Chemical: Drug

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2D structure from PubChem
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Generic Names
  • Gemifloxacin mesilate
  • gemifloxacin mesylate
Trade Names
  • Factive
Brand Mixture Names

PharmGKB Accession Id





Gemifloxacin is an oral broad-spectrum quinolone antibacterial agent used in the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and mild-to-moderate pneumonia. Gemifloxacin acts by inhibiting DNA synthesis through the inhibition of both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, which are essential for bacterial growth.

Source: Drug Bank


For the treatment of bacterial infection caused by susceptible strains such as S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, or M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant strains MDRSP), M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, or K. pneumoniae.

Source: Drug Bank

Other Vocabularies

Information pulled from DrugBank has not been reviewed by PharmGKB.

Pharmacology, Interactions, and Contraindications

Mechanism of Action

The bactericidal action of gemifloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.

Source: Drug Bank


Gemifloxacin is a quinolone/fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Gemifloxacin is bactericidal and its mode of action depends on blocking of bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase, which allows the untwisting required to replicate one DNA double helix into two. Notably the drug has 100 times higher affinity for bacterial DNA gyrase than for mammalian. Gemifloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Source: Drug Bank

Food Interaction

Take without regard to meals.

Source: Drug Bank

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination & Toxicity


Gemifloxacin is metabolized to a limited extent by the liver. All metabolites formed are minor (<10% of the administered oral dose); the principal ones are N-acetyl gemifloxacin, the E-isomer of gemifloxacin and the carbamyl glucuronide of gemifloxacin.

Source: Drug Bank

Protein Binding


Source: Drug Bank


Rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The absolute bioavailability averages approximately 71%.

Source: Drug Bank


7 (+/- 2) hours

Source: Drug Bank


Source: Drug Bank

Route of Elimination

Gemifloxacin and its metabolites are excreted via dual routes of excretion.Following oral administration of gemifloxacin to healthy subjects, a mean (± SD) of 61 ± 9.5% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 36 ± 9.3% in the urine as unchanged drug and metabolites. The mean (± SD) renal clearance following repeat doses of 320 mg was approximately 11.6 ± 3.9 L/hr (range 4.6-6 L/hr), which indicates active secretion is involved in the renal excretion of gemifloxacin.

Source: Drug Bank

Volume of Distribution

  • 1.66 to 12.12 L/kg

Source: Drug Bank

Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula


Source: Drug Bank

Isomeric SMILES


Source: Drug Bank


Source: Drug Bank

Canonical SMILES


Source: Drug Bank

Average Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight


Source: Drug Bank

Genes that are associated with this drug in PharmGKB's database based on (1) variant annotations, (2) literature review, (3) pathways or (4) information automatically retrieved from DrugBank, depending on the "evidence" and "source" listed below.

No related genes are available.

Drug Interactions

Drug Description
aluminium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
iron Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
iron Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
Magnesium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
Magnesium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
magnesium oxide Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
salicylate-magnesium Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
sucralfate Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
sucralfate Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
zinc Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
zinc Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
gemifloxacin Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)
gemifloxacin Formation of non-absorbable complexes (source: Drug Bank)

Publications related to gemifloxacin: 1

No Dosing Guideline available No Drug Label available No Clinical Annotation available No Variant Annotation available No VIP available No VIP available
Assessment of the impact of renal impairment on systemic exposure of new molecular entities: evaluation of recent new drug applications. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2009. Zhang Y, et al. PubMed


Web Resource:
National Drug Code Directory:
KEGG Drug:
PubChem Compound:
PubChem Substance:
Therapeutic Targets Database:
FDA Drug Label at DailyMed:

Clinical Trials

These are trials that mention gemifloxacin and are related to either pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics.

No trials found.

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Sources for PharmGKB drug information: DrugBank, Open Eye Scientific Software.