>A, 28883061G>A, 3639C>T, Tyr1213=
G > A
Synonymous
Tyr1213Tyr
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8056100 13459C>T, 395+1087C>T, 48226719G>A, 48260630G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8071253 -1392C>T, 117+953G>A, 63+953G>A, 76184467G>A, 78188386G>A
G > A
Intronic
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs8175347 233760235_233760236TA[5][6][7][8], 5-TA insertion in promoter, 7-TA insertion in promoter, 8-TA insertion in promoter, UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*36, UGT1A1*37, microsatellite, short tandem repeat
(TA)6 > (TA)8
(TA)6 > (TA)5
(TA)6 > (TA)7
Not Available
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs833061 -1498C>T, -460, -958C>T, 43737486C>T, 43769749C>T, 4534C>T, VEGF-A -460 C/T, VEGFA:C-460T, VEGFA:T-1498C
C > T
5' Flanking
No VIP available No Clinical Annotations available VA
rs854560 12801T>A, 163T>A, 94946084A>T, 95316772A>T, Leu55Met
A > T
A > C
A > G
A > N
Missense
Leu55Met
No VIP available CA VA
rs861539 103699416G>A, 104165753G>A, 1651-1239G>A, 1782-1239G>A, 21071C>T, 722C>T, 75229G>A, Thr241Met
G > A
Intronic
Thr241Met
No VIP available CA VA
rs9344 12038G>A, 69462910G>A, 69648142G>A, 723G>A, CCND1 (A870G), CCND1:870G>A, Pro241=, rs603965
G > A
Intronic
Pro241Pro
No VIP available CA VA
rs9380142 *278A=, *278A>G, 1093488G=, 1093488G>A, 1093503A=, 1093503A>G, 1093797A=, 1093797A>G, 1093830G=, 1093830G>A, 1096643A=, 1096643A>G, 1099073G=, 1099073G>A, 1099123A=, 1099123A>G, 1099415G=, 1099415G>A, 1137062A=, 1137062A>G, 1314593A=, 1314593A>G, 29798794A=, 29798794A>G, 29831017A=, 29831017A>G, 9039A=, 9039A>G
A > G
3' UTR
No VIP available CA VA
rs9561778 3225+1243C>A, 3366+1243C>A, 95061461G>T, 95713715G>T, NM_005845.3:c.3366+1243G>T
G > A
G > T
Intronic
No VIP available CA VA
rs9679162 130-31641C>A, 31024648G>T, 31247514G>T, 315-58346C>A, 70-31641C>A, 903-31641C>A
G > T
Intronic
Alleles, Functions, and Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 147

Overview

Generic Names
Trade Names
  • 5 Fluorouracil
  • Adrucil
  • Arumel
  • Carac
  • Carzonal
  • Effluderm
  • Efudex
  • Efudix
  • Efurix
  • FU
  • Fluoroblastin
  • Fluoroplex
  • Fluracil
  • Fluracilum
  • Fluri
  • Fluril
  • Fluro Uracil
  • Flurouracil
  • Ftoruracil
  • Kecimeton
  • Phthoruracil
  • Phtoruracil
  • Queroplex
  • Timazin
  • URF
  • Ulup
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id

PA128406956

Type(s):

Drug

Description

A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the thymidylate synthetase conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.

Source: Drug Bank

Indication

For the topical treatment of multiple actinic or solar keratoses. In the 5% strength it is also useful in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinomas when conventional methods are impractical, such as with multiple lesions or difficult treatment sites. Fluorouracil injection is indicated in the palliative management of some types of cancer, including colon, esophageal, gastric, rectum, breast, biliary tract, stomach, head and neck, cervical, pancreas, renal cell, and carcinoid.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

The precise mechanism of action has not been fully determined, but the main mechanism of fluorouracil is thought to be the binding of the deoxyribonucleotide of the drug (FdUMP) and the folate cofactor, N5-10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, to thymidylate synthase (TS) to form a covalently bound ternary complex. This results in the inhibition of the formation of thymidylate from uracil, which leads to the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and cell death. Fluorouracil can also be incorporated into RNA in place of uridine triphosphate (UTP), producing a fraudulent RNA and interfering with RNA processing and protein synthesis.

Source: Drug Bank

Pharmacology

Fluorouracil is an antineoplastic anti-metabolite. Anti-metabolites masquerade as purine or pyrimidine - which become the building blocks of DNA. They prevent these substances from becoming incorporated into DNA during the "S" phase (of the cell cycle), stopping normal development and division. Fluorouracil blocks an enzyme which converts the cytosine nucleotide into the deoxy derivative. In addition, DNA synthesis is further inhibited because Fluorouracil blocks the incorporation of the thymidine nucleotide into the DNA strand.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Vitamin B1 needs increased with long term use.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity

Biotransformation

Hepatic

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding

8-12%

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption

28-100%

Source: Drug Bank

Half-Life

10-20 minutes

Source: Drug Bank

Toxicity

LD 50=230mg/kg (orally in mice)

Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Seven percent to 20% of the parent drug is excreted unchanged in the urine in 6 hours; of this over 90% is excreted in the first hour.
The remaining percentage of the administered dose is metabolized, primarily in the liver.

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula

C4H3FN2O2

Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES

c1c(c(=O)[nH]c(=O)[nH]1)F

Source: OpenEye

Canonical SMILES

FC1=CNC(=O)NC1=O

Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight

130.0772

Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight

130.017855555

Source: Drug Bank

SMILES

FC1=CNC(=O)NC1=O

Source: Drug Bank

InChI String

InChI=1S/C4H3FN2O2/c5-2-1-6-4(9)7-3(2)8/h1H,(H2,6,7,8,9)

Source: Drug Bank

PharmGKB Curated Pathways

Pathways created internally by PharmGKB based primarily on literature evidence.

  1. Fluoropyrimidine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Model non-tissue-specific cancer cell displaying genes which may be involved in the pharmacodynamics of the fluoropyrimidines, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), capecitabine and tegafur.
  1. Fluoropyrimidine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Representation of the metabolic pathways for fluoropyrimidines.

External Pathways

Links to non-PharmGKB pathways.

PharmGKB contains no links to external pathways for this drug. To report a pathway, click here.

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

Curated Information ?

EvidenceGene
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA12
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA13
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCA9
ABCB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCB9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC12
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC13
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
ABCC3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
ABCC4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
ABCC5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCC9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCD1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCD2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCD3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCD4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCE1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCF2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCF3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ABCG1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
ABCG2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCG4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCG5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ABCG8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ACE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
AGXT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
AKT2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
AP3M2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APOE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
APPBP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BAX
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BCL2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BCR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BPTF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRAF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRCA1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
BRCA2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
C10orf11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
C1orf167
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CBR3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CCND1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CCNO
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CD33
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CD52
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CDA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDKN1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CDKN2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CEP290
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CES1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CES2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CFTR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CHN2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CLCN6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CMPK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
COLEC10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CSPG4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CSPP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CTDSPL
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CXCL8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CXCR2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CXCR4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP19A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP1B1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2A6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2B6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C19
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2C9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP2D6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
CYP3A5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DAPK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DCTD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DHFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
DLG5
DPYD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
DPYS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DTYMK
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
DUT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
E2F1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EGF
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
EGFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EIF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
ENOSF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
EPHA5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ERBB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ERCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
ERCC2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ERCC4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
ESR2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
EXO1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
F5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FAM73A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FASLG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FCGR2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FCGR3A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FDXR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FGD4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FGF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FGFR2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
FGFR4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
FLT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
FLT4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FPGS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FXYD3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
FZD3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
G6PD
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GALNT14
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GCKR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GGH
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GNAS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
GSTM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
GSTT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIF1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
HLA-G
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IGF1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IGF2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
IGF2BP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
IGFBP3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL13
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL17F
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IL6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
IMPDH2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
IQGAP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
KCNQ1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
KDR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIR2DL5A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIR2DS1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIR2DS5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIR3DS1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
KIT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
KLC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
KLC3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
KRAS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LDHA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LDLR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
LGR5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
LILRA3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
LYRM5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MAP2K4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MBD4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MBTD1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MCPH1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MECP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MEGF11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MET
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MLH1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MMP9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MSH6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MSLN
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
MTHFD1
MTHFR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTOR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MTR
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MUC4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MYB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
MYC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NAA15
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NAT2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NFKB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
NLGN1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NME1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NME2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NMT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NOS3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NPEPPS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NQO1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NQO2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
NT5C
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
NT5C1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
OGG1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
OR10AE3P
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
OTC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PALB2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
PARD3B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PDE4B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PDGFA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PDGFRA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
PDGFRB
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PIK3CA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
PON1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
PPAT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PRAM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PROC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
PROM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PRSS1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
PSCA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
PSMB3P
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
PTEN
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
RALBP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
REV3L
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
RGS5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RNF141
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RRM1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RRM2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
RUNX3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
S100A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SART1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SCN1A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SELE
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SERPINA3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SHMT1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC15A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLC19A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC22A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
SLC22A7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC28A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC28A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC28A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
SLC29A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC29A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC29A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC29A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC2A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC31A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SLC35A2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SLCO1B1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SMAD4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SMUG1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SMURF2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SOD2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SOD3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
SPARC
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SRGAP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
STK11
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
SULT1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TAP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TAP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TDG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TGFB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TGFBRAP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
TK1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TOP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TOP2A
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
TP53
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
TPMT
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
TYMP
TYMS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
UCK2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A10
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A3
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A4
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A6
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A8
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UGT1A9
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available PW
UMPS
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
UNG
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
UPB1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
UPP1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
UPP2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
VEGFA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
VKORC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
WDR7
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
WNT5B
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
WRAP53
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
XPA
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
XPO5
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
XRCC1
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
XRCC3

Drug Targets

Gene Description
TYMS (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDrug
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
capecitabine
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available PW
tegafur

Drug Interactions

Interaction Description
cimetidine - fluorouracil Increases the effect of and toxicity of fluorouacil (source: Drug Bank)
cimetidine - fluorouracil Increases the effect of and toxicity of fluorouacil (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - acenocoumarol The antineoplasic agent increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - acenocoumarol The antineoplasic agent, fluorouracil, may increase the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - anisindione The antineoplasic agent, fluorouracil, may increase the anticoagulant effect of anisindione. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - cimetidine Cimetidine increases the effect and toxicity of fluorouracil (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - cimetidine Cimetidine increases the effect and toxicity of fluorouracil (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - dicumarol The antineoplasic agent increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - dicumarol The antineoplasic agent, fluorouracil, may increase the anticoagulant effect of dicumarol. (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - ethotoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - fosphenytoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - mephenytoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - mephenytoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - metronidazole Risk of 5-FU toxicity when associated with metronidazole (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - metronidazole Risk of 5-FU toxicity when associated with metronidazole (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - phenytoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - phenytoin Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - warfarin The antineoplasic agent increases the anticoagulant effect (source: Drug Bank)
fluorouracil - warfarin The antineoplasic agent, fluorouracil, may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. (source: Drug Bank)
fosphenytoin - fluorouracil Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
metronidazole - fluorouracil Risk of 5-FU toxicity when associated with metronidazole (source: Drug Bank)
metronidazole - fluorouracil Risk of 5-FU toxicity when associated with metronidazole (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin - fluorouracil Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
phenytoin - fluorouracil Fluorouracil increases the effect of hydantoin (source: Drug Bank)
tamoxifen - fluorouracil Fluorouracil may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tamoxifen - fluorouracil Fluorouracil may reduce clearance rate of Tamoxifen. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamoxifen if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tolbutamide - fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Tolbutamide therapeutic and adverse effects if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
tolbutamide - fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Tolbutamide therapeutic and adverse effects if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
torasemide - fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Torasemide, a CYP2C9 substrate, by decreasing Torasemide metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Torasemide if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
trastuzumab - fluorouracil Trastuzumab may increase the risk of neutropenia and anemia. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of adverse events. (source: Drug Bank)
trimethoprim - fluorouracil The strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, Fluorouracil, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Trimethoprim, a CYP2C9 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in therapeutic and adverse effects of Trimethoprim if Fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
voriconazole - fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of voriconazole by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of voriconazole if fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
warfarin - fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of warfarin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of warfarin if fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)
zafirlukast - fluorouracil Fluorouracil, a strong CYP2C9 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of zafirlukast. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in zafirlukast therapeutic and adverse effects if fluorouracil is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (source: Drug Bank)

Curated Information ?

EvidenceDisease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
5-fluorouracil associated toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Adenocarcinoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Alzheimer Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Anemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Atrial Fibrillation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Bipolar Disorder
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Breast Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
cancer or viral infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Colonic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Colorectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
contralateral breast cancer
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Crohn Disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Death
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Depression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Diarrhea
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Disease Progression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Resistance
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Drug Toxicity
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Epilepsy
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
epithelial cancers
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Esophageal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Esophagitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Esophogeal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
event-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
gastroesophageal cancer
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
hand-foot syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Head and Neck Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Heart Failure
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
HIV Infections
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Homocystinuria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperammonemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypercholesterolemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Infection
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Kidney Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Nonlymphocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Leukopenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lung Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Malaria
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Menopause
No Dosing Guideline available DL No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mental Retardation
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolic Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Metabolism, Inborn Errors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
mucositis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Mycoses
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Myelosuppression
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Nausea
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasm Metastasis
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neurotoxicity Syndromes
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Neutropenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
neutropenic sepsis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ocular Hypertension
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Ovarian Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
overall survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pain
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pancreatic Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Photophobia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
progression-free survival
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Pulmonary Fibrosis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolism, Inborn Errors
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Rectal Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Schizophrenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Seizures
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Sjogren's Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available DL CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Stomach Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stomatitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Stroke
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Thrombocytopenia
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Thromboembolism
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Toxic liver disease
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Unspecified conjunctivitis
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Urinary Incontinence
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
Vomiting

Relationships from National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)

May Treat
Contraindicated With

Publications related to fluorouracil: 320

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available VA No VIP available No VIP available
The impact of ABCC11 polymorphisms on the risk of early-onset fluoropyrimidine toxicity. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2016. Hamzic S, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Pharmacogenetic characterization of naturally occurring germline NT5C1A variants to chemotherapeutic nucleoside analogs. Pharmacogenetics and genomics. 2016. Saliba Jason, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Fluoropyrimidine and platinum toxicity pharmacogenetics: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Pharmacogenomics. 2016. Campbell Jared M, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
DPYD gene polymorphisms are associated with risk and chemotherapy prognosis in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. 2016. Zhao Xiao-Qiang, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Phenotypic and clinical implications of variants in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2016. Kuilenburg André B P van, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Increased risk of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity in patients carrying a G to C substitution in the first 28-bp tandem repeat of the thymidylate synthase 2R allele. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2016. Meulendijks Didier, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
DPYD Genotyping to Predict Adverse Events Following Treatment With Flourouracil-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Stage III Colon Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of the PETACC-8 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA oncology. 2016. Boige Valérie, et al. PubMed
No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available CA VA No VIP available No VIP available
Clinical validity of a DPYD-based pharmacogenetic test to predict severe toxicity to fluoropyrimidines. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2015. Toffoli Giuseppe, et al.